Skip to main content

Full text of "The birds of the Chicago area"

See other formats


THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

Biology Library 

BEQUEST OF 

Theodore S. Palmer 




J%f*u<^s*Jt 

/?> c- *? / 

f~/-or c^ % ^5; <\Sast 

4. 



THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



The Birds of the Chicago Area 



BY 



FRANK MORLEY WOODRUFF 



BULLETIN No. VI 



OF 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY 



ISSUED APRIL 15, 1907 



"^\ 



ERRATA. 

Page 9, 20th line, for Hamnig read Hannig. 

Page 9, 22d line, for Widman read Widmann. 

Page 19, 3rd line from bottom, for Fregato read Fregata. 

Page 28, 13th line, for Pomaine read Pomarine. 

Page 34, 19th line, for Phalacrocorocidae read Phalacrocoracidae. 

Page 38, 16th line, for McKay read MacKay. 

Page 38, 34th line, for ameriacana read americana. 

Page 38, 3rd foot-note, for XIII, 1896, read XII, 1895. 

Page 63, 28th line, for Steganoyus read Steganopus. 

Page 72, 4th line from bottom, for Viellot read Vieillot. 

Page 109, 32d line, for abundantly read sparingly. 

Page 130, 21st line, for Acantsis read Acanthis. 

Page 138, 10th line, take out the word breeding. 

Page 147, 8th line, for Viellot read Vieillot. 

Page 147, 4th line from bottom should read, The Summer 

Tanager breeds throughout its United States. 
Page 152, 3rd line, for Vieilot read Vieillot. 
Page 155, 30th line, for Veils read Bell's. 
Page 171, 26th line, for Sciurus read Seiurus. 
Page 172, take out two bottom lines. 
Page 202, under HOUGH, E., "Chicago and the West" should 

be credited as a department in u Forest and Stream." 



543 



'^ 
U 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 

CHICAGO, ILL., October i, 1906. 
DEAR SIR: 

By direction of the Board of Managers of The Natural His- 
tory Survey of The Chicago Academy of Sciences, I herewith 
submit to you for publication a report, to be issued, under the 
rules of the Academy governing such matters, as Bulletin No. 
VI, on The Birds of the Chicago Area, prepared by Frank Morley 
Woodruff of the Academy staff. 

Respectfully, 

WILLIAM K. HIGLEY, 

Chairman. 
To THOMAS C. CHAMBERLIN, 

President of The Chicago Academy of Sciences. 



543 



The Board of Managers of The Natural History Survey of 
The Chicago Academy of Sciences: 

WILLIAM K. HIGLEY, Chairman. 
CHARLES S. RADDIN, Secretary. 
THOMAS C. CHAMBERLIN. 
GAYTON A. DOUGLASS. 
STUART WELLER. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 

The Board of Managers of The Natural History Survey takes 
pleasure in presenting the sixth of its publications. It is the 
second relating to the fauna of the area and is devoted to the 
Birds of Chicago and vicinity. 

The Chicago Area includes all of Cook and Du Page Counties, 
the nine north townships of Will County and a portion of Lake 
County, Indiana. This territory is about fifty miles square and 
is very varied in character, consisting of numerous swamps, 
lakes, creeks and rivers, besides a considerable forest-covered 
area. 

It is a notable avifaunal locality, since it lies on the border 
between the eastern and western ranges of many species, where 
much intergradation occurs. It is also notable as being in the 
path of the Mississippi Valley migration, which accounts in a 
large measure for the number of species recorded and also for 
their individual abundance. 

This report has been prepared by Mr. Frank Morley Woodruff, 
Assistant to the Curator of the Academy, who has devoted many 
years to the study of the avian life of the vicinity of Chicago. 
Mr. Woodruff has enlisted the aid of all local ornithologists, 
besides some residing at a greater distance, and the Board wishes 
to express its appreciation of their valuable assistance, acknowl- 
edgement of which has been made by Mr. Woodruff in the text. 

Finally, it is again a pleasure to make mention of the patrons 
of The Natural History Survey, whose generosity has tended so 
much to its success and enables the Survey to make another 
contribution to the advancement of Science. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Introduction *. 9 

Territory 10 

Climatic Influences n 

Localities of Interest 15 

Some Existing Conditions Opposed to the Birds 17 

Extralimital Birds . 19 

Migration of the Birds 23 

Classification 24 

Catalogue of Species 25 

Order Pygopodes; Diving Birds 25 

Order Longipennes; Long- winged Swimmers 28 

Order Steganopodes; Totipalmate Swimmers 34 

Order Anseres; Lamellirostral Swimmers 35 

Order Herodiones; Herons, Storks, etc 53 

Order Paludicolas; Cranes, Rails, etc 56 

Order Limicolae; Shore Birds 62 

Order Gallinav, Gallinaceous Birds 82 

Order Columbae; Pigeons, Doves 86 

Order Raptores; Birds of Prey 90 

Order Psittaci; Parrots and Paroquets 108 

Order Coccyges; Cuckoos, Kingfishers 108 

Order Pici; Woodpeckers 109 

Order Macrochires; Goatsuckers, Swifts, etc 113 

Order Passeres; Perching Birds 115 

Bibliography 196 

Index to Scientific Names 207 

Index to Popular Names 214 



INTRODUCTION. 



In accordance with the request of the Board of Managers 
of The Natural History Survey of The Chicago Academy of 
Sciences, I have prepared the following annotated catalogue 
of the birds which have been taken or are positively known to 
occur within the limits of our region. I am especially under 
obligation for assistance to Mr. J. Grafton Parker, of Chicago, 
who has been my almost constant companion in the work of 
the field. Mr. Parker has the most exhaustive notes and the 
most extensive collection of birds from our area that I know of. 
I am also indebted to the following persons, who have furnished 
many valuable notes and suggestions: Mr. B. T. Gault, of 
Glen Ellyn, a very careful observer who furnished many valu- 
able notes from the northern section of Illinois ; Mr. Robert 
Ridgway, Curator of Birds at the Smithsonian Institution, Wash- 
ington; Dr. J. A. Allen, of the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York; Mr. Eliot Blackwelder, of the State Uni- 
versity, Madison, Wisconsin; Dr. Claude Tollman, Mr. Ruthven 
Deane, Mrs. Agnes Chase, Mr. John F. Ferry, Mr. O. M. 
Schantz, Mr. F. S. Dayton, Mr. Herbert E. Walter, Miss Amalie 
Hamnig and Mr. Edward B. Clark, of Chicago ; Professor S. A. 
Forbes, State University, Champaign, Illinois ; Mr. A. W. Butler, 
Indianapolis, Indiana; Mr. Otto Widman, Old Orchard, Mis- 
souri, and Mr. Frank C. Baker, Curator of The Chicago Acad- 
emy of Sciences. My thanks are due to Mr. Alexander C. 
Patterson for the use of a number of photographs of the Chicago 
Area. 

I am especially indebted to Professor William K. Higley, 
Secretary of The Chicago Academy of Sciences, who has very 
kindly edited the manuscript, and has also rendered very valuable 
assistance in compiling the bibliography. Through the kindness 
of Mr. George H. Laflin my own collection of birds, made dur- 
ing several years of work in the fields of our area, is now in 
the Museum of the Academy. 

The popular synonyms, which are of considerable importance, 
while obtained from many sources, have been largely taken from 
Dr. Ridgway's valuable report on the birds of Illinois, published 
by the State under the title "The Ornithology of Illinois." 



IO THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

In 1876 Mr. E. W. Nelson published his observations of the 
birds of our area. These notes appeared in the Bulletin of the 
Essex Institute, Volume VIII, 1876, under the title "Birds of 
Northeastern Illinois." Unless otherwise stated all references to 
the observations of Mr. Nelson are quoted from this report. 

Another valuable work, which covers a part of our area, is 
"The Birds of Indiana," by Mr. Amos W. Butler, and published 
by the state of Indiana as the Twenty-second Annual Report of 
"The Department of Geology and Natural Resources." 

TERRITORY. 

The territory covered by the Survey includes all of Cook and 
Du Page Counties, the nine north townships of Will County and 
the northern portion of Lake County, Indiana. In the south- 
eastern portion of this area there are numerous lakes and streams 
which drain into Lake Michigan and form what is known as the 
Calumet Region. In this region lying between the Little Calumet 
River and Lake Michigan, chiefly in Indiana, are the sand-hills 
or dunes, some of which, northeast of Millers, Lake County, 
Indiana, reach a height of nearly 150 feet above the Lake. Some 
of these dunes and sand ridges are bare, but others, especially 
those further back from the Lake, are more or less covered 
with a scanty growth of black oak, northern scrub pine (Pinus 
banksiana), white pine of a stunted growth, and various shrubs 
and herbs which can live in a sandy soil. Interspersed among 
these sand hills are quite a number of small marshes which in 
years past formed the favorite breeding places of such water- 
fowl as the Blue-winged Teal (Querquedula discors), the Wood 
Duck (Aix sponsa), and the Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes 
cucullatus). On the hills above several species of hawks and 
the Bald Eagles are known to nest. During the year 1897 two 
pairs of Bald Eagles raised their young near Millers, Indiana, 
almost in sight of the city of Chicago. Owing to the draining 
of the Calumet Region nearly all of the smaller lakes have dis- 
appeared. Towns have sprung up around all of the larger lakes 
of the region, such as Calumet, George and Wolf lakes, and the 
study of such birds as the American Egret, Canvas-back Duck, 
and birds of similar habits in this region is already a thing of the 
past. The drainage in the western portion of the area, which 
this report covers, is toward the Mississippi River, which the 
water finally reaches by passage through the Desplaines and 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. II 

Illinois rivers. This region of our area is much higher and its 
influence is shown very plainly among certain varieties of bird 
life. The Great Blue Heron nests in great numbers in the tall 
timber along the more secluded portions of the Desplaines River, 
while only a very few are to be found in the Calumet Region. 
Most of our records of Short-billed Marsh Wrens, Cerulean 
Warblers, Yellow-throated Vireos, Lark Sparrows, hawks, owls 
and other birds show that a very large number of species prefer 
the former region, along the Desplaines River. In this region the 
land is more heavily timbered and there are also tracts of rich 
prairies and pastures. The altitude of Du Page County is much 
higher, as a whole, than that of the Calumet Region and a large 
portion is quite heavily timbered. This is just such an area as 
is enjoyed by many birds. Directly east of this region, along 
Lake Michigan, we find deep ravines which afford shelter to 
many of our birds during migration. The city of Chicago, and 
Calumet, Hyde, Wolf and George lakes lie in the center of this 
great basin formed by the areas just described. This tract is but 
slightly above the level of Lake Michigan. 

CLIMATIC INFLUENCES. 

The fact that Chicago has a greater per centum of lake winds 
than any other station on the Great Lakes, as may be seen by 
consulting the charts of the United States Signal Service, may 
account for the large number of northern and maritime species 
of birds in which, during the migration periods, this region is 
particularly rich. I will quote from Mr. E. W. Nelson's excel- 
lent report on the climate of this area. He says : "Not only is 
the influence of the Lake upon the fauna shown by the occurrence 
of numerous species of birds, attracted by the presence of a large 
body of water with its congenial surroundings, but the influence 
of the Lake upon the climate and the vegetation in its immediate 
vicinity, has a marked influence upon the list of summer residents. 
"As is well known, the country bordering upon the Great 
Lakes has an average lower temperature during the summer, 
and a higher temperature during the winter, than the surrounding 
districts. This has a decided effect upon the movements and 
distribution of the birds in the vicinity of these large bodies 
of water. This influence is shown in a retardation, often of a 
week or more, in the spring migration, and in the scarcity of 



12 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

small woodland species during the breeding season. Although 
birds are exceedingly numerous here during the migrations, and 
the number of species found during summer compares favorably 
with the number found at the same season in other localities hav- 
ing the same latitude, they are represented by decidedly few 
individuals. This fact is especially noticeable after one has 
passed a day in the marshes of the vicinity, where the abundance 
of numerous marsh and water birds, both in species and indi- 
viduals, would lead one to suppose the woods were equally 
favored." 

In connection with the study of the birds of this area, the 
statement of Professor Henry J. Cox, Weather Forecaster of 
this district is very interesting and useful. He says: "The 
climate of Chicago is quite variable, as is characteristic of places 
situated in the temperate zone, especially in the interior of the 
United States. The extreme range of temperature during the 
past thirty-three years has been 129 degrees, from a maximum 
of 103 degrees to a minimum of 26 degrees below zero. This 
variation, however, is not as great as what usually takes place 
in other sections of the Northern States. Located as it is at the 
southern end of Lake Michigan, the extreme heat of summer and 
cold of winter are tempered by the waters bordering the city. * * * 
In winter the influence of the Lake on the temperature is also 
very great in producing equable conditions. The extreme rec- 
ords in the interior are not approached along its shores." 

Professor Cox also says that this "area is not in the course of 
any regular storm track, generally merely being on the edges 
of the storms that pass to the north over Lake Superior or to 
the storms that pass to the south over the Ohio valley. The 
prevailing direction of the wind is southwest, for the year as a 
whole. During the spring and early summer the wind is mostly 
northeast." There are, however, at times brisk and sometimes 
strong winds which are more beneficial than objectionable. 
These conditions of weather are far from objectionable to the 
birds, at least during their migrations. The area is also one that 
is seldom visited by droughts or by protracted rain periods. 
Especially pleasant weather in the autumn is one of the strong 
points of this region, and is especially favorable to the fall migra- 
tion of the birds. "It is the time of the year when rain is least 
needed and when but little falls. It is the time of protracted 
sunshine and delightful weather." It is not at all strange that so 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 13 

many species of birds select this area as a route for their migra- 
tions, when every condition is so favorable to their needs. 

Occasionally, however, our area has had changes of tempera- 
ture or other weather conditions which have been very severe for 
bird life at times. The destruction of the more delicate of our 
smaller birds during the spring migration period by a sudden 
dropping of the temperature, high northeasterly winds and cold 
rain storms, sometimes occurs. This may account for the scar- 
city of certain species some years when during the previous year 
they may have been common. This destruction from natural 
causes is well explained by the observations of Dr. Joseph L. 
Hancock.* He says: "Usually at this time of year (May 20) 
the small land birds have passed us on their northward migration, 
but this spring (1888) the weather has been so unfavorable that 
they have been much delayed, the Warblers, especially, and have 
suffered great loss of life. 

"While it is usual to see many of these birds passing from 
tree to tree in the city, this spring on May 12 they were observed 
in great numbers scattered over the ground in open lots, and on 
the larger prairies within the city. Many were likewise noticed 
in the thronged thoroughfares in the business part of the town 
where some were run down by passing vehicles, and others met 
their death under the feet of pedestrians. They would permit 
a close approach, but when almost stepped upon would make a 
spasmodic effort to mount into the air, only to find themselves 
dropping back to the ground again, helpless, weak, and benumbed 
by the cold. This strange effect of the weather on the birds 
extended over many miles of country and across Lake Michigan 
to the east. The shores between Lake Forest, Evanston, and Chi- 
cago were bestrewn with lifeless birds which had been washed 
up by the waves." Dr. Hancock found that many species of 
birds were profoundly affected by the weather, allowing approach 
which would be next to impossible under ordinary conditions. 
He says the warblers could easily have been taken in a small 
hand net. 

The destruction of bird life through the changes of tempera- 
ture is very great, and often accounts for the scarcity of certain 
birds or the change of their route of migration during some years. 
The effect of severe weather which destroyed countless hundreds 
of bluebirds in 1895 ' IS splendidly described by Mr. Otto Widman, 

*Auk. Vol. V, 1888, 432-433. 



14 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

of Old Orchard, Missouri, in a letter to me, dated July 4, 1895. 
He says: "The greatest enemy of bird life in winter is neither 
cold nor snow, but rain. That is, rain which falls at a momentary 
rise of temperature preceded and followed by low temperature. 
Such a misty, drizzling rain coming in contact with a cold surface 
congeals immediately and incases every object from the smallest 
blades of grass to the top of the highest trees. 

"Fortunately these rains do not occur every winter, and when 
they do, they are usually soon followed by warm or moderately 
cold weather. I suppose that every bird can fast a few days, 
if in good condition, and if the temperature is not unusually low. 
Such a rain occured on Friday, January 25, 1895. The tempera- 
ture on the twenty-fourth was as low as six degrees with a raw 
northeast wind. During the night the temperature rose to twen- 
ty-six degrees when it began to rain. In the afternoon the rain 
turned into snow and at five o'clock a high wind of forty-eight 
miles an hour set in with rapidly falling temperature. This storm 
inaugurated an era of three weeks of unrelenting severity. For 
eight days everything remained buried under ice and snow, and 
the air was so cold that the sun's strongest rays could not melt 
the ice from the most exposed surfaces. It might be supposed 
that birds like bluebirds and robins would start and go south at 
the very outset of such a glaciation. This is not the case. They 
brave the adversity; they know they have successfully gone 
through severe trials of a similar nature. They wait. Not hav- 
ing visited their haunts during the cold spell, I have not seen 
any bluebirds after. the twenty- third of January, but robins visit- 
ing the orchards in my neighborhood were seen nearly every 
day, even on the very coldest, the eighth of February, when the 
temperature at our place was as low as twenty degrees below 
zero. But even if they had gone further south a similar state 
of affairs would have confronted them everywhere. The whole 
of the southern states were one vast sheet of ice and snow for 
many days, and even when provided with food birds may suc- 
cumb to the effect of low temperature at times of rain or deep 
snow. I am feeding the birds around my house every winter 
with broken hickory and walnut meats, grain and pork, still 
nearly every winter some of my boarders lose their lives through 
freezing. Even the imported sparrows freeze in their warm 
nests. A Carolina Chickadee was picked up early one morning as 
it fell from a tree, dead. A Tufted Titmouse and a nuthatch were 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 15 

also found after a cold spell. The only sapsucker which stayed 
with me last winter and tapped the sugar maples successfully as 
early as New Year's day, succumbed to the cold on the tenth 
of February. Of the vast number of birds that perished in the 
woods and fields we shall never hear, because in such hard f imes 
the hungry eyes of beasts and birds of prey, of crows and shrikes, 
jays and others have found them long before man would get a 
chance. Still in the southern states, where bluebirds had already 
taken up their holes, the instances where dead bluebirds have been 
found by man are on record. Mrs. Stephenson of Helena, Ar- 
kansas, wrote me of several cases which came to her knowledge. 

"Besides the Bluebirds and Robins several species seemed to 
have suffered great losses. In the first place the Myrtle Warbler. 
The yield of favorite berries, wild grapes and poison ivy being 
great, numbers of the birds remained in our woods. Hundreds 
were seen in our tract as late as the twentieth of January. When 
spring migrants came very few passed through here." 

I quote from Mr. Widman's letter fully for it well illustrates 
the reason why in the spring of some years the migration of cer- 
tain species seems far too small in the more northern states. 

LOCALITIES OF INTEREST. 

An unusually rich field for the study of maritime species and 
occasional visitors from the far north is in the vicinity of Millers, 
Indiana, about thirty miles southeast of Chicago, and within the 
limits of our area. (See plate I and frontispiece). This locality 
is near the southern end of Lake Michigan. Here may be seen, 
particularly during the fall migration, such species as the Glau- 
cous Gull (Larus glances), the Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla}, the 
Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), the Dowitcher (Macrorhampus 
griseits), the Knot (Tringa canutus), the Purple Sandpiper (Ar- 
quatella maritima), the Baird's Sandpiper (Actodromas bairdii), 
the Sanderling (Calidris arenaria), the Willet (Symphemia semi- 
palmata), the Black-bellied Plover (Squatarola squatarola) , the 
Semipalmated Plover (^gialitis semipalmata) , and the Turn- 
stone (Arenaria inter pres). 

On the rich meadows in the western portion of Cook County, 
in the vicinity of Worth Township, may be found resident such 
species as Henslow's Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii), Grass- 
hopper Sparrow (Coturniculus savannarum passerinus}, Lark 
Sparrow (Chondestes grammacus), and during migrations Le- 



l6 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

conte's Sparrow (Ammodramus leconteii), Smith's Longspur 
(Calcarius pictus), Lapland Longspur (Calcarius lapponicus), 
and others. 

An especially good field for studying the warblers during their 
migrations is in the higher timbered region of DuPage County, in 
the northern portion of our area. Here we also have as summer 
residents the Warbling Vireo ( Vireo gilvus) , the Yellow-throated 
Vireo (Vireo flavifrons), and the Black-throated Blue Warbler 
(Dendroica carulescens). While about the region of Chicago 
with its chains of lakes divided by long ridges of timber may be 
found all of our more common forms of bird life in abundance. 
The fine city parks of Chicago are the most favorable localities 
in which the birds may be studied with a field glass. The wooded 
island in Jackson Park is an excellent place for the study of the 
water loving passeres, such as the Prothonotary Warbler, Water 
Thrushes and Swamp Sparrows. Lincoln Park (see plate II) 
one and one-half miles long, bordering on Lake Michigan, with 
its lagoons and lakes, numerous wooded knolls and hills, is a 
wonderfully attractive locality for the study of birds. On Septem- 
ber 18, 1894, in one small patch of bushes near the greenhouse, 
I found twelve specimens of the Connecticut Warbler. 

To show what an excellent locality Lincoln Park is for the 
study of birds I desire to call attention to the work of Professor 
Herbert Eugene Walter, of the Robert A. Waller High School, 
in Chicago, who published a little book, "Wild Birds in City 
Parks." This valuable little work consists of hints on the identi- 
fying of 145 birds, which he has observed and studied during the 
spring migrations in Lincoln Park. The object of this book is 
to furnish those who may be interested in making the acquain- 
tance of wild birds with a simple letter of introduction to these 
birds, the majority of which are commonly seen during the spring 
migration. 

It would be a difficult matter to find a more interesting and 
fertile field for the study of birds than our area. The great wooded 
region north of us; Lake Michigan on the east; the desolate 
sandy southern portion, somewhat resembling the western plains 
and upon which there are found growing quite a number of 
western plants and the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia rafinesquii), 
the whole area forming an attraction for birds which favor such 
localities. What greater inducements could be offered birds to 
visit our area during their migrations, for south and west of us 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. IJ 

there are rich broad fields with ridges of timber, and several large 
rivers, the Illinois, the Ohio, and the Mississippi, which tend to 
lead the birds to us. Combining as we do, to a greater or less 
extent, the characteristics of the western plains, the southern 
swamps, and the eastern characteristics as well as boreal effects, 
many Arctic and maritime species are found at times within our 
limits. 

Then again a large portion of our area, lying in a great basin 
formed by the old lake beaches and the wooded hills of Lake 
and DuPage Counties, the temperature influenced by that of Lake 
Michigan, forms what might be called a wind harbor causing 
at times a perfect deluge of migrating birds. Several times in 
the past twelve or more years such birds as the Painted Long- 
spurs and Snowflakes, birds which only casually visit us, have 
appeared in countless numbers and have stayed with us often 
as late as the seventh of May. I obtained specimens of Smith's 
Longspur (Calcarius pictus) in almost full breeding plumage 
on the fifth of May, 1896. 

During especially severe winters a number of northern spe- 
cies, such as Crossbills, Bohemian Waxwings, and Evening Gros- 
beaks, arrive in large numbers to spend several weeks in our cli- 
mate, which seems to be an attraction for them. Much more 
time is spent by these birds with us, apparently, than in the 
regions lying outside of our area. I believe that the reason for 
this is the temperate basin, which I have spoken of as a wind 
harbor, and the influences of Lake Michigan. 

SOME EXISTING CONDITIONS OPPOSED TO THE 

BIRDS. 

As our territory becomes more thickly populated each year, 
the struggle for existence among our wild birds to remain and 
breed in their old haunts is really pitiful. The most secluded spots 
on our smaller streams and marshes are often fairly crowded 
with the nests of the poor birds which in years past were 
spread over a large territory. If the unscrupulous Collectors are 
not restrained the species which I mention below will disappear 
entirely from our area. In 1891, hundreds of Black Terns (Hy- 
drochelidon nigra Surinam ensis) nested along the shores of Calu- 
met Lake, Hyde Lake, and the feeders of the Desplaines River. 
Today it would be difficult to find one of these birds nesting 



l8 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

within our area. The Wilson's Phalarope (Steganopus tricolor), 
the most interesting and curious of our Limicolae, have been 
shot and practically driven from our area through the persecution 
of Chicago sportsmen and egg-hunters. The same condition ex- 
ists with the Woodcock (Philohela minor), the birds being driven 
into several small areas and the nests robbed. In 1890, I hunted 
in vain for the Pied-billed Grebes (Podilymbus podiceps) which I 
expected to find nesting on the borders of the lakes of our area, 
and finally I was surprised, while roving along the shore of a 
small creek which flows into the Desplaines River, to find a 
large colony of these grebes nesting in a small, reedy patch of 
meadow. This was a very unusual occurrence in the nesting hab- 
its of these birds within our area, but was easily explained, for 
they had been driven from all other suitable localities. I counted 
seven nests within a space fifty feet square. I found the same 
condition of affairs existing in the habits of the Florida Galli- 
nules and the King Rails. I mention these facts hoping that 
these conditions will influence every student of bird life to use 
his efforts to stop all unnecessary destruction of our native 
birds. On August I, 1897, I found two pairs of Belted Piping 
Plover (JEgialitis meloda circumcincta) nesting on the lake 
shore. One family of five was destroyed by collectors, as this 
species had not been reported for years and was supposed to 
have been of accidental occurrence until the young of this pair 
were found. By asking the assistance of the fishermen on the 
beach in an attempt to protect the balance of the birds, the re- 
maining pair successfully raised their young. At the present 
date, there are probably twenty pairs or so nesting, during the 
breeding season, within our area, but as their eggs command a 
high price and the majority of the collectors are indifferent, we 
may soon expect to have this fine bird disappear from our region. 
Our bird fauna has differed surprisingly little during the 
past. twenty years. The most marked variation, perhaps, has 
been among the Arctic species of gulls and ducks. In 1876 the 
Eider Ducks, the Scoters, the Glaucous Gulls, the Franklin's 
Gulls and other birds of a similar nature, were of common occur- 
rence. They are, however, much less common at the present 
time. I can only account for this condition by the fact of the 
largely increased number of hunters. Many of the sportsmen of 
our city, who seemingly cannot wait for the regular hunting 
season, shoot great numbers of the Old Squaw Ducks, Scoters, 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. . 19 

and Red-breasted Mergansers or Sheldrakes, all of which are 
totally unfit for food. As this is probably done along the shores 
of the entire group of lakes in the northern United States, it is 
evident that most of our rare winter visitants are shot before 
they can reach us, or are possibly forced to seek other localities 
which seem safer to them. I know of one gentleman, an enthu- 
siastic sportsman, who shot sixty-four Old Squaw Ducks from 
the government pier in Chicago, thinking they were Pintails or 
some other edible ducks. He cheerfully presented some of them 
to friends, who of course had to throw them away. As these 
ducks are useful scavengers, and of as great value to us as the 
Turkey Vulture and the sea gulls, they should not be shot in 
this manner. It is because of this needless slaughter of birds 
that the Ivory-billed Woodpecker, the Carolina Paroquet, the 
Eskimo Curlew, the Passenger Pigeon, and the Wild Turkey 
have disappeared forever from the localities which they formerly 
frequented. 

EXTRALIMITAL BIRDS. 

In a locality situated as our area is on the shore of a large 
body of water, it is very important that we should always have 
in mind the possibility of birds appearing within our limits which 
are truly extralimital. Mr. E. W. Nelson has well expressed 
the peculiar situation of this area, and his words so well show 
its nature that I will quote them : "The region about the south- 
ern end of Lake Michigan, in Illinois, presents an unusually fer- 
tile field for the ornithologist. Situated, as it is, midway between 
the wooded region of the East and the treeless plains of the West, 
with the warm river bottoms of the South, rich in southern species, 
extending within a comparatively short distance, and the Great 
Lakes upon the north, Northeastern Illinois forms a kind of 
'four corners' where the avian-faunae of four regions intergrade. 
To the proximity of Lake Michigan we are indebted for a number 
of more or less strictly maritime species." From the action of 
fierce storms raging inland from the sea coast, and the occurrence 
of many maritime species, which have been seen and taken just 
out of the boundaries of our area, such as Brunnich's Murre 
(Uria lomvia), Burgomaster Gull (Larus glaucus), Man-o'-War 
Bird (Fregato aquila), we are liable i ntime to find a number of 
our sea coast birds, along the chain of Great Lakes. As a 
special illustration of this fact, I will speak of the occurrence of 



2O THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

the Man-o'-War Bird not far from our area. I quote from Mr. 
A. W. Butler's "Birds of Indiana" where he says: "In the fall 
of 1896 I saw, in the office of Mr. J. E. Beasley, the well known 
taxidermist, at Lebanon, Indiana, a nicely mounted specimen of 
a young male of this species. I learned it was killed near Shel- 
byville, Indiana, July 14, 1896, by Mr. W. S. Patterson, and came 
into Mr. Beasley's hands for preservation the next day." A rec- 
ord of the finding of this species north of us is that of a specimen 
in the Milwaukee Public Museum, which was killed in the vicinity 
of Humbolt, Wisconsin, a few miles north of Milwaukee, in Au- 
gust, 1880. I believe that especial interest should be taken in our 
extralimital species, as I find that the efforts of nearly all of our 
careful observers along this line have been successful, and have 
added during late years such birds as the Kittiwake Gull (Rissa 
tridactyla), Glaucous Gull (Larus glaucus), and the Caspian 
Tern (Sterna caspia), to our list of accidental visitants. 

Mr. E. W. Nelson in his "Birds of Northeastern Illinois/' 
names the following birds, which are extralimital to the region 
covered by this report, but have been observed or captured not 
far from our limits. A single specimen of Townsend's Soli- 
taire (Myadestes townsendii) was obtained December 16, 1875, 
by Mr. Charles Douglas, at Waukegan. This bird was found in 
a sheltered ravine near the lake shore. Dr. Hoy observed a 
small flock of the Hudsonian Chickadee (Parus hudsonicus) near 
Racine, Wisconsin, in January, 1852. The Worm-eating War- 
bler (Helmitherus vcrniivorns} Mr. Nelson speaks of as a very 
rare visitant and says a single specimen was observed May 21, 
1876, at Waukegan. The Sycamore Warbler (Dcndroica domin- 
ica albilora) Mr. Nelson gives as a very rare summer visitant 
from the south. The species was then known to be a common 
summer resident in the vicinity of Indianapolis, Indiana. The 
Intermediate Sparrow, a variety of the White-crowned Sparrow, 
(Zonotrichia Icucophrys intermedia) was found by Dr. Hoy 
near Racine. This far western bird was taken by him in April, 
1871. The Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia coronata), is 
another western bird taken by Dr. Hoy in his garden it Racine 
in April, 1858. The Canada Jay (Perisorcus canadensis) was 
taken by Dr. Hoy near Racine in the winter of 1859, and Mr. 
Nelson thinks this species may have been a regular winter visi- 
tant in the northern portion of Illinois before the pine forests 
along the lake shore were destroyed. The Wood Ibis (Tantalus 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 21 

loculator) Mr. Nelson speaks of as "an exceedingly rare summer 
visitant from southern Illinois." He also says that Dr. Hoy has 
a specimen obtained at Racine, September 10, 1869. The Glossy 
Ibis (Plegadis antumnalis) Mr. Nelson speaks of as "a very rare 
visitant" and says that he knows of two or three instances of its 
occurrence in our vicinity. The Trumpeter Swan (Olor buccina- 
tor) Mr. Nelson thought occurred during its migration periods, 
and there is really no reason why it may not. The Greater Scaup 
Duck (Aythya marila) Mr. Nelson considered "a rare migrant." 
The Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) Mr. Nelson re- 
ports as a "rather rare winter resident upon Lake Michigan," and 
says that Dr. Hoy secured several specimens at Racine. The King 
Eider (Somateria spectabilis) Mr. Nelson speaks of as a "rare 
winter visitant perhaps winter resident to Lake Michigan and 
other parts of the State." It is known that its range includes 
Illinois. The Florida Cormorant (Phalacrocorax dilophus flori- 
damts), which is known to be a summer resident in the southern 
portion of Illinois, Mr. Nelson states was observed at Waukegan 
in May, 1876. The White-winged or Iceland Gull (Larus leu- 
copterus), and the Great Black-backed or Saddle-back Gull 
(Larus marinus) Mr. Nelson states are not uncommon winter 
residents on Lake Michigan. He also records Franklin's Gull 
(Larus franklinii) as a rare visitant to Lake Michigan, and that 
a specimen was obtained at Milwaukee in 1850. The Gull-billed 
Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) Mr. Nelson records as "an exceed- 
ingly rare visitant during summer," and he also speaks of the 
Royal Tern (Sterna maxima) as being an exceedingly rare sum- 
mer visitant to Lake Michigan. The Black-throated Loon ( Uri- 
nator arcticus) Mr. Nelson records as "a very rare winter visitant 
upon Lake Michigan," and speaks of specimens as taken at Ra- 
cine and Milwaukee. As this species is known to casually occur 
both in autumn and winter in the northern United States it is 
liable to be found within our region. 

While Mr. Nelson's report covers a somewhat larger area than 
is included in this report, the limits of his area are only a very 
few miles beyond those of ours. The city of Racine, which he 
so frequently mentions, is about sixty-two miles north of Chica- 
go, in Wisconsin very near the southern boundary of that 
state and on the shore of Lake Michigan. Waukegan, also fre- 
quently mentioned by Mr. Nelson, is located in Illinois and is 
thirty-six miles north of Chicago. 



22 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

All persons who are interested in the study of birds within 

the limits of our region, should be watching for the following 

species which are liable to visit the area : 

The Pomarine Jaeger (Stercorarius pomarinus) which is 

known to visit the Great Lakes in the winter. 

The Parasitic Jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus) which is 

known to have visited Lake Michigan in our vicinity during the 

winter. 

The Cackling Goose (Branta canadensis minima), a small 

western species, has been observed in Wisconsin, Illinois and 

Michigan. These geese are Pacific coast birds, breeding in the 

far north and migrating southward in winter to California and 

sometimes eastward at least to the Mississippi Valley. I have 

taken five of these birds at Meredosia, Illinois. 

The following species may also very rarely visit our area, as 

specimens have been taken near us or have been known to visit 

the Great Lakes : 

Hudsonian Chickadee (Parus hudsonicus). 

Water-thrush (Seiurus noveboracensis) . This species was re- 
ported by Mr. Robert Kennicott, in his "Catalogue of Animals 
Observed in Cook County, Illinois." This was published 
during the year 1855, and since that time some of the birds 
then included under- this specific name have been placed 
in a variety known as Grinnell's Water-thrush under the 
varietal name notabilis. As the variety has been known to 
frequent our area, I am inclined to think that the birds ob- 
served by Mr. Kennicott and others belong to this variety 
which was given its name in 1880, several years after the time 
of his investigations. 

Canada Jay (Perisoreus canadensis), specimens of which were 
observed by Dr. Hoy in southern Wisconsin. 

Iceland Gull (Larus leucopterus) . This species is known to 
frequent the Great Lakes during the winter, and is also known 
to pass even further south. 

King Eider (Somateria spectabilis} is known to occasionally 
visit the Great Lakes. It has also been reported from Iowa 
and northern Ohio. 

The Ruff (Pavoncella pugnax) has been recorded from English 
Lake, Indiana, by Mr. Ruthven Deane (Auk, XXII, October, 
1905, p. 410) and should be looked for among the shore 
birds which visit our lakes. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 23 

MIGRATION OF THE BIRDS. 

Of the migration of the birds of our region, depending as 
it does almost entirely upon the weather conditions, little more 
can be said beyond the individual reports of arrival and de- 
parture. This is especially true of the insect-feeding birds 
which are very sensitive and deeply feel all sudden changes of 
temperature. They are "perfect barometers in that respect." 
Some years the migration of the birds is greatly impeded by 
severe or variable weather, and in these years quite large numbers 
of migrant birds have been destroyed by sudden changes to cold 
and stormy weather from a fair and warmer atmosphere, which 
has attracted the birds. The interesting Bluebirds appear usually 
about the middle of March, but it was my pleasure to observe 
one as early as February 22, and Mr. Benjamin T. Gault heard 
one calling at Glen Ellyn, not far west of Chicago, on February 
28, 1896. 

The height of migration of the Passeres in our area seems 
to be from the first to the tenth of May in the spring, and about 
the middle of September in the fall. It will be of interest to 
note the height of migration during eight years, from 1893 to 
1900, as recorded by Mr. Gault at Glen Ellyn, Illinois. His 
record is as follows, and is the result of his observations of the 
vireos, the warblers, and the smaller thrushes used as an index 
or basis to mark the height of the spring migration season: 

1893 May 12 to 14 inclusive 

1894 May 14 to 16 inclusive 

1895 May 19 to 23 inclusive 

1896 May 6 to 12 inclusive 

1897 May 8 to 15 inclusive 

1898 .May 13 to 20 inclusive 

1899 May ii to 19 inclusive 

1900 May 15 to 19 inclusive 

The maritime birds straggle through our area in the spring 
from April to June. It is a rather strange fact that late in May 
and in June there may sometimes be seen large flocks of Red- 
backed Sandpipers (Pelidna alpina sakhalina), Black-bellied 
Plovers (Squatarola squatarola') , the Knot or Robin Snipe 
(Tringa canutus). the Least Sandpiper (Actodromas minutilla), 
and the Semipalmated Sandpiper (Ereunetes pusillus) along the 
shores of our smaller lakes. Whether these birds are simply 



24 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

late migrants, or those which do not intend to nest in the north 
it seems difficult to state. 

CLASSIFICATION. 

The classification adopted for this catalogue is that of the 
American Ornithologists' Union Check-list, with such additions 
and corrections as have been published from time to time in the 
"Auk." My thanks are due to Mr. J. A. Allen, Curator of the 
Department of Mammalogy and Ornithology of the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York City, for assistance in 
correcting the classification of certain species. 

Mr. Robert Ridgway's magnificent work on the Birds of 
North and Middle America has not been available as a basis for 
classification as its publication is unfinished; and also for the 
reason that the sweeping changes in nomenclature in that monu- 
mental work might lessen the value of a purely local catalogue. 
A number of changes in specific and generic names, however, 
have been adopted from Mr. Ridgway's work. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 



CATALOGUE OF SPECIES. 

ORDER PYGOPODES: DIVING BIRDS. 

FAMILY PODICIPIDJE : GREBES. 
Genus COLYMBUS Linnaeus, 1758. 

Colymbus holbcellii (Reinh.). HolbceU's Grebe. 

Podiceps rubricollis NUTTALL, Manual, II, 1834, 253. 

Podiccps holbcellii REIXII.. Vid. Meddel, 1853, 7G. 

Podiceps griseigena var. holbolli NELSON, Bull. Essex Institute, Vol. 

VIII, 1876, 150. 

Podiceps griseigena var. Jioibdllii COUES, Key, 1872, 337. 
Colymbus holboellii RIDGWAY, Water B. X. Amer., II, 1884, 428. 
Popular synonyms: AMEBICAN RED-NECKED GEEBE. COOPER'S GBEBE. 

The only record that I have found of the occurrence of Hol- 
bcell's Grebe within our limits is that of Mr. E. W. Nelson, who 
says*: "Rather uncommon winter resident upon Lake Michi- 
gan." Mr. Ridgway saysf that it is a winter visitant to Illinois. 
This being the case it would naturally appear upon the lake 
border of our district. 

The range of this grebe is North America in general, in- 
cluding Greenland. It breeds from Minnesota and Maine north- 
ward and migrates, in winter, southward quite through the 
United States. It is also a native of eastern Siberia, southward 
to Japan. 

Colymbus auritus Linnaeus. Horned Grebe. 

Colymbns auritns LINN.EUS. S. X.. ed. 10. I, 1758, 135. 
Podiceps cornutus LATHAM. Ind. Orn., II, 1790, 783. 
Popular synonyms : DUSKY GREBE. HELL- DIVER. 

Mr. E. W. Xelson in his report on the Birds of Northeastern 
Illinois, states that in 1876 this species occurred casually from the 
first of October to the tenth of November and during April. 
He also states that it bred sparingly on the small lakes of this 
region. Mr. George L. Toppan has a specimen in the downy 
plumage, taken May 24, 18/8, at Sheffield, Indiana. Mr. J. G. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 150. 
tBirds of Illinois, Vol. II, 1895, 260 



# 
26 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Parker, Jr., obtained one specimen on April i, 1890, from a flock 
of six at Grand Crossing. My own observations are as follows : 
Took one specimen of two, observed on Lake Calumet May 28, 
1889, and one at Worth, Illinois, on September 18, 1889. 

The above observations would appear to indicate that the 
Horned Grebe, which is exceedingly tame during its migrations, 
is very shy and retiring during the nesting period, as no breeding 
notes have been obtained since 1878 for this area. I also find 
that this species has been reported a great many times. Its range 
covers the northern hemisphere, and in North America it breeds 
in the northern United States and northward. 

Colymbus nigricollis calif ornicns (Heerm.). American Eared Grebe. 

Podiceps auritus NUTTALL, Manual. II. 1834, 256. 

Podiceps californicus HEERM., Proc., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,1854, 

179. 
Podiceps auritus var. californicus NELSON, Bull. Essex Institute, Vol. 

VIII, 1876, 151. 
Colymlus nigricollis californicus RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

VIII, 1885, 356. 
Popular synonym: CALIFORNIA GEEBE. 

While the American Eared Grebe has been reported several 
times as occurring within our limits, I have not been able to 
find a single record of an authentic specimen of this species 
having been taken. The only published record is that of Mr. 
E. W. Nelson, who says*: "Not uncommon in winter upon 
Lake Michigan. Several species of grebes and a number of 
ducks are occasionally taken during the winter upon the hooks, 
set several miles off shore by the fishermen." 

The range of this grebe includes northern and western North 
America from the Mississippi Valley westward. 

Genus PODILYMBUS Lesson, 1831. 

Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus). Pied-billed Grebe. 

Colymlus podiceps LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 136. 
Podilymbus podiceps LAWB., in BAIKD, B. N. Anier., 1858, 898. 
Popular synonyms: HELL-DIVEB. DI-DAPPEB. WATEB WITCH. DAB- 
CHICK. CAROLINA GBEBE. 

A common summer resident, arriving the last of March and 
leaving in November. It nests abundantly with us on most of 
our small lakes. It is a bird of wide distribution, its range ex- 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 151. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 2/ 

tending from the British Provinces southward to Brazil, the 
Argentine Republic and Chili, and is also found in the West 
Indies and Bermuda. It breeds nearly throughout its range. 

FAMILY GAVnXE: LOONS. 
Genus GAVIA Forster, 1788. 

Gavia imber (Gunnerus). Loon. 

Colymbus imber GUNNEBUS, Trondh. Selsk. Skr., I, 1761, pi. iii. 
Coli'mbus toquatus BBUNN., Orn. Bor., 1764, 41. 
L'rinator imber STEJNEGEB, Orn. Bxpl. Kamtsch., 1885, 313. 
Gavia imber ALLEN, Auk, XIV, July, 1897, 312. 
Popular synonyms: GREAT NOBTHEBN DIVEB. WALLOON. GUINEA 
DUCK. HELL DIVEB. 

This species is resident and not uncommon. It is the largest 
and most active of our diving birds, and may be looked for at 
all times of the year. Mr. Robert Ridgway says, in his Birds 
of Illinois, that the Loon winters in the southern portion of the 
state. At times, this bird is caught in the gill nets of the lake 
fishermen. In diving, the Loon becomes entangled in the 
meshes of the net and is killed. 

The Loon's range covers the northern part of the northern 
hemisphere, and in North America it breeds from the northern 
portion of the United States northward, and winters as far 
south as the Gulf of Mexico and Lower California. 

It may be of interest to mention a set of eggs which I collected 
at Deer Lake, three miles from Hickory, Illinois, in May, 1892. 
The nest was on the end of a long piece of bog land which ex- 
tended about seventy-five yards into the lake. The nest was a 
circular mass of decayed rushes, scraped together so as to pre- 
vent the eggs from rolling into the water. 

Gavia lumme (Gunnerus). Red-throated Loon. 

Colymbus Inmme GUNNERUS, Trondh. Selsk. Skr., I. 1761, pi. ii, fig. 2. 
Colymbus septentrionalis LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1766, 220 (adult). 
Urinator lumme STEJNEGEB, Pr. U. S. National Museum, V, 1882, 43. 
Popular synonym: RED-THBOATED DIVEB. 

The Red-throated Loon seemingly can be admitted to the 
bird fauna of the Chicago Area only as a rare winter visitant. 
The only records that I can find of the taking of this species 
within our limits are those of three specimens, the dead bodies 
of which were found on the lake shore at Evanston, February 15, 
1870. These specimens are now in the museum of the North- 



28 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

western University at Evanston. Mr. H. K. Coale also reports 
the taking of a specimen at Chicago, February 23^ 1885. 

Mr. E. W. Nelson has reported the Red-throated Loon a 
common winter resident upon Lake Michigan in 1876. It has 
an extensive range which includes the northern part of the north- 
ern hemisphere. It migrates southward in winter nearly across 
the United States. 

ORDER LONGIPENNES : LONG-WINGED 
SWIMMERS. 

FAMILY STERCORARIIDJE: THE SKUAS 
AND JAEGERS. 

Genus STERCORARIUS Brisson, 1760. 

Stercorarius pomarinus (Temm.). Pomaine Jaeger. 
La-rus pomarinus TEMM., Man. d'Orn., 1815, 514. 
Stercorarius pomarinus VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet., XXXII, 1819, 158. 
Popular synonyms: GULL-CHASEB. GULL-HUN TEE. 

Mr. E. W. Nelson, who records the only occurences of this 
bird within our limits, says (Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornitholog- 
ical Club, July, 1876, p. 41) : "From the description of a bird 
seen with a flock of gulls near Evanston, Illinois, by F. L. Rice 
of that place, and the account of a strange gull occasionally seen 
by a sportsman who does considerable shooting on Lake Michi- 
gan, I am certain this species is a rare visitant during severe 
winters." Mr. Nelson also reports seeing one of these birds on 
October 9, 1876, at Chicago. It was "a fine adult specimen 
flying along the Lake shore, and so near that there could be no 
possibility of mistake."* 

It does not seem strange that this Jaeger might appear as 
a rare winter visitant on the waters of Lake Michigan, for its 
range includes the seas and inland waters of the northern por- 
tion of the northern hemisphere. In the winter, it migrates 
southward to Africa, Australia and from North America to South 
America. 

Genus RISSA Stephens, 1825. 

Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus). Kittiwake. 

Larus tridactylus Lirra^us, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 136. 
Rissa tridactyla BONAPARTE, Comp. List, 1838, 62. 
Popular synonyms: WINTEE GULL. KITTIWAKE GULL. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 145. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 2Q 

The Kittiwake is a very rare winter visitant. Mr. E. W. 
Nelson observed it at Chicago, and he with Dr. P. R. Hoy report 
seeing it at Waukegan, Illinois. However, I can find no record 
of its capture prior to that of the specimen now in the museum 
of The Chicago Academy of Sciences. This specimen is a young 
bird which has the black patch on the lower part of the neck 
and the band on the tail well defined. The tail has a slightly 
forked appearance. It was shot by Mr. Chris. Wagner, and pur- 
chased for the Academy. 

A gull supposed to be the Kittiwake has been observed on the 
lagoons of Jackson Park, Chicago, in the month of April, 1904. 

While the visits of the Kittiwake are rare, it is quite apt to 
appear in our vicinity during especially severe winters. Its 
range includes the Arctic regions but in winter it passes south- 
ward to the Great Lakes. 

Genus LARUS Linnaeus, 1758, 

Lams glaucus Briinn. Glaucus Gull. 

Larus glaucus BBUNN., Orn. Bor., 1764, 44. 

Popular synonyms: BURGOMASTER. WHITE GULL. HUTCHIN'S GULL. 

Mr. Robert Ridgway says that the Glaucous Gull is an Arctic 
bird which occasionally visits Lake Michigan in the winter. 
In the writer's collection there is a specimen in the pure white 
plumage of the second year which was captured at Millers, In- 
diana, August 8, 1897. When shot, the bird was alone and 
flying along the beach of Lake Michigan. Three specimens 
were also taken by Dr. P. R. Hoy several years ago at Racine, 
Wisconsin. 

The Glaucous Gull is a bird of the Arctic regions which passes 
southward in winter to the Great Lakes and Long Island. 

Larus argentatus Briinn. Herring Gull. 

Larus argentatus BRUNN., Orn. Bor., 1764, 44. 

Larus smithsonianus COUES, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1862, 

296. 
Larus argentatus var. smithsonianus COUES, Check List, 1873, no. 

547a. 
Larus argentatus argentatus COUES, B. of N. W., 1874, 625. 

Popular synonyms: SEA GULL. GRAY GULL. 

A common winter resident, arriving in November and remain- 
ing until May. They may be seen in company with the Ring- 
billed Gulls (Larus delazvarensis) when the lake is quite frozen 



3O THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

over, searching for airholes where they may find a few dead 
fish upon which to feed. 

Mr. E. W. Nelson in his "Birds of Northeastern Illinois" 
gives the following note under the name Larus argentatus, or the 
European Herring Gull: "A single specimen, an adult female, 
was obtained in the Chicago harbor March 27, 1876." This note 
is of considerable interest, for at that time the American Herring 
Gull was considered a variety (Larus argentatus smiths onianus) 
of the European species which was known in this country only as 
a very casual visitor to the Atlantic seacoast. Mr. Nelson also 
states that this specimen was examined by Dr. Coues and Mr. 
Ridgway, who pronounced it identical with the European bird. 
He says of the specimen: "The most striking peculiarity is its 
small size and the white terminal space over two inches long, 
upon the outer primary. Iris hazel." In the "Birds of Illinois" 
Mr. Ridgway says: "According to Mr. Nelson, the iris of this 
specimen was 'hazel/ If this was really the case (which there 
is no reason for doubting), the specimen can hardly have been L. 
argentatus in either of its forms, which, when adult (the bird 
in question was an adult female), always has the iris yellow. L. 
calif ornicus has a dark brown or hazel iris, and it may possibly 
be that species ; at any rate the case is one of considerable impor- 
tance- and the specimen should, if it can be traced, be carefully re- 
examined." 

It is interesting to watch the flocks of gulls hovering near 
the outlets of the sewers along the lake-front in the city of 
Chicago. As the birds are never molested they are fearless and 
one can approach within a few yards of them, thus obtaining a 
splendid opportunity for determining the various species which 
form the flocks. In these flocks, I have only succeeded in find- 
ing three species. These were the Herring Gull, the Ring-billed 
Gull and the Bonaparte's Gull. In the spring, the Herring Gulls 
may be seen on many of our rivers and quite a distance inland, 
where they frequent the overflowed meadows, looking for fish 
which may have frozen during the winter and which lie dead 
upon the surface. 

The geographical range of the Herring Gull quite covers the 
northern portion of the northern hemisphere. In North America, 
its breeding range extends from the northern portion of the 
United States northward, and it winters as far south as Cuba 
and Lower California. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 3! 

Lams delawarensis Ord. Ring-billed Gull. 

Larus delawarensis OBD, Guthrie's Geog., 2d Amer. ed., 1815, 319. 

A common winter resident, staying in our vicinity from about 
the last of September until about April 29. This species is often 
confounded with the Herring Gull unless the two are seen to- 
gether, when it will be noticed that the Ring-billed Gull is much 
the smaller of the two, and that the light greenish bill is crossed 
by a dark band near the tip. 

This is a characteristic gull of North America ; and in winter 
it may be seen as far south as Cuba and Mexico. 

Lams Philadelphia (Ord). Bonaparte's Gull. 

Sterna Philadelphia OBD, Guthrie's Geog., 2d Amer. ed., II, 1815, 319. 
Larus Bonapartii NUTTALL, Manual, II, 1834. 294. 
Larus Philadelphia GBAY, List Brit. B., 18G3, 235. 
Popular synonyms: MOLLY GULL. SEA PIGEON. 

A transient visitor in Cook County, arriving in April, when 
it stays but a short time. It returns again in September and 
remains with us until the middle of November. This beautiful 
and friendly little gull may be found on all of our large lakes, 
and at times the lagoons in Jackson and Lincoln parks will 
seem to be covered with them. The water at this time will be 
alive with immense schools of minnows, and the gulls while feed- 
ing dive after them, tern-like. 

The range of Bonaparte's Gull extends over the whole of 
North America, though it seldom breeds south of the British 
Possessions. 

Genus XEMA Leach, 1819. 

Xema sabinii (Sabine). Sabine's Gull. 

Larus sabinii J. SAB., Trans. Linn. Soc., XII, 1818, 520, pi. 29. 
Xema sabini LEACH, App. Ross's Voy. Baffin's Bay 4to. ed., 1819, Ivii. 
Xema sabinii LAWB. in BAIBD, B. N. Amer., 1858, 857. 
Xema sabinei COUES, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1862, 311. 
Popular synonym: FOBK-TAILED GULL. 

The only record that I can find regarding the taking of this 
bird within the limits of our area is that of Mr. E. W. Nelson, 
who says : "While collecting on the Lake shore near Chicago, the 
first of April, 1873, I saw a specimen of this bird in a small pool 
of water on the beach. At first I supposed it was a Bonaparte's 
Gull, and was about passing it, when it arose, and as it passed 
toward the lake I saw it was something new to me, and fired. It 



32 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

flew a few rods and fell into the Lake about thirty rods from 
shore. It was in perfect breeding dress, as was shown by the 
black markings on the head, each time it was raised while strug- 
gling in the water. A gale from off shore soon drifted it from 
sight."* 

While this gull is an Arctic species, it is known to visit 
the regions of the Great Lakes and may again be observed in 
our vicinity. 

Genus STERNA Linnaeus, 1758. 

Sterna caspia Pallas. Caspian Tern. 

Sterna tschegrava LEPECHIN, Nov. Comm. Petrop., XIV, 1770, 500, pi. 

13, fig. 2. 
Sterna capia PALLAS, Nov. Comm. Petrop., XIV, 1770, 582, pi. XXII, 

fig. 2. 
Popular synonym : BIG MACKEREL GULL. 

A not uncommon fall visitant in this vicinity. A few are 
seen and captured each fall at Millers, Indiana. Mr. E. W. 
Nelson reports seeing a "fine specimen fishing along the Lake 
shore at Waukegan," on the ninth of June, 1876. 

The Caspian Tern is a nearly cosmopolitan species, and in 
North America it breeds southward to "Virginia, Lake Michigan, 
Texas, Nevada and California." 

Sterna forsteri Nuttall. Forster's Tern. 

Sterna forsteri NUTTALL, Manual, II, 1834, 274 (Footnote). 

Sterna havelli AUDUBON, Orn. Biog., V, 1839, 122, pi. 409, fig. 1 (young 

in winter). 
Popular synonyms : HAVELL'S TERN. STRIKER. 

'Of late years this bird is a rather uncommon spring and fall 
visitant. It is said to have bred in Illinois many years ago, 
when it occurred in numbers with the Wilson's or Common Tern 
(Sterna hirundo). It arrives early in April but remains only a 
short time. It returns from the last of July to the middle of 
August, when it remains for a variable period. A few dates on 
which specimens of this species have been taken may be of in- 
terest. I obtained one at South Chicago, May 6, 1893, and Mr. 
J. Grafton Parker, Jr., captured one at Millers, Indiana, on Au- 
gust 13, 1896. 

Forster's Tern is quite generally distributed over North 
America, and in winter it is found as far south as Brazil. 



*Bulletin Essx Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 147. Bulletin Nuttall Ornithological 
Club, Vol. I, 1876, p. 41. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 33 

Sterna himndo Linnaeus. Common Tern. 

Sterna hirundo LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 137. 

Popular synonyms: WILSON'S TEBN. MACKEEEL GULL. STRIKES. 
SEA SWALLOW. SEA PIGEON. SUMMER GULL. MOLLY GULL. 

A spring and fall visitant, arriving in May, and at times re- 
maining as late as the tenth of June. While migrating, thousands 
of individuals may be seen flying along the shore of Lake Mich- 
igan. The fall migration begins about the last of August, the 
birds remaining in our vicinity until October. 

The range of the Common Tern extends over the greater 
part of the northern hemisphere, but in North America these 
birds are much more common east of the Plains. Its breeding 
range is quite wide but irregular and extends from the Arctic 
coast southward to Florida, Texas and Arizona. 

Sterna antillarnm (Less.). Least Tern. 

Sternula antillarum LESS., Descr. Mam. et Ois., 1847, 256. 

Sterna antillaruum COUES, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1862, 

552. 

Sterna superciliaris NELSON, Bull. Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 149. 
Popular synonyms: LITTLE STRIKER. SANDPETER. 

The only record we have of the occurrence of this rare and 
beautiful little tern within our limits, is that of Mr. E. W. Nel- 
son, who says: "A fine male specimen is in the collection of 
The Chicago Academy of Sciences, obtained June n, 1876, upon 
the Calumet Marshes."* 

While the Least Tern is not known to nest within the borders 
of the state of Illinois, Mr. Robert Ridgway says that it doubtless 
does do so, for it is a summer resident nearly throughout the 
Mississippi Valley. Its geographical and breeding ranges are 
nearly coincident and extend from northern South America north- 
ward to California, Minnesota and New England. 

Genus HYDROCHELIDON Boie, 1822. 
Hydrochelidon nigra snrinamensis (Gmelin). Black Tern. 

Sterna snrinamensis GMELIN, S. N.. I, pt. ii, 1788, 604. 
Sterna plumbea WILSON, Amer. Orn., VII, 1813, 83, pi. 83 (young). 
Sterna nigra NUTTALL, Manual, II, 1834, 282. 

Hydrochelidon nigra surinarnensis STEJNEGEB, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Vol. V, 1882, 40. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute,' Vol. VIII, 1876, 149. 



34 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Hydrochelidon lariformis (part) COUES, B. N. W., 1874, 704 (neo 

Rallus lariformis LINNAEUS). 
Popular synomyms: SHORT-TAILED TEEN. BLACK SWALLOW. 

A common summer resident in Cook County, breeding in 
colonies on all of our marshy lakes, and at times on the wet 
meadows near a body of water. Mr. B. T. Gault writes me that 
this species is rare in Du Page County, he having but one record 
of its occurrence. It arrives about the middle of May and 
departs the last of August. 

The nest of this tern is a small cup of dead vegetation and 
is placed upon an old muskrat house or a dry spot on the boggy 
ground. It is quite difficult to locate the nest except by watching 
the birds, for the eggs closely resemble the ground in color. 

The Black Tern is a bird of temperate and tropical America, 
ranging from Alaska to Brazil, and breeding f om the middle 
United States northward. 

ORDER STEGANOPODES: TOTIPAL- 
MATE SWIMMERS. 

FAMILY PHALACROCOROCID^: : CORMORANTS. 
Genus PHALACROCORAX Brisson, 1760. 

Phalacrocorax dilophus (Swains.). Double-crested Cormorant. 

Pelecanus (Carlo) dilophus SWAINS., in Sw. & Rich. F. B. A., II, 

1831, 473. 

Phalacrocorax dilophus NUTTALL, Manual, II, 1834, 483. 
Graculus dilophus GRAY, Gen. B., Ill, 1849. 
Graculus dilophus a. dilophus COUES, B. N. W., 1874, 587. 
Popular synonyms: CBOW DUCK. BLACK LOON. NIGGEB GOOSE. 

A rather rare fall visitant in our district. I have seen them 
frequently on Lake Calumet. One was shot on the Little Calu- 
met River at Liverpool, Indiana, on October 16, 1896. A young 
bird was shot from the government pier at Chicago, September 
28, 1897, by Mr. George H. Sheridan and presented to the 
museum of The Chicago Academy of Sciences. Mr. E. W. Nel- 
son says: "A regular but rather uncommon migrant and some- 
times a winter resident." 

Its breeding range extends from the Bay of Fundy, the Great 
Lakes, Minnesota and Dakota northward, and the birds winter 
in the southern states. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 35 

FAMILY PELECANUXE: PELICANS. 
Genus PELECANUS Linnaeus, 1758. 

Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin. American White Pelican. 
Pelecanus erythrorhynchos GMELIN, S. N. I., pt. ii, 1788, 571. 
Pelecanus trachyrhynchus LATHAM, Ind. Orn., II. 1790, 884. 
Pelecanus onocrotalus NUTTALL, Manual, II, 1834, 471. 
Popular synonym : ROUGH-BILLED PELICAN. 

This bird may be looked for during the period between the 
first of April and November. It is included in our list, because 
of a specimen which was shot from the government pier at 
Chicago in April, 1903. In September, 1892, I obtained several 
specimens from a flock of between 700 and 1,000 of these birds 
at Meredosia, Illinois. Mr. Bowers, of the United States Fish 
Commission, and myself approached within 150 yards of the 
flock and it was comparatively easy to count them. In June, 
1895, Mr. Black welder and myself obtained a fine pair from a 
flock of fourteen at Meredosia. Mr. Nelson says: "At present 
(1876) an exceedingly rare visitant during the migrations. For- 
merly they were regular and rather common migrants." 

The White Pelican frequents temperate North America, being 
quite abundant in the interior and along the Gulf coast. While 
its known nesting localities are at least as far north as the state 
of Minnesota, there are indications that it also breeds along the 
Gulf coast from Florida to Texas. 

ORDER ANSERES: LAMELLIROSTRAL 
SWIMMERS. 

FAMILY ANATID^E: DUCKS, GEESE, AND SWANS. 
Genus MERGANSER Brisson, 1760. 

Merganser americanus (Cassin). American Merganser. 

^fergu8 merganser WILSON, Amer. Orn., VIII, 1814, 68, pi. 68 (nee. 

LlNNJEUS). 

Mergus americanus CASSIN, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, VI, 

1853, 187. 
Mergus merganser americanus RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ill, 

1880, 205. 

Merganser americanus STEJNEGEB, Orn. Expl. Kamtsch., 1885, 177. 
Popular synonyms : MERGANSER. SHELDRAKE. SAW-BILL. FISH 

DUCK. BUFF-BREASTED MERGANSER OR SHELDRAKE. 

The American Merganser is a migrant and winter resident 
within our limits, and may be seen flying near the shore of Lake 



36 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Michigan from October to April, or until the lake is covered with 
ice, when its food of fish cannot be obtained. 

Its range covers the whole of North America and it breeds 
from the northern United States northward. 

Merganser serrator (Linnaeus). Red-breasted Merganser. 
Merg-us serrator LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 129. 
Merganser serrator SCHAFFER, Mus. Orn., 1789, 66. 
Popular synonyms: RED-BREASTED GOOSANDER OR SHELDRAKE. 
GAR-BILL. 

A quite common winter resident on Lake Michigan, sometimes 
staying in our vicinity as late as the twentieth of May. Its name 
Red-breasted is far from appropriate, for its breast is not at all 
red in color. 

It breeds in the northern portion of North America, migrating 
southward in winter through the United States. Mr. Robert 
Ridgway states that it breeds in northern Illinois.* 

Genus LOPHODYTES Reichenbach, 1852. 

Lophodytes cucullatus (Linnaeus). Hooded Merganser. 

Mergus cucullatus LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 129. 

Lophodytes cucullatus REICHENBACH, Syst. Av., 1852, p. IX. 

Popular synonyms : HOODED SHELDRAKE. WOOD SHELDRAKE. WOOD 
DUCK. SNOWL. MOSS-HEAD. SAW-BILL. CROW DUCK. HAIRY- 
HEAD. POND SHELDRAKE. COCK ROBIN DUCK. FAN-CREST. PICK- 
AXE. SHELDRAKE. 

A rare summer resident, although common during its migra- 
tions. It is at times a winter resident. It breeds abundantly 
along the Kankakee River, a few miles south of our limits. A 
female of this species flew into the lagoon in Lincoln Park the 
last of July, 1896, and remained in the company of the tame 
ducks until December 7, 1896. 

The range of the Hooded Merganser includes the whole of 
North America, and it breeds nearly throughout its range, nesting 
in knot-holes and other cavities in the trees of dense forests 
along streams. 

Genus ANAS Linnasus, 1758. 

Anas boschas Linnaeus. Mallard. 

Anas boschas LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10 I, 1758, 127. 

Popular synonyms : GREEN-HEAD. GRAY DUCK. GRAY MALLARD. 

Rare as a resident though common during the periods of 
migration. Occasionally during severe winters, the Mallards will 



*Birds of Illinois, Vol. II, p. 190. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 37 

all go south. I have found it nesting at a point about thirty-five 
miles south of Chicago. Some years ago the Mallard was said 
to be a common summer resident. 

The range of this, the best known of all our ducks, not only 
includes the whole of North America but also the whole of the 
northern hemisphere. In North America, it breeds nearly 
throughout its range. 

Anas obscura Gmelin. Black Duck. 

Anas obscura GMELIN, S. N., I, 1788, 541. 

Popular synonyms: BLACK MALLABD. DUSKY DUCK. 

A rather common migrant, arriving in the fall with the first 
of the Mallards, and remaining in our vicinity for a short time. 
Dr. Robert Ridgway says this region is nearly the western limit 
of its range. In the spring, the Black Duck arrives about the 
first of April and in the fall its first appearance is about the last 
of September. 

The range of this duck covers eastern North America, and 
it breeds from the northern portion of the United States north- 
ward. 

Genus CHAULELASMUS Bonaparte, 1838. 

Chanlelasmns streperus (Linnaeus). Gadwall. 

Anas strepera LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 125. 
Chaulelasmus streperus BONAPABTE, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 56. 
Popular synonyms: GBAY DUCK. WIDGEON. SPECKLE-BELLY. CBEEK 
DUCK. 

I can find very few records of the Gadwall having been seen 
within our limits, although a number are shot each year on the 
Kankakee and Illinois rivers. Mr. E. W. Nelson, in his report 
on the "Birds of Northeastern Illinois," says: "This beautiful 
species is very common during the migration, from the middle 
of October to the last of November, and from the first to the 
last of April. A very rare summer resident. I have seen but 
two or three pairs here in the breeding season." A specimen in 
the museum of The Chicago Academy of Sciences was taken at 
Liverpool, Indiana, October 18, 1896. 

A nearly cosmopolitan species, in North America breeding 
chiefly within the United States. 

Genus MARECA Stephens, 1824. 

Mareca penelope (LinnsBus). Widgeon. 

Anas penelope LINNJEUS. S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 126. 
Mareca penelope SELBY, Br. Orn., II, 1833, 324. 



3 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The Widgeon is an occasional visitor within our limits. Mr. 
E. W. Nelson in his "Birds of Northeastern Illinois" says that 
Mr. C. N. Holden, Jr., of Chicago, informed him that a fine 
adult male was shot on the Calumet Marsh, April 13, 1876, and 
that it was preserved in a collection in Chicago. Other records 
are of interest, though most of the birds were taken on English 
Lake, Indiana, a short distance south of our area. These records 
were furnished by Mr. Ruthven Deane, of Chicago, and pub- 
lished in the "Auk." The last specimen recorded from Indiana is 
in the collection of Dr. Nicholas Rowe, of the "American Field" 
and was taken in 1881 or 1882 at English Lake.* Mr. Landon 
Hoyt took a specimen at the same place on April 13, 1893^ 
A young male taken by Mr. J. F. Barrell at English Lake is in 
Mr. Deane's private collection.^ An adult male was killed by 
Mr. John E. Earle, of Hinsdale, Illinois, March 23, 1896, at 
English Lake. On March 27, 1903, Mr. James M. McKay 
obtained a specimen at English Lake. March 28, 1898, Mr. 
Harry Ehlers obtained a female at Thayer, Indiana. Mr. Peter 
Willem captured a male at English Lake on March 31, 1902. In 
a recent report, || Mr. Deane says, "I have recently examined a 
fine adult male of this species, which was shot on an overflowed 
meadow near Nippersink Lake, Lake County, Illinois, on April 
I, 1904, by Mr. Charles Muehrcke, and is now in his possession. 
The bird was in company with six of his American cousins, all 
of whom were shot. The specimen is mounted to represent dead 
game. This record makes the eighteenth for the interior." 

The range of the Widgeon covers the northern portions of 
the Old World. While it has been quite frequent in the eastern 
United States, it is only known to breed in the Aleutian Islands 
in North America. It has been reported as having been taken 
in California. 

Mareca americana (Gmelin). Baldpate. 

Anas americana GMELIN, S. N., I, pt. 2, 1788, 526. 
Mareca ameriacana STEPHENS, Shaw's Gen. Zool., XII, pt. ii, 1824, 135. 
Popular synonyms: AMERICAN WIDGEON. GREEN-HEAD. WHITE- 
BELLIED POACHES. WHEAT DUCK. BALD-HEAD. BALD-CROWN. 

A common species during the migrations, arriving in the 
spring with last' of the Mallards and the Pintails. They return 

*Auk, XII, 1895, 292. 

tAuk, XII, 1895, 179. 
*Auk, XIII, 1896, 292. 
Auk, XIII, 1896, 255. 
IIAuk, XXII, 1905, 76. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 39 

in the fall about the last days of September. Mr. E. W. Nelson 
says, in his "Birds of Northeastern Illinois" (1876): "Not a 
very rare summer resident." His report would also indicate 
that these ducks nested in this region at that time, for he says : 
"It nests about the borders of marshes and prairie sloughs." 

The range of this species- includes North America from the 
Arctic Ocean south to Guatemala, and it breeds nearly throughout 
its range. 

Genus NETTION Kaup, 1829. 
Nettion carolinensis (Gmelin). Green-winged TeaL 

Anas crecca WILSON, Amer. Orn., VIII, 1814, 101, pi. 60, fig. 1 (not of 

Linnaeus). 
Querquedula carolinensis STEPHENS, Shaw's Gen. Zool., XII, pt. ii, 

1824, 128. 

Nettion carolinensis BAIBD, B. N. Amer., 1858, 777. 
Anas carolinensis GMELIN, S. N., I, pt. ii, 1788, 533. 
Popular synonyms : GBEEN-WINQ. RED-HEADED TIAL. WINTEB TEAL. 

MUD TEAL. 

A common migrant, and is said to winter in the southern part 
of the state. Our records show the earliest spring arrival to 
be early in March and the first fall arrival to be September 26. 
Mr. E. W. Nelson says that it "breeds sparingly. I have known 
of a few instances of its nest being found, and have myself ob- 
served several pairs of the birds in this vicinity during the breed- 
ing season." Mr. Robert Ridgway says :* "Although stated by 
Kennicott to breed in the northern part, (of Illinois) there appears 
to be no recent record of its doing so." As Mr. Kennicott died 
May 13, 1866, his notes regarding this species must have been 
made previous to that time. Mr. Ridgway also records in his 
"Catalogue of the Birds Ascertained to Occur in Illinois, "f the 
following note : "Resident, but most abundant during migra- 
tions : breeds only in the prairie districts, and winters chiefly in 
the lagoons of the heavily timbered bottoms." 

The Green-winged Teal breeds chiefly north of the United 
States, but its geographical range includes the whole of North 
America. 

Genus QUERQUEDULA Stephens, 1824. 
Querquedula discors (Linnaeus) . Blue-winged Teal. 

Anas discors LINN^US, S. N., ed. XII, I, 1766, 205. 

Querquedula discors STEPHENS, Shaw's Gen. Zool., XII, pt. ii, 1824, 

149. 
Popular synonyms: BLUE-WING. WHITE-FACE. SUMMEB TEAL. 

*Birds of Illinois, Vol. II. 1895, 136. 

tAnnals of the Lye. Nat. Hist., New York, Vol. X, 1874, 389. 



4O THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

A common summer resident and the last of our ducks to 
arrive in the spring. It nests the last of May on or near most of 
the small lakes of our area. On one occasion, I found a pair 
nesting on the prairies a long distance from water. Mr. E. W. 
Nelson says: "The middle of May, 1875, I obtained a nest of 
this species containing fourteen freshly laid eggs. It was situated 
near a branch of the Calumet Marsh and close to the railroad 
track, being about midway between the track and fence in a 
dense bunch of grass." 

While the range of the Blue-winged Teal covers North 
America in general, it departs from our region early in October. 

Genus SPATULA Boie, 1822. 

Spatula clypeata (Linnaeus). Shoveller. 

Anas clypeata LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 124. 
Spatula clypeata BOIE, Isis, 1822, 564. 

Popular synonyms : SPOON-BILL. SHOVEL-BILL. MUD-SHOVELLKB. 
BUTTER DUCK. BKOADY. 

A common migrant, and is said to have been a common sum- 
mer resident in earlier days (Mr. E. W. Nelson, 1876). At this 
time, however, it is only on rare occasions that one of these ducks 
is seen within our limits in the summer. The earliest spring ar- 
rival in my records is March 30, and the first fall arrival Sep- 
tember 12. It departs late in October. 

The range of the Shoveller covers the northern hemisphere 
and in North America it breeds from Alaska to Texas. 

Genus DAFILA Stephens, 1824. 

Dafila acuta (Linnaeus). Pintail. 

Anas acuta LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 126. 
Dafila acuta BONAPARTE, Comp. List, 1838, 56. 

Popular synonyms: SPIKE-TAIL. LONG-NECK. SPRIG-TAIL. PICKET- 
TAIL. PHEASANT DUCK. WATER PHEASANT. 

This species is by far the most common of our ducks during 
the spring migration, the earliest record of arrival being February 
6. The only record of its nesting within our limits is that of 
Mr. E. W. Nelson, who says :* "Each year a few pairs breed upon 
the marshes in this vicinity, but whether they breed in the state 
away from the Lake region I have no means of knowing. In 
the spring of 1875 several pairs of these birds nested in the 
prairie sloughs near the Calumet River, and on the twenty-ninth 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 139. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 4! 

of May I found a nest containing three freshly laid eggs. The 
female was flushed from the nest when scarcely more than a rod 
away, and was at once joined by the male from a small slough 
a few rods distant. The nest was in the center of a tall, thick 
bunch of grass on a small ridge between two sloughs, and was 
a slight hollow thickly lined with grass stems ; no down had been 
added. The parent birds circled about overhead, often coming 
within gunshot, during the whole time I was in the vicinity." 
The earliest date of its appearance on its fall migration is Sep- 
tember 18. In the museum of The Chicago Academy of Sciences 
there is a specimen of the male hybrid pintail and mallard. 

Its geographical range covers the northern hemisphere and 
includes the whole of North America, where it breeds from the 
northern parts of the United States northward. 

Genus AIX Boie, 1828. 

Aix sponsa (Linnaeus). Wood Duck. 

Anas sponsa LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 128. 
Aix sponsa BONAPARTE, Comp. List, 1838, 57. 

Popular synonyms: SUMMEB DUCK. WOOD WIDGEON. BBIDAL 
DUCK 

The Wood Duck is common during its migrations. Mr. E. 
W. Nelson says (1876) that it was a rather common summer 
resident in secluded localities. A pair is occasionally found breed- 
ing at Calumet Heights, Indiana, and at Long Lake near Millers, 
Indiana. It may also be found breeding abundantly at Kouts ? 
Indiana, about forty-eight miles south of Chicago. A young 
female of this species alighted in the duck pond in Lincoln Park, 
Chicago, in September, 1896, and associating with the domestic 
ducks in the pond, became so tame that it could almost be taken 
in the hand. It arrives in April and departs about the last of 
October. 

The Wood Duck breeds throughout its range which covers 
the whole of temperate North America. 

Genus AYTHYA Boie, 1822. 
Aythya americana (Eyton). Bedhead. 

Fuligula americana EYTON, Monogr. Anat, 1838, 155. 
Fuligula ferina BONAPABTE, Synop., 1828, 392. 
Fuligula ferina var. americana COUES, Key, 1872, 289. 
Aythija' americana BAIBD, B. N. Amer., 1858. 793. 
Popular synonyms: RED-HEAD. CANVAS-BACK (erroneously). AMER- 
ICAN POCHABD. RED-HEADED BBOAD-BILL. 



42 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

A common migrant. In years past this was one of our most 
common ducks but as they decoy very readily, they are becoming 
rather scarce. Formerly Wolf and George lakes in Indiana were 
the favorite feeding grounds of this and the following species. 
However, because of the draining of this region, the beds of 
water-celery and wild rice have been destroyed, thus removing 
the food supply of these ducks and causing them to seek new 
feeding grounds. They arrive from the south' early in March, 
and return from the north during the latter part of October. 

The Redhead breeds from the northern part of the United 
States northward, and winters as far south as Central America. 

Aythya vallisneria (Wilson). Canvas-back. 

Anas vallisneria WILSON, Amer. Orn., VIII, 1814, 103. 
Fuligula vallisneria STEPHENS, Shaw's Gen. Zool., XII, pt. ii, 1824, 196. 
Aythya vallisneria BOIE, Isis, 1826, 980. 

Popular synonyms: WHITE-BACK. RED-HEADED BULL-NECK. BULL- 
NECK. 

A rather uncommon migrant, but abundant in former years. 
In the spring the Canvas-back arrives usually during March and 
stays in this vicinity for a short time. During the migration 
periods of the seventies, the water-celery beds in Calumet and 
Wolf lakes fairly swarmed with the ducks of this species, sports- 
men journeying from the east and even from Europe to bag them. 
The earliest recorded arrival in the spring is that of Mr. J. 
Grafton Parker, Jr., who observed a Canvas-back on February 
second. It returns rather late in the fall and remains until the 
ponds and smaller lakes are frozen over. 

The range of the Canvas-back includes nearly the whole of 
North America, and it breeds from the northwestern states north- 
ward to Alaska. 

Aythya affinis (Eyton). Lesser Scaup Duck. 

Fuligula marila AUDUBON, Orn. Biog., Ill, 1835, 226. 

Fuligula affinis EYTON, Mongr. Anat, 1838, 157. 

Fuligula marila var. affinis FORSTEB, in Cat. of the Birds ascertained 
to occur in 111., Ann. Lye. of Nat. Hist. N. Y., Vol. X, 389, 1874. 

Aythya affinis STEJNEGER, Or. Expl. Kamtsch., 1885, 161. 

Popular synonyms: LITTLE BLACK-HEAD. LITTLE BLUE-BILL. RIVEB 
DUCK. BROAD-BILL. RIVER SCAUP. CANNON BALL. MUD 
BLUE-BILL. MARCH BLUE-BILL. RIVER SHUFFLES. 

This is an abundant migrant and the most common of our 
lake ducks. It is a very hardy bird, arriving early in March on 
its northward journey and returning late in the fall to remain 
with us until the lakes are frozen over. Mr. J. Grafton Parker, 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 43 

Jr., informs me that he observed a flock of thirteen of these ducks 
in the Chicago harbor on May 25, 1895. Mr. E. W. Nelson 
says:* "This is not an uncommon species upon the larger 
marshes and inland lakes during the breeding season. * * * About 
the time they leave for more northern breeding grounds they 
congregate in very large flocks on rivers or small lakes, and soon 
all have disappeared from these haunts and none, except the com- 
paratively few which remain to breed, are found there again until 
they return in the autumn." This is the only record that I can 
find of the breeding of the Lesser Scaup within our limits. 

The Lesser Scaup Duck breeds chiefly north of the United 
States, but its geographical range includes the whole of North 
America. 

Aythya collaris (Donovan). Ring-necked Duck. 

Anas collaris DONOVAN, Br. Birds, VI, 1809, pi. 147. 

Fuligula collaris BONAPAETE, List B. Europe. 1842, 73. 

Aythya collaris RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., VIII. 1885, 356. 

Popular synonyms: RING-BILL. BLACK-HEAD. FALL DUCK. BLACK 
JACK. MOON-BILL. BLUE-BILL. RING-BILLED SHUFFLER. 

An abundant migrant, arriving from the south in March, and 
returning from the north in September. This Duck frequents 
the marshes of our area in large numbers, during its migrations, 
and is often mistaken for the Lesser Scaup Duck. The only record 
which I have found of its breeding within our borders, is that 
of Mr. E. W. Nelson, who says:* "This species also breeds 
about the marshes in northeastern Illinois, but in smaller num- 
bers than the preceding." 

The range of the Ring-necked Duck includes the whole of 
North America, and it breeds from Iowa, southern Wisconsin 
and Maine northward. 

Genus CLANGULA Leach, 1819. 

Clangula clangula americana (Bonaparte). American Golden-eye. 

Anas clangula WILSON, Amer. Orn., VIII, 1814, 62, pi. 67, fig. 5 (neo 
Linnaeus). 

Fuligula clangula BONAPARTE, Synopsis, 1838, 393. 

Clangula americana BONAPARTE, Comp. List, 1838, 58. 

Buccphala clangula COUES. Key. 1872, 290. 

Bucephala clangula var. americana RIDGWAY, Orn. 40th Par., 1877, 626. 

Glaucionetta clangula amcrfcana STEJNEGER, Proc. U. S. National Mus., 
VIII, 1885, 409. 

Clangula clangula americana FAXON, Auk, XIII, 1896, 215. 

Popular synonyms : WHISTLER. WHISTLE-WING. GREAT-HEAD. BRASS- 
EYE. MERRY-WING. COOT. IRON-HEAD. COB-HEAD. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 141. 



44 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

When the surface of Lake Michigan is quite frozen over, 
large flocks of these ducks may be seen about the airholes, or 
they may be seen among the ice floes, in company with Old-squaw 
Ducks (Harelda hyemalis), and White-winged Scoters (Oidcinia 
deglandi). A common winter resident. 

The range of the Golden-eye covers nearly the whole of North 
America and it breeds from the northern border of the United 
States northward. 

Clangula islandica (Gmelin), Barrow's Golden-eye. 
Anas islandica GMELIN, S. N., I, 1788, 541. 
B-ucephala islandica BAIBD, B. N. Amer., 1858, 796. 
Clangula islandica BONAPARTE, Cat. Met. Ucc. Eur., 1842, 74. 
Glaucionetta islandica STEJNEGEB, Proc. U. S. National Mus., VIII, 

1885, 409. 
Popular synonym : ROCKY MOUNTAIN GOLDEN-EYE. 

A rare winter visitant. I have a specimen of this duck which 
I shot on Lake Michigan, near the Daily News Sanitarium, 
December n, 1896. The bird was flying in company with an- 
other, probably of the same species. 

This Golden-eye is a bird of the far north passing southward 
in winter only as far as New York, Illinois and Utah. It breeds 
north of. the United States and also in the Rocky Mountains as 
far south as Colorado. 

Genus CHARITONETTA Stejneger, 1885. 

Charitonetta albeola (Linnaeus). Buffle-head. 

Anas albeola LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 124. 
Fuligula albeola BONAPARTE, Synopsis, 1828, 394. 
Clangula albeola STEPHENS, Shaw's Gen. Zool., XII, ii, 1824, 184. 
Bucephala albeola BAIRD, B. N. Amer., 1858, 797. 
Charitonetta albeola STEJNEGER, Orn. Expl. Kamtsch., 1885, 166. 
Popular synonyms : BUTTER-BALL. SPIRIT DUCK. DIPPER. SCOTCH 
TEAL. CANNON BALL. DUMMY DUCK, etc. 

Formerly the Duffle-heads were common, but now they are 
rather uncommon. At the time of their fall migration, they 
arrive in October and remain until the last of April. While they 
are often seen on Lake Michigan, they are much more common 
on the smaller inland lakes. Very often they will exhibit a 
peculiar habit of flying directly toward the gunner after being 
shot at, thus affording a second chance for a shot. 

The Buffle-heads breed north of the United States, and in 
winter pass as far southward as Cuba and Mexico. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 45 

Genus HAEELDA Stephens, 1824. 

Harelda hyemalis (Linn sens). Old-squaw. 

Anas hyemalis LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 126. 

Anas glacialis LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 202. 

Harelda glacialis "LEACH," STEPHENS, Shaw's Gen. Zool., XII, pt ii, 

1824, 175, pi. 58. 

Clangula hiemalis BREHM, Handb. Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 933. 
Harelda hiemalis BBEHM, Vogelsang, 1855, 386. 
Popular synonyms: OLD WIFE. LONG-TAILED DUCK. OLD MOLLY. 

SCOLDEB. OLD INJUN, etc. 

A very common winter resident. Large numbers of these 
ducks are shot each season from the breakwater and piers along 
the lake front at Chicago. This is wanton destruction, as they 
are not fit for food. They arrive about the middle of November 
and remain with us until the last of March. I have found a 
few as late as May, but I am inclined to think that they were 
crippled birds. Just before they migrate in the spring, they 
gather in flocks of considerable size and are quite noisy. 

The Old-squaw Ducks breed in the far north but their fall 
migrations take them almost to the southern border of the 
United States. 

Genus SOMATERIA Leach, 1819. 
Somateria dresseri (Sharpe). American Eider. 

Anas mollissima WILSON, Amer. Orn., VIII, 1814, 122, pi. 71 (nee 

Linnseus). 

Somateria mollissima BONAPARTE, Comp. List, 1838, 57 (part). 
Somateria dresseri SHABPE, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, July 1871, 51, figs. 

1, 2. 
Popular synonyms: SQUAW DUCK. Bio SEA DUCK. 

A very rare winter resident. Mr. E. W. Nelson reported 
in 1876 that in his collection he had an immature specimen ob- 
tained near Chicago in December, 1874, and also stated that they 
had been noted several times by Dr. H. B. Bannister at Evanston. 
I am inclined to think that some of the birds seen in this vicinity 
and reported as individuals of this species are in reality immature 
scoters. 

The range of the American Eider is a very limited one during 
the breeding season, reaching only from Maine to Labrador. In 
winter it passes as far south as the Delaware River and westward 
to the Great Lakes, where it has been reported on the Ohio, 
Illinois and Wisconsin shores. 



46 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Genus OIDEMIA Fleming, 1822. 

Oidemia americana (Swains). American Scoter. 

Anas nigra WILSON, Amer. Orn., VIII, 1814, 135, pi. 72 (not of 

Linnaeus). 

Oidemia americana Sw. & RICH., Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 1831, 450. 
(Edemia americana COUES, Key, 1872, 293. 
CEdemia nigra var. americana RIDGWAY, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 

Vol. X, 1874, 390. 
Popular synonyms: AMERICAN BLACK SCOTEB. BUTTEB-BILL. BUT- 

TEB-BILLED COOT. HOLLOW-BILLED COOT. SCOTEB DUCK. YELLOW- 
BILL. SMUTTY, etc. 

I have no records of the occurence of this species within our 
limits except the following two: Mr. E. W. Nelson says: 
"Rather common upon the Lake. Winter resident. Arrives the 
first of November and departs by the first of April." Mr. Robert 
Ridgway gives the following record :* "Winter visitant to Lake 
Michigan, Dr. J. W. Velie." 

While the American Scoter breeds in Labrador and the north- 
ern interior and is a sea bird, its occurrence within our limits 
is not strange, for it winters on the Great Lakes to some extent 
and has been noted as far south as the Ohio River. 

Oidemia deglandi (Bonaparte). White-winged Scoter. 

Anas fusca WILSON, Amer. Orn., VIII, 1814, 137, pi. 72 (not of 

Linnaeus). 
Melanetta velvetina RIDGWAY, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., Vol. X, 

1874, 390. 
(Edemia fusca NELSON, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 

143. 

CEdemia fusca CQUES, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, No. 738. 
Oidemia deglandi BONAPARTE, Rev. Grit, de TOrn. Europe de Dr. 

Degl., 1850, 108. 
Popular synonyms: AMERICAN VELVET SCOTEB. VELVET DUCK. 

WHITE-WINGED COOT. BULL COOT. 

A not uncommon winter resident, though I have the record 
of only one in the adult plumage that has been taken within 
our limits. This specimen, a very fine male bird, is in my 
collection. I have observed quite a number of this species which 
have been found dead on the shore of Lake Michigan. They 
were in immature plumage, and their death was probably caused 
by the birds failing to obtain their accustomed food, or by the 
elements. Mr. E. W. Nelson in 1876 made the following state- 
ment regarding this species: "Like the preceding (Oidemia 



*Cat. of the Birds Ascertained to Occur in 111. Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., VoL 
X, 1874, 390. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 47 

americana) a rather common winter resident upon the Lake, and 
occurs throughout the state, specimens being sent to the Chicago 
market from the Illinois River and various other streams in 
Central Illinois." Dr. J. W. Velie also records this Scoter as 
a winter visitant to Lake Michigan.* 

The White-winged Scoter breeds north of the United States, 
and winters as far south as the Great Lakes, southern Illinois 
and Lower California. On the Atlantic coast it winters as far 
south as Chesapeake Bay. 

Oidemia perspicillata (Linnaeus). Surf Scoter. 

Anas perspicillata LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 125. 
Oidemia perspicillata STEPHENS, Gen. Zool., XII, pt. ii, 1824, 219. 
CEdemia perspicillata COUES, Key, 1872, 294. 

Popular synonyms: SURF DUCK. SEA DUCK. HOBSE-HEAD COOT. 
SUBF COOT. GOOGLE-NOSE. GBAY COOT, etc. 

Mr. E. 'W. Nelson says in his "Birds of Northeastern Illi- 
nois": "A common winter resident upon Lake Michigan and 
occurs throughout the state at this season. Quite a number of 
specimens were taken upon the Calumet Marshes during the fall 
of 1875, and many others were seen. Arrives the last of October 
and departs the last of March." I can find no records of its 
occurrence within our limits since the date in Mr. Nelson's note. 
Two specimens in immature plumage were taken by Mr. J. Graf- 
ton Parker at Meredosia, Illinois, on November 9, 1896. 

The range of this species would indicate a probability of its 
occurrence in our region. "Coasts and larger inland waters of 
northern North America; in winter south to Florida, the Ohio 
River, and San Quentin Bay, Lower California." 

Genus ERISMATUBA Bonaparte, 1832. 

Erismatura jamaicensis (Gmelin). Buddy Duck. 

Anas jamaicensis GMELIN, Syst. Nat., I, ii, 1788, 519. 
Anas ruUda WILSON, Amer. Orn., VIII. 1814, 128, 131, pi. 71, figs. 5, 6. 
Erismatura rulida BONAPARTE, Comp. List, 1838, 59. 
Erismatura jamaicensis SALVAD., Cat. Bds. Br. Mus., XXVII, 1896, 445. 
Popular synonyms: DUMMY DUCK. SPINE-TAILED DUCK. HEAVY- 
TAILED COOT. STIFF-TAIL. BRISTLE-TAIL. ROOK. SLEEPY DUCK. 
SLEEPY COOT. FOOL DUCK. DEAF DUCK. BOOBY COOT, etc. 

A not uncommon migrant. It may be found on most of the 
lakes of our region in April and in October in company with 
the Redhead (Ay thy a americana} and the Lesser Scaup (Ay thy a 

*Cat. of the Birds Ascertained to Occur in Illinois. Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist N. Y.. 
Vol. X. 1874, 390. 



48 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

affinis). Mr. J. Grafton Parker, Jr., informs me that he has 
seen and taken the Ruddy Duck on Wolf Lake, Indiana, as late 
as the thirthieth of May. It may breed at the present time within 
our limits. Mr. E. W. Nelson says:* "The middle of Septem- 
ber, 1875, my friend Mr. T. H. Douglas, of Waukegan, found 
a pair with eight or ten full grown young in a small lake 
near that place, and obtained several specimens. As the fall 
migration of this species does not commence until some weeks 
later than this, I think it very probable these birds were hatched 
in the vicinity. This supposition is rendered still more reason- 
able by the following observations. The I2th of June, 1875, 
while walking through the dense grass close to the shore of 
Calumet Lake, looking for sharp-tailed finches, a female ruddy 
duck started from the grass a few yards in advance and flew 
heavily away and alighted in the reeds a short distance out from 
shore. Being well acquainted with the species, I at once recog- 
nized the bird by unmistakable peculiarities of form and flight, 
as well as coloration, so I did not shoot it as I could easily have 
done, but instead, made a thorough search for the nest, which 
I was certain must be near. The dense grass, about three feet 
high, proved an effectual shield, however, and I was compelled 
to depart without the coveted eggs." 

The breeding range .of the Ruddy Duck is nearly coincident 
with its geographical range, which includes the whole of North 
America south to Guatemala, and it is also found in Cuba and 
other West India islands. 

Genus CHEN Boie, 1822. 

Chen hyperborea (Pall.). Lesser Snow Goose. 

Anas hyperlorea PALL., Spicil. Zool., VI, 1769, 25. 
Chen hyperlorea BOIE, Isis, 1822, 563. 
Anser hyperbore-us var. albatus CASS., of some authors. 
Popular synonyms : WHITE BEANT. SNOW GOOSE. 

A common migrant. Though rarely taken within our limits, 
many are seen passing over. They usually arrive on their north- 
ward passage from the last of January to April, and return from 
the north in October. 

The Lesser Snow Goose breeds in Alaska and during its fall 
migrations passes as far south as southern Illinois and southern 
California. 



'Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 143. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 49 

Chen hyperborea nivalis (Forster). Greater Snow Goose. 
Anas nivalis FOBSTEE, Philos. Trans., LXII, 1772, 413. 
Chen hyperborea nivalis RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, II, 

1884, 107. 

Anser hyperboreus var. hyperboreus PALL., of some authors. 
Popular synonyms: MEXICAN GOOSE. RED GOOSE. WHITE BRANT. 

TEXAS GOOSE. COMMON WAVEY. 

While I have obtained no record of the capture of this bird 
within our limits, Mr. E. W. Nelson, says, in his report* on the 
birds of this region, that he thinks it occurs in equal numbers 
with the preceding species. I have seen specimens of both forms 
of this species which were taken at Liverpool, Indiana. 

While the Lesser Snow Goose is a Pacific coast form, the 
Greater Snow Goose may be considered its Atlantic coast repre- 
sentative. Its breeding grounds are probably confined to the 
eastern portion of British America, and in its fall migrations it 
passes southward through the eastern United States, including 
the Mississippi Valley, to the Gulf coast. 

Chen caerulescens (Linnaeus). Bine Goose. 

Anas ccerulescens LINN^US, S. N.. ed. 10, I, 1758, 124. 

Anser caerulescens VIEILL., Enc. Meth., I, 1823, 115. 

Chen ccerulescens GUNDL., in Poey's Report, Fis.-nat. Isla Cuba, I, 
1865-1866, 387. 

Popular synonyms: BLUE-WINGED GOOSE. BLUE BRANT. WHITE- 
HEADED BRANT or GOOSE, WHITE-HEAD. BALD BRANT. 

A common migrant. In former years large numbers of this 
species were taken on the Calumet marshes, but now few are 
seen nearer than the Kankakee River region. I have observed 
them at Hyde Lake, Indiana, and at Grand Crossing. 

The range of the Blue Goose includes the interior of North 
America. It breeds on the eastern shores of Hudson Bay and 
in Labrador. In the winter it migrates southward through the 
Mississippi Valley to the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. 

Genus ANSER, Brisson, 1760. 

Anser albifrons gambeli (Hartlaub). American White-fronted Goose. 

Anser albifrons BONAPARTE, Synop., 1828, 376. 
Anser gambeli HARTLAUB, Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1852, 7. 
Anser albifrons var. gambeli COUES, Key, 1872, 282. 
Popular synonyms: BRANT. SPECKLE-BELLY. LAUGHING GOOSE. 
PIED BRANT. GRAY BRANT. PRAIRIE BRANT or GOOSE. YELLOW- 
LEGGED BRANT or GOOSE. HARLEQUIN BRANT. 



k Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 137. 



5O THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

A common migrant. It arrives from the north in October 
and returns again in March, when small flocks may be observed 
on the prairies or in stubble fields. Mr. Nelson says:* "The 
individual variation in this species is very great. A large major- 
ity have the ordinary white frontal band and the under parts 
plentifully mottled with black. In others the black gradually 
decreases until some specimens do not show the least trace of 
dark on the abdomen ; in such instances the frontal white band 
is usually present. The young exhibit a dark brown frontal 
band in place of white, but with more or less dark spots on the 
abdomen. In very high plumage the abdomen becomes almost 
entirely black, only a few rusty colored feathers being inter- 
spersed through the black. The white nail on the bill is gen- 
erally crossed by one or more longitudinal stripes of dark horn- 
color. In spring, as the breeding season approaches, the bill 
becomes a clear waxy yellow. There is also much variation in 
size among adults of this species. I have examined a number 
of specimens which by correct comparison were at least one- 
fourth smaller than the average." 

This goose breeds in the far north, and its range includes 
the whole of North America. 

Genus BRANTA Scopoli, 1769. 

Branta canadensis (Linnaeus). Canada Goose. 

Anas canadensis LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 123. 

Anser canadensis VIEILLOT, Enc. Meth., 1823, 114. 

Bernicla canadensis BOIE, Isis, 1826, 921. 

Branta canadensis BANNISTER, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 

1870, 131. 
Branta canadensis var. canadensis "LiNN/EUS," in NELSON'S Birds of 

Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 

1876, 138. 
Popular synonyms: COMMON WILD GOOSE. BAY GOOSE. CBAVAT 

GOOSE. HONKER. BIG WILD GOOSE. 

The Canada Goose is the largest and best known of our 
wild geese. At one time it was a resident within our limits, but 
now it probably appears here only as a migrant which is quite 
common. The Calumet marshes formed the old breeding site 
of these birds in this region. Mr. B. T. Gault, of Glen Ellyn, 
Illinois, says that on June 23, 1877, he observed a pair of these 
birds with young on Calumet Lake. There were from four to 

*Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 136. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 5! 

seven of these goslings which appeared to be at least two or 
three weeks old. The majority of these birds arrive early in 
March, and on their southward journey, in the fall, appear in 
October. Mr. E. W. Nelson says that the Canada Goose "for- 
merly bred commonly in the marshes throughout the state, and 
still breeds sparingly in the more secluded situations."* 

The Canada Goose breeds in the northern United States and 
the British Possessions. It winters as far south as Mexico. 

Branta canadensis hutchinsii (Rich.). Hutchins's Goose. 

Anser hutchinsii Sw. & RICH., Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 1831, 470. 
Bernicla hutchinsii WOODH., Sitgr. Exp., 1853, 102. 
Branta hutchinsii BANNISTEB, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
1870, 131. 

Branta canadensis var. hutchinsii COUES, Key, 1872, 284. 
Popular synonyms: LESSEB CANADA GOOSE. GBAY GOOSE. LITTLE 
WILD GOOSE. ESKIMO GOOSE. PRAIEIE GOOSE. BAY GOOSE. 

Both Mr. E. W. Nelson* and Mr. Robert Ridgwayf record 
this little goose as of frequent occurrence in Illinois. Mr. 
Ridgway says that it is abundant, while Mr. Nelson speaks of it 
as common. Within our limits it seems to be far from common. 
Mr. J. Grafton Parker, Jr., informs me that he has observed one 
individual near Calumet Lake. I have noticed a small form of 
this genus passing overhead which must belong either to 
hutchinsii or to minima. While I have no record of the taking 
of this species in our territory, there can be no doubt that these 
geese at least pass over the Calumet region during their journeys. 
Though the range of this species includes North America in 
general, it breeds only in the Arctic regions and passes south in 
winter chiefly through the western United States and the Missis- 
sippi Valley. 

Branta bernicla (Linnaeus). Brant. 

Anas bernicla LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 124. 

Anser bernicla ILLIG., Prodr., 1811, 277. 

Branta bernicla SCOPOLI, Ann. I. Hist. Nat., 1769, 67. 

Popular synonyms: BRANT GOOSE. BBENT GOOSE. COMMON BRANT. 

The only record that I have found regarding the occurrence 
of the Brant within our limits is that of Mr. Robert Kennicott, 
who gives it in his list of Cook County BirdsJ without comment. 
In his introduction to this list, he says, "Nearly all the species 

*Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876 138 

t Birds of Illinois, Vol. II, pt. 1, 1895, 122. 

jTrans. of the Illinois State Agri. Soc., Vol. I, 1853-1854, 588. 



52 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

named I have observed myself." He also states that "for several 
of the birds I am indebted to Dr. Hoy, of Racine." Mr. E. W. 
Nelson says :f "The only instance known to me of its capture in 
this portion of the country is a specimen taken by Dr. Hoy, from 
a flock of three, upon the Lake shore near Racine," a few miles 
north of our limits. 

While the range of this species includes the northern parts 
of the whole northern hemisphere, in North America- it is found 
chiefly on the Atlantic coast, and is rarely seen away from salt 
water. Professor Cooke says:J "During 'the winter of 1883- 
1884 tm " s species was represented from Illinois southward by a 
few rare visitants. In the spring it was rare south of Minnesota, 
but by the time it reached that State its numbers had been in- 
creased by recruits from the southeast, and it became almost 
common." Professor Cooke also calls attention to the "uncer- 
tainty in using the records concerning this species because it is 
commonly confounded with the Snow Goose, which is locally 
known as Brant all through the West." 

Genus OLOR Wagler, 1832. 

Olor columbianus (Ord). Whistling Swan. 

Cygnus bewicki Sw. & RICH., Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 1831, 465 (neo 

Yarr.). 
Cygn-us americanus SHARPLESS, Doughty's Cab. N. H., I, 1830, 185, 

pi. 16. 

Anas columbianus ORD, in Guthrie's Geog.. 2d Amer. ed., 1815, 319. 
Olor columbianus STEJNEGER, Proc. U. S. National Mus., V, 1882, 210. 
Popular synonym: AMEEICAN SWAN. 

Formerly a very common migrant, arriving in the spring 
about the middle of March and returning sometime in September. 
At the present time it is much rarer, only a few being seen each 
year. I have seen several specimens of this species which were 
taken by club members at Liverpool, Indiana. Recently, I saw 
and shot at one near Hyde Lake, .Indiana. Mr. E. W. Nelson 
says:* "In the spring of 1876 they were more numerous than 
usual ; quite a large number of specimens were in market and 
many were seen on the small lakes and large prairie sloughs 
in this vicinity." 

The Whistling Swan breeds in the far north, but its geo- 
graphical range covers the whole of North America. 



tBirds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 138. 

$Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley, p. 78. 

*Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute. Vol. VIII, 1876, 136. 



THE' NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 53 

ORDER HERODIONES: HERONS, 
STORKS, IBISES. 

FAMILY ARDELD^G : HERONS, BITTERNS, ETC. 
Genus BOTAURUS Hermann, 1783. 

Botanrus lentiginosus (Montague). American Bittern. 
Ardea lentiginosa MONTAGUE, Orn. Diet. Suppl., 1813. 
Botaurus lentiginosus STEPHENS, Shaw's Gen. Zool., XII, ii, 1819,592. 
Botaurus minor BOIE, Isis, 1826, 979. 
Popular synonyms: STAKE-DBIVEB. THUNDEB-PUMP. BOG-BULL. POST- 

DBIVEB. MlBE-DBUM. LOOK-UP. INDIAN HEN, etc. 

A common summer resident, arriving early in April and nest- 
ing where the growth of rushes is very heavy, or in small reedy 
ponds in the timber. It departs for its winter home further 
south about the latter part of October or early in November. 

Its geographical range covers temperate North America and 
it winters as far south as Cuba and Guatemala. 

Genus ARDETTA Gray, 1842. 
Ardetta exilis (Gmelin). Least Bittern. 

Ardea exilis GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788. 645, No. 83. 

Ardetta exilis GUNDL., J. f. O., 1856. 345. 

Botaurus exilis REICHEN., J. f. O., 1877, 244. 

Popular synonyms: TOBTOISE-SHELL BITTEBN. AMEBICAN LEAST 

BITTEBN. LITTLE YELLOW BITTEBN. LITTLE BITTEBN. MINUTE 

BITTEBN. 

A common summer resident and may be found nesting in the 
heavy cane of the marshes and sloughs in the vicinity of Hyde, 
Wolf and Calumet lakes, Indiana, Its nest is a frail platform 
placed in the upright canes at a height of about three feet above 
the water. The Least Bitterns arrive early in April and depart 
for their winter home about the last of September. 

The range of this species includes the whole of North America 
from the British Possessions southward, and in South America 
into Brazil. 

Genus ARDEA Linnaeus, 1758. 

Ardea herodias Linnaeus. Great Blue Heron. 

Ardea herodias LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I. 1758, 143. 
Popular synonyms : BLUE CBANE. BIG FLY-UP-THE-CBEEK. SANDHILL 
CBANE. 

A not uncommon summer resident. Large colonies nest in 
the Kankakee region, just south of our limits, the birds pre- 



54 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

ferring deep woods and the tallest trees. They often place as 
many as ten nests in one tree. A few pairs nest between Long 
Lake and Lake Michigan in Indiana. Mr. B. T. Gault found a 
colony of these birds nesting at Wheeling on the Desplaines 
River, April 29, 1889. (See plate VI.) The herons arrive in 
March and are quite shy until after the breeding season, when a 
few pairs, or a single bird, may be seen about the small lakes 
and rivers of our area. The majority of the herons depart on 
their southward journey about the last of September. 

The range of the Great Blue Heron covers the whole of 
North America from Hudson Bay and the Fur Countries south 
through Central America into northern South America. 

Genus HERODIAS Boie, 1822. 

Herodias egretta (Gmelin). American Egret. 
Ardea egretta GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 620. 
Herodias egretta GRAY, Gen. B., Ill, 1849. 

Herodias alia var. egretta RIDGWAY, Ann. Lye. N. Y., 1874, 386. 
Popular synonyms: GREAT WHITE HERON. WHITE CRANE. SNOWY 
HERON. GHOST BIRD. GREAT EGRET. 

The American Egret is either a visitant or a summer resident 
in nearly every portion of Illinois. Within our limits it is a 
casual fall visitant. It may have bred here years ago before 
the region became so largely settled. Mr. J. Grafton Parker, Jr., 
informs me that he shot a pair of this species July 27, 1885, in 
Woodlawn, Chicago, on the site of the newer portion of Jackson 
Park. In 1889 I saw some of these birds at Grand Crossing, 
Chicago, and I have taken them at Liverpool, Indiana. In May, 
1895, Mr. Charles Eldredge collected the American Egret and 
its eggs iri the heronies at Kouts, Indiana. He found the birds 
nesting in the same trees with the Great Blue Heron (Ardea 
herodias). It is said to be abundant all through the summer on 
the Illinois River below Peoria. 

The range of the American Egret is extensive, covering the 
whole of temperate and tropical America from Nova Scotia, 
Ontario, Minnesota and Oregon to Patagonia. It is also found in 
the West Indies. 

Genus EGRETTA Forster, 1817. 

Egretta candidissima (Gmelin). Snowy Heron. 

Ardea candidissima GMELIN, S. N., I, pt. ii, 1788. 633, No. 45. 
Egretta candidissima GOSSE, Birds Jamaica, 1847, 336. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 55 

Garzetta candidissima BONAPARTE, Consp. II, 1855, 119. 
Popular sj-nonyms : LITTLE WHITE EGBET. LITTLE SNOWY HEKON. 
LITTLE EGRET. 

I include this species simply on the authority of the following 
reports of Mr. Robert Kennicott and Mr. E. W. Nelson. Mr. 
Kennicott includes it in his "Catalogue of the Animals Observed 
in Cook County, Illinois,"* with the comment "common." He 
also marks it with an asterisk which, as I understand his use of 
the mark, indicates that it is "known to nest in Cook County.'' 
His note is under the name "Egretta candidissima, Gmel. White 
Heron." Mr. E. W. Nelson says that the Little White Egret 
is "much less common than the preceding (Hcrodias cgrctta). 
Occurs at the same time." Mr. Robert Ridgway says:f "This 
beautiful Egret occurs during summer in various parts of the 
State, but probably not abundantly except in the more southern 
portions." 

Its range includes the whole of temperate and tropical America 
from the British Possessions on the north to Chili and the 
Argentine Republic on the south. 

Genus BUTORIDES Blyth, 1849. 

Butorides virescens (Linnaeus). Green Heron. 

Ardea virescens LIXNJEUS. S. N., ed. 10, I. 1758, 144. 
Butorides virescens BONAPARTE. Consp.. II, 1855, 128. 
Popular synonyms : SCHYTEPOKE. SQUAWK. BOOBY. FLY-TJP-THE- 
CREEK. CRAB-CATCHER. 

Formerly a common but now a rare summer resident, arriv- 
ing early in April. A favorite nesting site of this species is in 
the heavy bushes bordering the rivers. It departs for the winter 
early in September. 

Its range includes the whole of temperate North America 
from Ontario and Oregon on the north to Central America and 
the West Indies on the south. 

Genus NYCTICORAX Stephens, 1819. 

Nycticorax nycticorax naevius (Bodd.). Black-crowned Night Heron. 
Ardea noevia BODD., Tabl. PI. Enl., 1783, 56. 
Nyctiardea grisea var. noevia. ALLEN. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ill, 

1872, 182. 
Nycticorax ni/cticorax nccrius ZELEDON, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., VIII, 

1885, 113. 



*Trans. of the Illinois State Agri. Soc., Vol. 1, 1853-1851, 587. 
fBirds of Illinois, Vol. II, pt. i, 1895, 12G. 



56 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Popular synonyms : AMERICAN BLACK-CEOWNED NIGHT HEEON. QUAK. 

QUA-BIRD. QUAWK. 

Although abundant throughout the summer and fall, I have 
never found it breeding within our limits. It may usually be 
seen, during the day time, roosting in the tops of the trees of the 
woods bordering our numerous small lakes and swamps. Mr. 
E. W. Nelson says :* "The first of July, 1874, 1 saw a few young 
of the year in the Calumet marshes." He also found it nesting, 
and counted fifty nests within an area of two acres, at Grass 
Lake, Lake County, Illinois, a few miles north of our limits. 
These nests were built in dense bunches of rice, and were placed 
upon the stiff stalks of rice and cane of the year before. These 
birds leave our neighborhood early in October. 

The range of this Heron includes the whole of temperate 
and tropical America from the British Possessions south to Chili. 

ORDER PALUDICOL^E: CRANES, RAILS, 

ETC. 

FAMILY GRUIim CRANES. 

Genus GEUS Pallas, 1766. 
Grns americana (Linnseus). Whooping Crane. 

Ardea americana LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 142. 

Orus americana VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XIII, 1817, 557. 

Grus hoyanus DUDLEY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, VII, 1854, 

64 (Young). 
Popular synonyms ; GBEAT WHITE CBANE. WHITE SANDHILL CRANE. 

A few are heard, while passing overhead during their migra- 
tions, uttering their discordant cries. Mr. B. T. Gault informs 
me that his observations show that they arrive early in the 
spring and that the latest record of their return in the fall is 
August 6. Mr. E. W. Nelson says that it was "once an abundant 
migrant, but is now of rare occurrence in this vicinity." Mr. 
Robert Kennicott states that, "Though at present exceedingly 
rare, this bird was once not uncommon in this region. "|| The 
only record I have found of the actual taking of a specimen 
within our limits is that of Spencer F. Baird who mentionsf 
a specimen of this species which was collected by Mr. Thomas E. 
Blackney who took it at Chicago in June, 1858. This specimen 
is now in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 131. 
li Trans, of the Illinois State Agri. Soc., Vol. I, 1853-1854, 587. 
tPacific B. B. Beports Vol. IX, 1858, 655. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 57 

The Whooping Crane has a rather narrow range in the in- 
terior of North America. It lies between Colorado and Ohio, 
and extends from the Fur Countries southward to Florida, Texas 
and Mexico. 

Grus mexicana (Mull.). Sandhill Crane. 

Ardea (grus) mexicana MULL., S. N., Suppl., 1776, 110. 

Grus mexicana VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XIII, 1817, 561. 

Grus canadensis NUTTALL Man., II, 1834, 38 (nee Ardea canadensi* 

Linnaeus). 
Popular synonym : BBOWN CBANE. 

A rare migrant. According to Mr. E. W. Nelson, they 
formerly nested abundantly in the larger marshes of our region. 
Mr. B. T. Gault informs me that in the seventies he saw single 
birds and occasionally two or three together, flying high above 
the city in a northerly direction. However, he never saw them 
in the fall. In the museum of Northwestern University there is 
a fine specimen of this species, taken in the seventies by Mr. 
Charles S. Raddin, who shot the bird at Evanston while walking 
along the beach of Lake Michigan. 

The range of the Sandhill Crane covers the southern half 
of North America, though it is said to be rare on the Atlantic 
coast north of Georgia. It breeds in Florida and Cuba and in the 
states west of the Mississippi River to the Pacific coast. 

FAMILY RALLID^: RAILS, GALLINULES AND COOTS. 
Genus RALLUS Linnaeus, 1758. 

Rallus elegans Audubon. King Rail. 

Rallus elegans AUDUBON, Orn. Biog., Ill, 1835, 27, pi. 203. 
Popular synonyms: RED-BBEASTED RAIL. MABSH HEN. MUD HEN. 
SEDGE HEN. 

A common summer resident, nesting in the thick rushes bor- 
dering our lakes and in clumps of grass in meadow marshes. It 
is the largest of our rails, and is very shy, rarely taking wing 
and depending upon its long legs as means of escaping an in- 
truder. The King Rails arrive within our limits when the grass 
is quite short and affords but poor shelter for them. In conse- 
quence large numbers are annually shot. They begin to depart 
for their winter home the latter part of September. 

The range of the King Rail is almost confined to the Middle 
States and it is a bird of the fresh-water marshes. In the salt 
marshes of the Atlantic coast and that of the Gulf of Mexico, 
it is replaced by the Clapper Rail (Rallus crepitans). 



58 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Rallus virginianus Linnaeus. Virginia Rail. 

Rallus virginianus LINN^US, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 263. 
Popular synonyms: REED-BIKD. RED RAIL. 

A common summer resident, nesting about the last of May 
in the long grass on the borders of our prairie sloughs and lakes. 
This Rail arrives within our limits about the last of April and 
departs early in September. Regarding its habits, Mr. E. W. 
Nelson says:* "I have obtained nests with eggs from the sixth 
of May until the middle of June. This species is found in almost 
any place where it can find suitable food. I have often flushed 
it in thickets when looking for woodcock, as well as from the 
midst of large marshes. The nest can rarely be distinguished 
from that of the Carolina rail in form or structure, and is gener- 
ally placed In a similar location, with the exception that the 
present species shows a greater preference for dense tufts of 
grass. I have never seen more than nine eggs in a nest of this 
species." 

The range of this species includes the whole of temperate 
North America from the British Possessions south to Guatemala 
and Cuba. It winters quite throughout its range. 

Genus PORZANA Vieillot, 1816. 

Porzana Carolina (Linnseus). Sora. 

Rallus carolinus LINN^TJS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 153. 

Rallus (Crex) carolinus BONAPARTE, Obs. Wils., 1825, No. 230. 

Ortygometra Carolina BONAPARTE, List, 1838, 53. 

Porzana Carolina BAIRD, Lit. Rec. & Jour. Linn. Assoc. Penn. Coll., / 

Oct. 1845, 255. 

Popular synonyms: CAEOUNA RAIL. COMMON RAIL. OBTOLAN. SOBA 
RAIL. 

A common summer resident, breeding abundantly in all of 
our marshes, and on the borders of prairie sloughs, especially in 
the southern portion of our area. Their nests are usually built 
in soft dense grass which grows near the borders of the sloughs. 
Occasionally the nests are built on clumps of grass which grow 
where they are entirely surrounded by water. The Sora, as well 
as the other smaller rails, after being flushed once from the nest 
is very loth to take wing again and may often be picked up alive 
by the collector. A great many of these rails are killed during 
their migrations by flying against the screens which protect the 
lights of the light-houses on the coasts of the larger bodies of 

*Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute. Vol. VIII, 1876, 133. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 59 

water. They also frequently kill themselves by flying against 
chimneys and the lighted windows of houses. The Sora arrives 
within our limits about the middle of April and the larger num- 
ber leave early in October. 

Mr. E. W. Nelson gives an interesting account* of the habits 
of the Sora in our vicinity: "In the spring of 1875, the sudden 
rise of the water in the sloughs in this vicinity flooded a great 
many water birds' nests, and among them Carolina Rail's nests. 
Visiting the marshes soon after, I found that in every rail's nest 
that had been flooded the eggs had been broken by the rail 
piercing the side with her beak. In one instance the bird 
was found beside the nest, and when I looked at the eggs 
I found a portion of them broken and the contents still 
oozing out. I found that the coots (Fulica americana) and the 
gallinules had the same habit when their nests were destroyed 
by the water, although it was less common with them than with 
the rail. In autumn great numbers of these birds frequent the 
floating weeds along the borders of rivers where they are some- 
times found in such numbers that several may be killed at a 
single discharge." 

The range of the Sora covers the whole of temperate North 
America, breeding chiefly in the northern portion of its range. 

Porzana noveboracensis (Gmelin). Yellow Rail. 

Fulica novcboraccnsis GMELIN, S. N.. I. ii, 1788, 701. 

Rallus noveloracensis BONAPAETE, 1827. 

Porzana noveboracensis BAIBD, Lit. Rec. & Jour. Linn. Assoc. Penn. 

Coll., Oct. 1845, 255. 
Popular synonyms: LITTLE RAIL, LITTLE YELLOW RAIL. 

A quite common summer resident although rarely seen on 
account of its skulking habits. It may be readily recognized by 
its white wing patches, the white barring of its back, and its 
extremely small size. In April, 1889, while collecting with Mr. 
Charles Robey at South Chicago, two perfect specimens of this 
species were caught by his dog and brought to us alive and un- 
hurt. It arrives within our limits early in April and departs in 
September. 

The range of the Yellow Rail includes eastern North America, 
and it is found, though less commonly, west to Utah and Nevada. 

Porzana jamaicensis (Gmelin). Black Rail. 

Ralhis jamaicensis GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 718. 



'Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 134. 



6O THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Porzana jamaicensis BATED, Lit. Rec. & Jour. Linn. Assoc. Penn. 

Coll., 1845, 257. 
Popular synonym: LITTLE BLACK RAIL. 

A very rare summer resident. Mr. E. W. Nelson says re- 
garding the occurrence of this species in our region :* "During 
the spring of 1875 I saw three specimens in the Calumet Marshes. 
The first was observed early in May. On the nineteenth of June, 
the same season, while collecting with me near the Calumet 
River, Mr. Frank DeWitt, of Chicago, was fortunate enough to 
discover a nest of this species containing ten freshly laid eggs. 
The nest was placed in a deep cup-shaped depression in a per- 
fectly open- situation on the border of a marshy spot, and its 
only concealment was such as a few straggling carices afforded. 
It is composed of soft grass blades loosely interwoven in a cir- 
cular manner. The nest, in shape and construction, looks much 
like that of the meadow lark. The eggs are a creamy-white 
instead of clear white, as I stated in a recent article (Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, Vol. I, p. 43), and average i.oo by .81 inches. They 
are nearly perfectly oval, and are thinly sprinkled with fine red- 
dish-brown dots, which become larger and more numerous at 
one end. Minute shell markings in the form of dots are also 
visible. Owing to the small diameter of the nest the eggs were 
in two layers." 

The range of the Black Rail covers North America from 
Massachusetts, northern Illinois, Nevada and California, south- 
ward through Central America and western South America to 
Chili. It is also found in the West Indies. 

Genus IONORNIS Reichenbach, 1852. 

lonornis martinica (Linnasus). Purple Gallinule. 

Fulica martinica, LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 259. 

Gallinula martinica LATH. 1790. 

Porphyrio martinica GOSSE, Birds Jam., 1874, 377. 

Jonornis martinica REICHENBACH, Av. Syst., 1852, p. XXI. 

Popular synonyms: BLUE COOT. BLUE PETEB. BLUE MUD-HEN. 

The Purple Gallinule is essentially a southern species, and the 
only record I have found of its occurrence within our limits is 
that of a male specimen taken by Mr. C. N. Holden, at Lake View, 
Chicago, in May, 1886. Mr. E. W. Nelson says that Dr. Hoy 
informed him of its capture at Racine, Wisconsin. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 134. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 6l 

The range of this species includes the whole of tropical and 
warm-temperate America as far south as Brazil. It is occa- 
sionally reported as far north as Maine, New York and Wis- 
consin. 

Genus GALUNULA Brisson, 1760. 

Gallinula galeata (Licht.). Florida Gallinule. 

Crex galeata T ,ICHT. ? Yerz. Doubl., 1823, 80, No. 826. 
Gallinula galeata BONAPARTE, Amer. Orn., IV, 1832, 128. 
Gallinula chloropus ( LINNAEUS), var. galeata LIGHT., of some authors. 
Popular synonyms: AMERICAN GALLINULE. MUD-HEN. RED-BILLED 
MUD-HEN. 

A common summer resident in all of our marshes, arriving in 
April and nesting the middle of May. It builds a cup-shaped 
nest similar to that of the King Rail, generally placing it among 
the heavy growth of rushes. The Gallinules usually depart in 
the fall early in September. Mr. E. W. Nelson gives the follow- 
ing interesting account of their habits within our district :* 

"Generally has a full set of eggs, numbering from seven to 
twelve, the first week in June. Its nests are placed wherever 
fancy dictates ; on low ridges a rod or more from the water ; in 
perfectly bare situations on the borders of marshes, or in the 
midst of the bulrushes or wild rice growing in several feet of 
water. The material used varies with the situation, from fine 
grasses to the coarsest rushes and fragments of wild rice stalks. 
In the latter case the nest often floats in the water and is held 
in place by the surrounding reeds. The young possess the usual 
black down and disproportionate feet of members of this family 
at an early age, but the basal two-thirds of the bill is bright red, 
the tip only, being yellow. I have placed eggs under a hen, 
but the young, unless removed as soon as hatched, would scram- 
ble out and manage to get away. At this a*ge they have a clear 
metallic peep, quite unlike that of a chicken." 

The range of the Florida Gallinule includes the whole of 
tropical and temperate America, extending from Canada to 
Brazil and Chili. 

Genus FULICA Linnaeus, 1758. 

Fulica americana Gmelin. American Coot. 

Fulica americana GMELIN, S. N., I, ii. 1788, 704. 

Fulica wilsoni STEPHENS, Shaw's Gen. Zool., XII, 1824, 236. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 135. 



62 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Fulica atra WILSON, Amer. Orn., IX, 1825, pi. 73, fig. 1, (nee Linnaeus). 
Popular synonyms: MUD HEN. WHITE-BILLED MUD HEN. CBOW 
DUCK. 

The American Coots are common summer residents, arriving 
early in April. They build their nests in reed patches in May. 
The nests are usually placed in quite exposed situations unlike 
those of the other species of this family. They are often placed 
in reeds that stand in two to four feet of water, and are built 
at about the same time as are those of the Florida gallinule. 
Where the Coots are plentiful, they gather in quite large numbers 
as cold weather approaches, and, frequenting the rivers and lakes, 
remain with us until these waters are frozen over. Mr. E. W. 
Nelson says regarding the appearance of the Coot within our 
limits,* "This bird has a curious habit when approached by a 
boat in a stream, rising .often before the boat is within gunshot, 
and flying directly by the boatman, generally so near that it 
may be easily brought down. The abundance of ducks and other 
game birds has caused the birds of this family to be but little 
molested, until within a few years, when the amateur sportsmen 
from Chicago, finding the ducks difficult to obtain, and 'mud- 
hens/ as coots and gallinules are called, conveniently tame, have 
turned their batteries upon them and have caused a diminution 
in their numbers about the Calumet Marshes. But in more re- 
tired marshes they still breed in undiminished numbers." 

The range of the American Coot covers the whole of North 
America, including the West Indies. 

ORDER LIMICOL^E: SHORE BIRDS. 

FAMILY PHALAROPODIDJE: PHALAEOPES. 
Genus CRYMOPHILUS Vieillot, 1816. 

Crymophilus fulicarius (Linnaeus). Bed Phalarope. 

Tringa fulicaria LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 148. 

Phalaropus fulicarius Sw. & RICH., Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 1831, 407. 

Crymophilus fulicarius STEJNEGEB, Auk, II, 1885, 183. 

I have found no record of the occurrence of this species 
within our limits or in the immediate vicinity except that of 
Mr. E. W. Nelson who says:* "Exceedingly rare. Occurs 
only during the migrations at about the same time as the pre- 
ceeding (Northern Phalarope) " 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 136. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 63 

This Phalarope breeds in very high latitudes, and its range 
covers the northern portions of the northern hemisphere. It is 
chiefly maritime and has been reported from as far south as 

Ohio, Illinois and Cape St. Lucas. 

* 

Genus PHALAROPTJS Brisson, 1760. 

Phalaropus lobatns (Linnaeus). Northern Phalarope. 

Tringa lolata LINNJEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 148 ; ed, 12, I, 1766, 249. 
Lolipes lobatus B. B. & R., Water Birds N. Amer., I, 1884, 330. 
Phalaropus lobatus SALVAD., Ucc. d'ltalia, II, 1872, 210 (nee Latham 
qui Crymophilus fulicarius, nee Wilson qui Phalaropus tricolor). 
Lobipes hyperboreus CUVDEE, Reg. Anim., I, ed. 1829, 532. 

A rare spring and fall visitant. In 1901, a male in perfect 
fall plumage was shot on the grounds of the Calumet Heights 
Gun Club, by Mr. R. Turtle. I identified this specimen shortly 
after it was taken. Specimens of immature males were also 
taken by Mr. Gerard A. Abbott at Calumet Lake, September 
27, 1903. Mr. E. W.* Nelson says:* "Rather rare migrant 
the first of May, and the last of September and first of October. 
Frequents slow streams or marshy pools, where, swimming grace- 
fully from one patch of floating weeds to another, it obtains 
its food. It is quite gentle and unsuspicious, and I have ap- 
proached in a boat within five yards of one without its showing 
the least concern." 

The range of the Northern Phalarope includes the northern 
portions of the northern hemisphere, breeding only in the far 
north. It winters in the tropics. It is chiefly a maritime species. 



Genus STEGANOPUS Vieillot, 

Steganoyus tricolor Vieillot. Wilson's Phalarope. 

Phalaropus lobat-us WILSON, Amer. On., IX, 1825, 72, pi. 73, fig. 3 

(nee Tringa lobata Linnaeus). 

Phalaropus wilsoni SABINE, App. Frankl. Journ., 1823, 691. 
Lobipes wilsoni AUDUBOX, Synop., 1839, 341. 
Steganopus icUsoni COUES, Ibis, April 1865, 158. 
Steganopus tricolor VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat, XXXII, 1819, 

136. 
Phalaropus tricolor STEJNEGEB, Auk, II, 1885, 183. 

A very common summer resident in the Calumet region, 
appearing about the twelfth of May and nesting almost immedi- 
ately after arriving. The sites usually selected for the nests are 
the prairies surrounding the small lakes. The birds depart for 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull. Essex Tnst., Vol. VIII, 1876, 125. 



64 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

their winter home further south early in August. The female of 
this species possesses the finest and most brilliant breeding plu- 
mage of the two sexes. The male performs nearly or quite all 
of the work of building the nest and of incubation. It is also 
Smaller than the female. The nest is a very simple affair, and is 
built with grass in a shallow depression in the ground in open 
situations where it is but slightly protected by the grass. 

The range of this species is chiefly confined to the interior 
of temperate North America. They breed from Illinois and Utah 
northward to the Saskatchewan region, and migrate southward 
in winter as far as Brazil and Patagonia. 

FAMILY RECURVIROSTRIDJE: AVOCETS AND STILTS. 
Genus RECURVIROSTRA Linnaeus, 1758. 

Recurvirostra americana Gmelin. American Avocet. 

Recurvirostra americana GMELIN, S. N., ed. 13, I, 1788, 693. 

The only record that I have found concerning the occurrence 
of this species within our limits or the immediate vicinity, is that 
of Mr. E. W. Nelson who says:* "A rare migrant. Generally 
occurs in small parties the last of April and the first of May, and 
during September and the first of October. Frequents the bor- 
ders of marshy pools." 

The range of this species includes temperate North America 
and it is much less common in the eastern than in the western 
United States. 

Genus HIMANTOPUS Brisson, 1760. 

Himantopus mexicanus (Miiller). Black-necked Stilt. 

Charadrius mexicanus MULLEB, S. N., Suppl., 1776, 117. 
Himantopus mexicanus OBD, Wilson's Orn., VII, 1824, 52. 
Himantopus nigricollis VIEILLOT, 1817. 
Popular synonyms : LONG-SHANKS. PINK-STOCKINGS. LAWYEB. STILT. 

Mr. Nelson speaks of this species as being "An exceedingly 
rare visitant." Mr. Robert Ridgway says:f "While on record 
only as a summer visitant to Illinois, the Stilt undoubtedly breeds 
in some portions of the State." 

There is really no reason why this species might not be, at 
least occasionally, found within our limits, for its range in- 
cludes the whole of temperate North America from the northern 



tThe Ornithology of Illinois, Vol. II, 1895, 76. 

*Birdg of Northeastern Illinois. Bull. Essex Inst., Vol. VIII, 1876, 124. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 65 

portion of the United States southward to the West Indies and 
the northern portion of South America. 

FAMILY SCOLOPACID^: SNIPES, SANDPIPERS, ETC. 

Genus PHILOHELA Gray, 1841. 
Philofcela minor (Gmelin). American Woodcock. 

Scolopax minor GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 661. 
Philohela minor GRAY, Genera of Birds, 1841, 90. 
Popular synonyms: BOG-SUCKEB. MUD-SNIPE. BUND SNIPE. 

Formerly a common summer resident. It is chiefly nocturnal, 
spending the daytime in the low, damp thickets or heavy growths 
of willows. In the spring it arrives from about the last of 
March to the middle of April, and departs in September. It 
nests the last of April, and its eggs are remarkably large for the 
size of the bird. Though nests and eggs of the Woodcock are 
still occasionally found within our limits, the settling of the 
country with homes and factories, and above all the selfish zeal 
of collectors and hunters are rapidly driving this interesting bird 
from our vicinity. 

Its range covers eastern North America as far west as 
Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas, and north to the British Posses- 
sions. Its breeding range is coincident with its geographical 
range. 

Genus GALUNAGO Leach, 1816. 

Gallinago delicata (Ord), Wilson's Snipe. 

Scolopax gallinago WILSON, Amer. Orn., VI, 1812, 18, pi. 47, fig. 1 

(nee Linnaeus). 

Scolopax wilsoni TEMM., PI. Col., V, 1824, livr. LXVIII (in text). 
Gallinago wilsoni BONAPABTE, 1838. 

Scolopax delicata OBD, Wilson's Orn., IX, 1825, p. ccxviii. 
Gallinago delicata RIDGWAY, in A. O. U. Check List, 1886, 148, No. 

230. 

Gallinago gallinaria (Gmelin) var. wilsoni TEMM., of some authors. 
Popular synonyms : AMERICAN SNIPE. COMMON SNIPE. ENGLISH 
SNIPE. GUTTEB SNIPE. JACK SNIPE. 

A common spring and fall migrant. There are no recent 
records of this species having nested within our limits. It is 
known to have nested not far from our area, and according to 
both Mr. E. W. Nelson* and Mr. Robert Kennicottf it was 
formerly a summer resident within our borders. Mr. M. 

*Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 326. 
tTrans. Illinois State Agri. Soc., Vol. I, 1853-1854, 587. 



66 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Savage found a nest at Grass Lake, Illinois, in May, 1901, which 
contained four eggs of this species. Mr. Nelson says:* "Mr. 
T. H. Douglas has obtained its eggs near Waukegan, and while 
there in the spring of 1876, I found several pairs during the 
breeding season, in various portions of the marsh near that 
place." The Snipes arrive within our limits about the last of 
March, the larger number leaving early in May. In the fall 
they arrive in September and remain until the ground is frozen 
over. 

The range of Wilson's Snipe includes the whole of North 
America, the West Indies and the northern part of South Amer- 
ica. It breeds north of the United States. 

Genus MACROREAMPHUS Leach, 1816. 

Macrorhamplms griseus (Gmelin). Dowitcher. 
Scolopax griseus GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 658. 

M-acrorhamphus griseus LEACH, Syst. Cat. Brit. Mam. & Birds, 1816, 31. 
Popular synonyms: GRAY SNIPE. GEAY-BACK. DOWITCH. ROBIN 
SNIPE. RED-BBEASTED JACK. RED-BBEASTED SNIPE. 

A very rare migrant. May the sixth is the earliest recorded 
spring arrival and September is the latest fall record. A few 
stragglers may be seen during July and August, principally on 
the sandy shores of our lakes and small ponds. Mr. E. W. 
Nelson says:* "Rather common migrant. Passes north, often 
in large flocks, in May and returns the first of August, and 
lingers in small numbers about muddy pools until well into 
October. Quite unsuspicious while feeding and will allow a 
near approach." Mr. Robert Ridgway says :f "It is apparently 
more abundant along the Atlantic coast than in the interior, but 
its presence in Illinois is attested by specimens in the National 
Museum collection, received from Mr. H. K. Coale, and collected 
by him near Chicago." I have the following records of the 
capture of this rare bird: 

Frank M. Woodruff, at Liverpool, Indiana, September 2, 
1892. 

Frank M. Woodruff, at South Chicago, May 6, 1893. 

J. Grafton Parker, Jr., at Grand Crossing, July 19, 1893. 

The range of the Dowitcher covers eastern North America, 
breeding in the far north. South in winter to the West Indies 
and Brazil. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 126. 
tBirds of Illinois, Vol. II, pt. i, 1895, 39. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 67 

Macrorhamphus scolopaceus (Say). Long-billed Dowitcher. 
Limosa scolopacea SAY, Long's Exp., II, 1823, 170. 
Macrorhamphus scolopaceus LAWB., Ann. Lye. N. Y., V, 1852, 4, pi. 1. 
Popular synonyms : GREATER LONG-BEAK. ROBIN SNIPE. 

A very rare migrant. The only record which I have of the 

occurrence of this species within our limits, is that of two 

females in full breeding plumage. These I took at South 

Chicago, May 6, 1893, and they are in the museum of The 

' Chicago Academy of Sciences. 

While the range of the species includes North America in 
general, it is chiefly confined to that portion of the continent 
west of the Mississippi River. It breeds in the far north and 
migrates south in the winter to South America and the West 
Indies. 

Genus MICROPALAMA Baird, 1858. 

i 

Micropalama himantopus (Bonaparte). Stilt Sandpiper. 

Tringa himantopus BONAPARTE, Ann. Lye. N. Y., II, 1826, 157. 
Micropalama himantopus BAIRD, Birds N. Amer., 1858, 726. 
Tringa douglasii Sw. & RICH., Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 1831, 379, pi. 66. 
Popular synonyms : LONG-LEGGED SANDPIPER. FROST SNIPE. 

A rare spring migrant and often a common fall visitant. Not 
infrequently this species is not detected, as the young in fall plum- 
age closely resemble the young of the yellow-legs (Tot anus 
flai'ipes). Mr. J. Grafton Parker, Jr., has in his collection an 
adult female taken from a flock of four at Grand Crossing, Chi- 
cago, on July 25, 1893. I also have -the following records for the 
capture of this bird within our limits : 

Frank M. Woodruff at South Chicago on June 6, 1890. 

J. Grafton Parker, Jr., at Grand Crossing on August 7, 1893. 

Frank M. Woodruff at Grand Crossing on September 23, 1893. 

Mr. E. W. Nelson says:* "Of rare occurrence. The eighth 
of August, 1873, I saw a single specimen near the Lake shore in 
Chicago, and the tenth of September the same year, Mr. R. P. 
Clarke obtained a specimen at the same place." 

The range of the Stilt Sandpiper includes the eastern portion 
of North America, breeding north of the United States, and mi- 
grating in winter south through Central America and quite far 
south in South America. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull. Essex Inst., Vol. VIII, 1876, 126. 



68 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Genus TRINCrA Linnaeus, 1758. 
Tringa canutus Linnaeus. Knot. 

Tringa canutus LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 149. 
Tringa cinerea BRUNN., Orn. Bor., 1764, 53. 

Popular synonyms: ROBIN SNIPE. RED-BREAST. GRAY-BACK. KNOT 
SANDPIPER. 

A rare fall visitant. The only records I have of the taking of 
this species within our limits, are as follows: One specimen 
taken August 24, 1896 and four taken August 21, 1897, at Mil- 
lers, Indiana ; and eight taken by Mr. Charles Brandler at Wolf 
Lake, Indiana, in August, 1897. For some time, I have seen, 
them each year throughout the month of August at Millers, 
Indiana. Mr. E. W. Nelson says:* "It is not a common but a 
regular migrant, passing north during May. It returns early in 
September and remains until October. I have never observed it 
away from the vicinity of the Lake shore, where it is generally 
found in company with one or two others of the same family." 

The range of the Knot covers the northern hemispheres, 
though it occasionally visits the southern hemisphere during its 
migrations. 

Genus AEQUATELLA Baird, 1858. 
Arqnatella maritima (Briinn.). Purple Sandpiper. 

Tringa maritima BRUNN., Orn. Bor., 1764, 54. 

Arquatella maritima COUES, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1861, 
183. 

Popular synonym : ROCK SNIPE. 

A very rare migrant. In its migrations, it probably will ap- 
pear in our vicinity at about the same time as the Knot. The only 
record I have of the appearance of this bird within our limits, is 
that of Mr. E. W. Nelson ,who says if "A fine adult male ob- 
tained on the Lake shore, near Chicago, November 7th, 1871, is 
in the collection of Dr. J. W. Velie. When first seen it was in 
company with a flock of sanderlings. This is the only instance 
of the occurrence of this species of which I have learned." 

Its range includes the northeastern portions of North Amer- 
ica, breeding very far north and migrating in winter to the mid- 
dle states, the Great Lakes and the larger rivers of the Mississippi 
Valley. 

Genus ACTODEOMAS Kaup, 1829. 

Actodromas maculata (Vieillot). Pectoral Sandpiper. 

Tringa maculata VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XXXIV, 1819, 
465. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 126. 
tBirds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 128. 



THE NATURAL. HISTORY SURVEY. 69 

Actodromas maculata COUES, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1861, 

197, 230. 

Tringa pectoralis SAY, Long's Exp. I, 1823. 171. 
Popular synonyms : JACK SNIPE. GRASS SNIPE. MABSH PLOVEB. 

MEADOW SNIPE. MAY PLOVEB. SAND SNIPE. CBEAKEB. 

An abundant migrant. During its season with us, it may be 
found on all of our lakes and sloughs and on plowed fields. Its 
season in our vicinity is from the first of April to the middle of 
May, and from the last of July until late in October. 

This Sandpiper has an extensive range covering the whole 
of North America and the greater part of South America. It 
breeds in the Arctic regions. 

Actodromas fuscicollis (Vieillot). White-rumped Sandpiper. 

Tringa fuscicollis VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XXXIV, 1819, 

461. 

Tringa scliinzii BONAPABTE. Synop., 1828, 249. 
Tringa lonapartei SCHLEG., Rev. Crit. Ois. Europe, 1844, 89. 
Actodromas fuscicollis BONAPABTE, Comptes Rendus, XLIII, 1856, 596. 
Popular synonyms : WHITE- TAILED STILT. BONAPABTE'S SANDPIPEB. 

A very rare migrant. There seem to be no records of the oc- 
currence of this species within our limits excepting that of Mr. 
E. W. Nelson, who says:* "Dr. Hoy writes 'that it was formerly 
abundant during the migrations but is now rare' (at Racine). 
June Qth, 1876, I obtained one specimen and saw quite a number 
of others upon the Lake shore near Waukegan. Mr. R. P. Clarke 
informs me that he has taken it late in autumn upon the Lake- 
shore near Chicago." These records and the fact that I have 
taken it at Meredosia, Illinois, would indicate beyond a doubt the 
possibility of its passing through our area during its migrations. 

This species breeds in the -far north, and its geographical 
range includes eastern North America, south in winter to the 
West Indies, Central and South America. 

Actodromas bairdii Cones. Baird's Sandpiper. 

Actodromas lairdii COUES, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1861, 

194. 
Tringa lairdii SCL., P. Z. S. 1867, 332. 

A rare migrant, visiting us in August or September in com- 
pany with other maritime species. In 1876, Mr. E. W. Nelson 
published the following report:* "A rather uncommon migrant 
during the middle of May, and the last of August and first of 
September. It is generally found in small parties or singly, with 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 127. 



7O THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

other species of sandpipers, but it sometimes occurs in large 
flocks." I have the following records for the taking of this spe- 
cies within our limits: 

Mr. J. Grafton Parker, Jr., at Grand Crossing, on August 22, 
1893. 

Frank M. Woodruff, at Millers, Indiana, on August 24, 1896. 

The range of this species includes nearly the whole of both 
North and South America, but chiefly the interior of North and 
the western portion of South America as far south as Chili 
and Patagonia. It breeds in the far north. 

Actodromas minutilla (Vieillot). Least Sandpiper. 

Tringa minutilla VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XXXIV, 1819, 

466. 
Actodromas minutilla COUES, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1861, 

191. 
Tringa pusilla WILSON, Amer. Orn., V, 1813, 32, pi. 37, f. 4 (nee 

Linnaeus). 

Tringa wilsonii NUTTALL, Man., II, 1834, 121. 
Popular synonyms : SAND SNIPE. PEEP. WILSON'S SANDPIPER. 

BUMBLEBEE. 

An abundant migrant, arriving early in April and returning 
again in the fall in August or September. I have no records of 
the Least Sandpipers having nests within our limits excepting 
that of Mr. E. W. Nelson, who says:* "The fifth of June, 1875, 
I found one of these birds building its nest near the Calumet 
River. When first observed it was busily at work in the midst of 
a small bunch of grass, but upon my approach it ran a few feet 
to one side and watched my movements. The nest was nearly 
finished, and was a shallow depression in the center of a tuft of 
grass, formed by the bird, which had just commenced lining it 
with small straws. Unfortunately work was not resumed upon 
the nest after my visit, but the birds were noticed several times in 
the vicinity, and they probably had a nest in some safer spot. 
Several Least Sandpipers were observed near Waukegan the first 
of July, 1875, by Mr. Rice, who is certain they had nested in the 
vicinity.." 

The range of the Least Sandpiper includes the whole of North 
and South America, and it breeds chiefly north of the United 
States. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 127. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 71 

Genus PELTDNA Cuvier, 1817. 

Pelidna alpina sakhalina (Vieillot). Bed-backed Sandpiper. 

Tringa alpina WILSON, Amer. Orn., VII, 1813, 25, pi. 56, fig. 2 (nee 

Linnaeus). 
Scolopax sakhalina VIEILLOT. Xouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Ill, 1816, 359, 

(cf. Buturlin, Auk, XXI, 1904, 53). 
Tringa alpina var. americana CASS., in Baird's Birds N. Amer., 1858, 

719. 

Pelidna alpina americana RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1881, 200. 
Pelidna pacifica COUES, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1861, 189. 
Pelidna alpina pacifica STEJNEGEE, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., VIII, 1885, 

120. 

Pelidna alpina pacifica RIDGWAY, in A. O. U. Check List, 1886, No. 143a. 
Popular synonyms: RED-BACKED SNIPE. DUNLIN. 

A common spring and fall migrant. It is usually seen along 
the sandy shores of the small lakes and pools of our area. The 
earliest spring arrival, in my records, is the seventeenth of May, 
and the latest fall record the twentieth of October. 

Its range covers North America in general, breeding far 
north. 

Genus EREUNETES Illiger, 1811. 

Ereunetes pusillus (Linnaeus). Semipalmated Sandpiper. 
Tringa pusilla LIXN^US, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 252. 
Tringa semipalmata WILSON, Amer. Orn., VII, 1813, 131, pi. 63, fig. 3. 
Ereunetes pusillus CASS., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, XIII, 

3860, 195. 
Popular synonyms : PEEP. SAND SNIPE. OX-EYE. 

A common migrant, occurring in about equal numbers with. 
'Actodromas minntilla. Its spring and fall occurrence within our 
limits is at about the same time as that of the Red-backed Sand- 
piper. Mr. E. W. Nelson gives the following note:* "Very 
abundant migrant and may remain through the summer. From 
repeated dissections I am confident these are barren birds and, 
as Mr. Maynard suggests, probably young of the preceding year." 

This species breeds in the far north and its range covers at 
least the whole of eastern North America, migrating southward 
in winter to the West Indies, Central America and South America. 

Genus CAUDRIS Cuvier, 1799-1800. 

Calidris arenaria (Linnaeus). Sanderling. 

Tringa arenaria LINN.EUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 251. 

Calidris arenaria LEACH, Syst. Cat. Brit. Mam. & Birds, 1816, 28. 

Popular synonym: WHITE SNIPE. 



*BulI. Essex Inst., Vol. Till, p. 126, 1876. 



72 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

This is a rather common species with us through the months 
of August, September and October, when it may be seen along 
the shore of Lake Michigan. About one-third of the specimens 
which I have taken at Millers, Indiana, were in their breeding 
plumage. Mr. E. W. Nelson says:* "Arrives in full breeding 
plumage which varies greatly with individuals about the twen- 
tieth of May, and is found in flocks, numbering from five to 
seventy-five, along the shore, until June tenth. Returns the first 
of August, still wearing its breeding dress, which is changed the 
last of the month for the duller garb of winter." 

This species is nearly cosmopolitan in its range, breeding 
only in the Arctic and Subarctic districts. In America, it mi- 
grates southward to Chili and Patagonia. 

Genus LIMOSA Brisson, 1760. 

Limosa hamastica (LinnaBus). Hudsonian Godwit. 

Scolopax hcemastica LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 147. 
Limosa hcemastica COUES, Birds Northwest, 1874, 760. 
Scolopax hudsonica LATHAM, Ind. Orn., II, 1790, 720. 
Limosa hudsonica Sw. & RICH., Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 1831, 396. 

A rare migrant. I have observed this bird but once in Cook 
County. I took a fine pair in June, 1892, at Grass Lake, 
Illinois. This species, as well as others of our large waders, 
has become very scarce within our limits. On September 15, 
1898, a fine male adult was taken at Wolf Lake, Indiana, by 
Mr. Charles Brandler. Mr. E. W. Nelson says, regarding the 
frequency of the occurrence of this species in our vicinity during 
earlier years : "Not very rare during migrations. April fifteenth 
to May tenth, and September to the first of October. More 
common along the water courses in the western part of the 
state." 

This Godwit breeds in the far north, and its range covers 
eastern North America and the whole of Central and South 
America. 

Genus TOTANUS Beehstein, 1803. 

Tetanus melanoleucns (Gmelin). Greater Yellow-legs. 

Scolopax melanoleuca GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 659. 
Totanus melanoleucus VIELLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., VI, 1816, 398. 
Popular synonyms. STONE SNIPE. TELL-TALE. YELPER. BIG YELLOW- 
LEGS. ENGLISH SNIPE. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 128. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 73 

A common migrant. I have observed stragglers early in May, 
and some years as late as the last of July but I have never 
seen them throughout the months of May and June, neither have 
I been able to find any observer who has done so within recent 
years. I should consider the nesting of this species in our re- 
gion of equally rare occurrence with that of Wilson's Snipe 
(Gallinago delicata). Mr. E. W-. Nelson says :* "Arrives about 
the middle of April, the larger portion passing north early in 
May. Returns September first and remains until the last of 
October. In June, 1875, I found several pairs of these birds 
about the Calumet Marshes, where, from their actions, I was 
certain they were breeding, but was not fortunate enough to find 
their nests. The tenth of June, 1876, Mr. Rice observed a pair 
about a prairie slough near Eyanston. A few days later a set 
of four eggs were brought him from a similar situation a few 
miles northwest of that place, and from the description of the 
parent bird driven from the nest he decided thev must belong 
to this species. I perfectly agree with Mr. Rice's decision, for 
the prominent characteristics noticed by the collector are ob- 
viously applicable to this bird." 

The range of this species covers America in general, breeding 
only in the cold-temperate and subarctic regions of the northern 
continent. It is known to have nested as far south as northern 
Iowa and Illinois. It winters as far south as Chili and the 
Argentine Republic. 

Tetanus flavipes (Gmelin). Yellow-legs. 

Scolopax flavipes GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 659. 
Totanus flavipes VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., VI, 1816, 410. 
Popular synonyms: LESSER or LITTLE YELLOW-LEGS. LESSEE TELL- 
TALE. 

A common migrant. This species is essentially a miniature 
of the Greater Yellow-legs, but it occurs in greater numbers 
within our limits, and it is also more gregarious, frequently being 
found in quite large flocks. This species passes through our 
region on the way to its breeding grounds about the first of 
April, and returning in July it remains with us until the latter 
part of September. I have no records of its breeding within 
our limits. Mr. E. W. Nelson saysrf "A few breed. I ob- 
tained the young, barely able to fly, near a prairie slough the 
first of July, 1874, a few miles from Chicago, and have since 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 128. 
tBirds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 129. 



74 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

observed several pairs during the breeding season about the 
Calumet Marshes." 

While the range of this species includes the whole of 
America, it is much more common in eastern than in western 
North America. It breeds in the cold temperate and subarctic 
regions of the northern continent, and winters as far south as 
the southern portion of South America. 

Genus HELODROMAS Kaup, 1829. 

Helodromas solitarius (Wilson). Solitary Sandpiper. 

Tringa solitaria WILSON, Amer. Orn., VII, 1813, 53, pi. Iviii, fig. 3. 
Totanus solitarius BONAPARTE, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, V, 

1825, 86. 

Totanus chloropygius VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., VI, 1816, 40. 
Rhyacophikis solitarius CASS., in Baird's Birds N. Amer., 1858, 733. 
Helodromas solitarius SHABPE, Cat. Bds. B. M., XXIV, 1896, 444. 
Popular synonyms: PEET-WEET. WOOD SNIPE. TIP-UP. TATTLES. 
POND TILTUP. TEETER. SOLITARY TATTLER. 

A common migrant. I feel quite certain that a number may 
nest within our limits for I have observed adults in Cook County 
throughout the summer. I can find no records which show 
that the eggs of this species have ever been taken within our 
area. The Solitary Sandpipers arrive early in April, the ma- 
jority soon passing farther north. In the fall, they leave our 
vicinity in September. Mr. E. W. Nelson says:* "I have 
several times taken young of this species just able to fly, and 
have observed the adults throughout the breeding season. I do 
not think there is the slightest doubt of its breeding in this 
vicinity." 

The range of the Solitary Sandpiper covers the whole of 
North and Central America and a large portion of South Amer- 
ica; it at least migrates as far south as the Argentine Republic. 
It breeds chiefly north of the United States. 

Gtenus SYMPHEMIA Rafinesque, 1819. 

Symphemia semipalmata i'nornata Brewster. Western Willet. 

Symphemia semipalmata inornata BREWSTER, Auk, IV, April, 1887, 145. 
Totanus semipalmatus TEMM. (in part) of some authors. 
Symphemia semipalmata GMELIN (in part) of some authors. 

A quite common migrant along the lake shore from the first 
of August to the fifteenth of September. Occasionally this 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 129. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 75 

species is also seen late in April or early in May, but at that time 
they are very shy. The fall birds being the young of the year 
are usually quite tame. Nearly all the records of the occurrence 
of this species in our vicinity have been published under the 
specific name Semipalmata. It is probable that all of these 
records referred to the subspecies inornata. 

The range of this species includes western North America, 
eastward to the Mississippi Valley and the Gulf States. It 
winters in the southern states and Mexico. 

Genus BARTRAMIA Lesson, 1831. 

Bartramia longicauda (Bechstein). Bartramian Sandpiper. 

Tringa longicauda BECHSTEIN, Uebers. Lath. Ind. Orn., II, 1812, 453. 
Tringa bartramia WILSON, Amer. Orn., VII, 1813, 63, pi. 59, fig. 2. 
Totanus lartramius TEMM. 1S20. 
Actiturus bartramius BONAPARTE, 1831. 

Bartramius longicaudus BONAPABTE, Rev. et. Mag. Zool., XX, 1857, 59. 
Bartramia longicauda COUES, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, April, 1880, 100. 
Popular synonyms : FIELD OB PBAIBIE PLOVEB. BABTBAMIAN TAT- 
TLES. UPLAND PLOVEB. 

A common summer resident, arriving early in April and 
nesting from the last of April to the middle of May. It leaves 
our vicinity about the last of October. It frequents the borders 
of sloughs, marshes and prairies. Mr. E. W. Nelson has pub- 
lished the following note :* "Quite difficult to approach when it 
first arrives, but during the breeding season becomes perfectly 
reckless, and hovers over head or follows through the grass 
within a few yards until it has escorted the intruder well off its 
domain. The presence of a dog in the vicinity of its nesting 
place is the signal for a general onslaught by all the birds of the 
vicinity, which hover over the dog, and with loud cries endeavor 
to drive it away. Being but little appreciated as game it is 
seldom hunted in this vicinity." 

The range of this species includes North America but chiefly 
east of the Rocky Mountains. It breeds nearly throughout its 
North American range and winters as far southward as Brazil 
and Peru. 

Genus TRYNGITES Cabanis, 1856. 
Tryngites snbruficollis (Vieillot). Buff-breasted Sandpiper. 

Tringa subruficollis VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XXXIV, 1819, 
465. 



Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876. 12ft 



76 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Tringa rufescens VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XXXIV, 1819, 470. 

Tryngites rufescens CABANIS, J. f. O., 1856, 418. 

Tryngites sulruficollis RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., VIII, 1885, 356. 

A very rare migrant. I have been able to find but three 
records of its occurrence within our limits. Mr. Henry K. Coale 
captured a specimen in September, 1873, at Chicago. In April, 
1890, I obtained an adult in breeding plumage which was flying 
with a large flock of Golden Plover (Charadrius dominicus) at 
Worth, Illinois. Mr. E. W. Nelson says :* "Very rare migrant. 
A specimen is in the collection of Mr. R. P. Clarke, obtained 
upon the Lake shore, at Chicago, September 4th, 1873." There 
is an interesting notation regarding the frequency of this species 
in Dr. P. R. Hoy's "Notes on the Ornithology of Wisconsin."! 
With a few exceptions, these notes were based on personal ob- 
servations made by Dr. Hoy within fifteen miles of Racine, Wis- 
consin. Racine is but a few miles north of the northern bound- 
ary of our limits. He speaks of the Buff-breasted Sandpiper as 
"Quite common from September I5th to October loth. Never 
met in the spring." I am sure that there must be some mistake 
in Dr. Hoy's record. Even in 1876, not many years after Dr. 
Hoy's observations were made, Mr. Nelson was unable to con- 
firm the report and stated that he thought an error had been 
made in the record. 

The range of this Sandpiper covers North America though 
it is more common in the interior. It breeds chiefly in the in- 
terior of British America and in the Yukon district. In winter 
it passes through South America as far as Uruguay and Peru. 

Genus ACTITIS Illiger, 1811. 

Actitis macularia (Linnaeus). Spotted Sandpiper. 

Tringa macularia LINN^US, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 249. 
Totanus macularius TEMM. 1815. 

Actitis macularia NAUMANN, Vog. Deutschl., VIII, 1836, 34. 
Tringoides macularius GRAY, 1849. 

Popular synonyms : SAND SNIPE. RIVER SNIPE. PEET-WEET. TIP- 
UP. SAND LARK. 

A very common summer resident and most abundant along 
the lake shore, where it nests on the drift or under small bushes 
growing on the sand dunes. This species also nests in thin 
tufts of grass, and not infrequently the eggs are so exposed that 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 130. 
tTrans. Wise. State Agri. Soc., Vol. II, 1852, 360. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 77 

they may be seen at a distance of several feet. These Sand- 
pipers arrive late in April and after nesting depart for their 
winter home about the last of September. 

The range of the Spotted Sandpiper is extensive, covering 
the whole of North America and South America as far as the 
northern portion of Brazil. It breeds throughout temperate 
North America. 

Genus NUMENIUS Brisson, 1760. 

Numenius longirostris Wilson. Long-billed Curlew. 

Numenius longirostris WILSON, Ainer. Orn., VIII, 1814, 24, pi. 64, 

fig. 4. 

Popular synonyms: SICKLE-BILL. BIG CURLEW. SICKLE-BILL SNIPE 
or CURLEW. 

A very rare migrant. Mr. J. Grafton Parker, Jr., informs 
me that he once observed a pair of these Curlews on the beach of 
Lake Michigan near Woodlawn Park, Chicago. Mr. E. W. 
Nelson says:* "Formerly very abundant during the migra- 
tions, and a common summer resident. Now (1876) rather un- 
common in the migrations and a very rare summer resident. 
A pair nested on the Calumet Marshes the spring of 1873. More 
numerous on the large marshes in Central Illinois. Arrives the 
last of April and departs in October." Mr. Robert Ridgway 
saysif "Transient in most localities. Formerly bred through- 
out the state, in suitable localities, and still does so in the central 
and northern districts. Occasionally winters in the extreme 
southern counties." 

The range of the Long-billed Curlew includes temperate 
North America in winter south to Guatemala and Cuba. It 
breeds quite throughout its North America range, but chiefly 
in the south Atlantic states. 

Numenius hudsonicus Lath. Hudsonian Curlew. 

\umcnius hudsonicus LATH., Ind. Orn., II, 1790, 712. 
Xumenius intcnncdius XUTTALL, Man., II, 1834, 100. 
Popular synonyms: SHORT-BILLED CURLEW. JACK CURLEW. 

A very rare or occasional migrant. A fine specimen of this 
species was sent to me for identification by Mr. R. A. Turtle, 
who shot the bird at Calumet Heights, Indiana, on August 3, 
1902. I have seen this species in great numbers on Galveston 
Island in the spring and fall. In 1876, Mr. E. W. Nelson re- 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VTII, 1876, 130. 
tBevised Cat. of the Birds Ascertained to Occur in Illinois, 1881, 196. 



78 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

ported the Hudsonian Curlew to be a "very rare migrant," and 
appearing with the Long-billed Curlew.* Mr. Robert Ridgway 
reports this species as much rarer in Illinois than the long-billed 
species, and says, it "never remains - within the State during the 
breeding season."f 

Its range includes the whole of both North and South 
America and the West Indies. It breeds very far north and 
winters chiefly south of the United States. 

Numenius borealis Forster. Eskimo Curlew. 

Scolopax borealis FORSTER, Phil. Trans., LXII, 1772, 411, 431. 
Numenius borealis LATH., Ind. Orn., II, 1790, 712. 
Popular synonyms: LITTLE CURLEW. DOUGH-BIRD. 

As shown by records, this species was formerly a common 
migrant, but at the present time it is certainly a very rare migrant. 
Mr. Robert Kennicott, in his "Catalogue of Animals observed in 
Cook County, Illinois," || reports the Eskimo Curlew simply with 
the notation "common." This note, however, becomes of little 
value, for Mr. Kennicott lists the bird under the common name 
"Esquimaux Curlew" and gives the scientific name "Numenius 
Hudsonicus" I am not aware that hudsonicus has ever been 
called Eskimo (or Esquimaux) Curlew, though the two species 
have been somewhat mixed by earlier writers. 

Its range extends over the whole of eastern North America, 
breeding in the Arctic regions and in its migrations reaching 
the southern extremity of South America. 

FAMILY CHARADRIIDJE: PLOVERS. 
Genus SQUATAROLA Cuvier, 1817. 

Squatarola squatarola (Linnaeus). Black-bellied Plover. 

Tringa squatarola LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 149. 
Tringa helvetica LINN^US, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 250. 
Squatarola squatarola CUVIER, R&gne Anim., I, 1817, 467. 
Charadrius squatarola NAUM., Vog. Deutschl., VII, 1834, 250. 
Charadrius helveticus LIGHT. NUTTALL, Man., II, 1834, 26. 
Squatarola helvetica "CuviER," of several authors. 
Popular synonyms: BEETLE-HEAD. BULL-HEAD. OX-EYE. BOTTLE- 
HEAD. BLACK-BREAST, etc. 

This fine bird is now a quite rare migrant. I have always 
found it in company with other maritime species. I have 
taken an adult specimen in full breeding plumage in August, 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 130. 
tBirds of Illinois, Vol. II, pt. 1, 1895. 72. 
HTrans. Illinois State Agri. Soc., Vol. 1, 1853-1854, 588. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 79 

which is a rather unusual occurrence. Mr. E. W. Nelson says :* 
"Not uncommon during the migrations. Arrives in full breeding 
plumage the last of May and after lingering a few days the 
majority pass north. A few remain during the summer and un- 
doubtedly breed. Returning early in September in fall plumage, 
they remain until well into October. While with us in the mi- 
grations this species is generally solitary, sometimes a half dozen 
individuals joining company, or a single specimen will be found 
leading a miscellaneous company of sandpipers and small 
plovers." 

While the Black-bellied Plover is nearly cosmopolitan in its 
distribution, it is chiefly confined to the northern hemisphere 
and breeds in the far north. In winter, in America, it migrates 
as far southward as the West Indies, Brazil and Colombia. 

Genus CHARADRIUS Linnaeus, 1758. 

Charadrius dominicus Muller. American Golden Plover. 

Charadrius dominicus MULLEB, Syst. Nat. Suppl., 1776, 116. 
Charadrius pluvialis WILSON, Amer. Orn., VII, 1813, 71 (nee Linnseus). 
Charadrius mannoratus WAGL., Syst. Av., 1827, No. 42. 
Charadrius fulvus var. virginicus COUES, Key, 1872, 243. 
Popular synonyms: GREEN PLOVEB. BULL-HEAD. PBAIBIE PIGEON. 

A common migrant. The Golden Plovers are rarely seen 
in their full breeding plumage unless taken in May. They arrive 
within our limits about the middle of April and remain, frequent- 
ing the wet prairies, during the remainder of the month, when the 
majority pass on to their northern breeding grounds, a few stay- 
ing with us during the first week in May. They return to us the 
last of August and remain until some time in October. 

The range of this species includes both North and South 
America; breeding in Arctic regions it migrates southward to 
Patagonia. 

Genus OXYECHUS Keichenbach, 1853. 

Oxyechns vociferus (Linnsus). Killdeer. 

Charadrius vociferus LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 150. 
jEgialitis vociferus BONAPARTE. Geog. & Comp. List, 1838, 45. 
Oxyechus vociferus REICHENBACH, Syst. Av., 1853, XVIII. 
sEgialitis vocifcra Amer. Orn. Union Check List, 1895, No. 273. 
Popular synonyms: KILL-DEE. KILLDEEB PLOVEB. TELL-TALE. 

A common summer resident, arriving from the last of March 
to the last of April and remaining with us until the cold weather 

*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 122. 



8O THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

sets in. Occasional stragglers may be seen during a period of 
warm days in the winter. 

Its range includes the whole of temperate North America, 
south in winter to Central America and northern South America. 

Genus ^GIALITIS Boie, 1822. 

^Egialitis semipalmata (Bonaparte). Semipalmated Plover. 

Charadrius semipalmatus BONAPABTE, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, V, 1825, 98. 

JEgialltes semipalmatus BONAPABTE, Geog. & Comp. List, 1838, 45. 

Popular synonyms : AMERICAN RING PLOVER. RING-NECK. BEACH 
BIRD. 

A common migrant. On their northward migration, these 
Plovers pass our vicinity early in May, though a few may straggle 
along until the end of the month. They return to us again the 
latter part of July and remain until the latter part of October. 
Mr. E. W. Nelson says :* "The second of July, 1873, I obtained 
several specimens of this species near Chicago. From the condi- 
tion of the abdomen and ovaries of one specimen, and the pres- 
ence of several recently fledged young, I came to the conclusion 
that they had nested in the vicinity. It is barely possible, how- 
ever, that these birds were unusually early arrivals from more 
northern breeding grounds, although the arrivals from the north 
generally begin about the last of the month. My suspicions that 
the species either breeds in this state, or at no far distant point, 
were strengthened the following season when several females ex- 
amined the last day of May contained eggs which would have 
been deposited within a short time." The following record is of 
some value as indicative of the possibility of this species nesting 
not very far from our area. Mr. Frank C. Baker, Curator of the 
Academy, and myself observed a flock of eight adults at Worth, 
Illinois, June 20, 1894. 

The range of this species may be given as North America 
in general, breeding in Arctic and subarctic regions and migra- 
ting in winter through the tropical countries to Brazil and Peru. 

^Jgialitis meloda (Ord). Piping Plover. 

Charadrius melodus ORD, ed. Wils., VII, 1824, p. 71. 
JEgialites melodus BONAPARTE, Geog. & Comp. List, 1838, p. 45. 
JEgialitis melodus var. circumcinctus RIDGWAY, Amer. Nat., VIII, Feb. 

1874, 109. 
Popular synonyms: RINGED PIPING PLOVER. WHITE RING-NECK. 

WESTERN PIPING PLOVER. BELTED PIPING PLOVER. 



'Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 123. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 8l 

This species was formerly a common but is now a rare sum- 
mer resident. On the first of August, 1897, while collecting 
along the shore of Lake Michigan at Millers, Indiana, I was so 
fortunate as to obtain adults and young in down of this bird. 
On the thirteenth of June, 1902, I obtained a set of four eggs 
and the parent birds at Millers, Indiana. (See plate VII.) 
These are now on exhibition as a group in the Museum of The 
Chicago Academy of Sciences. At the time of writing, June 
10, 1904, I know of two pairs of these Plovers which are breed- 
ing within our limits, having located their nests and eggs. I do 
not doubt that there are other pairs nesting in the same vicinity, 
and I sincerely hope that the nests and eggs of these rare resi- 
dents of our area may never be found by unscrupulous collec- 
tors. That this Plover was much more common some years 
ago is well shown by the following statement of Mr. E. W. 
Nelson.* "Very common summer residents along the Lake Shore, 
breeding on the flat, pebbly beach between the sand dunes and 
shore. Arrives the middle of April and proceeds at once to 
breeding." At Waukegan, a few miles north of our limits, he 
found evidences of their breeding as early as the twenty-fourth 
of April. He also adds: "Some thirty pairs were breeding 
along the beach at this place, within a space of two miles, and I 
afterwards found the birds as numerous at several points along 
the shore. Every effort was made to discover their nests with- 
out success, although the birds were continually circling about 
or standing at a short distance uttering an occasional note o 
alarm. The first of July, the year previous, Dr. Velie obtained 
young but a very few days old, at this same locality, showing 
that there is considerable variation in the time of breeding. This 
was also shown by specimens obtained the last of May, and 
which 1 think were later arrivals than those found breeding in 
April, having the ova just approaching maturity." 

This species ranges over eastern North America west to the 
Mississippi Valley and the adjacent portions of the interior of 
North America. It breeds from Illinois and Virginia north- 
ward to Lake Winnipeg and Newfoundland. It winters in the 
West Indies. According to Mr. Allen, the race circumcincta 
(Belted Piping Plover) is not now recognized. 



fc Blrds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 123. 



82 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

FAMILY APHRIZIDJE: SURF BIRDS AND TURNSTONES. 
Genus ARENABJA Brisson, 1760. 

Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus). Turnstone. 

Tringa interpres LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 148. 

Strepsilas interpres ILLIGEB, Prodr-., 1811, 263. 

Arenaria interpres VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist.. Nat., XXIV, 1819, 345. 

Popular synonyms: CALICO-BACK. BRANT BIBD. 

A rare migrant which may be looked for from June to about 
the middle of September. It is almost invariably found in com- 
pany with other maritime species along the sandy shores of 
Lake Michigan and of our smaller lakes. I have on several 
occasions seen adult birds in full breeding plumage. One taken 
at Millers, Indiana, on the eighth of August, 1897, was in ex- 
ceptionably rich plumage. Regarding this species, Mr. E. W. 
Nelson wrote* in 1876 that it was a "common migrant along 
Lake Michigan. Arrives May I5th in full breeding plumage 
and is found until the first week in June. Returns early in 
August, still in breeding plumage, which is exchanged for that 
of winter during the last of the month. Departs about the 
twentieth of September." 

ORDER GALLING: GALLINACEOUS 
BIRDS. 

FAMILY TETRAONIM]: GROUSE, PARTRIDGES, ETC. 
Genus COLINUS Goldfuss, 1820. 

Colinus virginianus (LinnsBus). Bob-white. 

Tetrao virginianus LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 161. 
Perdix virginiana LATH., Ind. Orn., II, 1790, 650. 
Ortyx virginianus JABD., Nat. Lib. Birds, IV, 101, pi. 10. 
Colinus viginianus STEJNEGEB, Auk, II, Jan. 1885, 45. 
Popular synonyms: QUAIL. PAETEIDGE. AMEBICAN QUAIL. VEB- 
GINIA QUAIL. 

Formerly the Bob-white was an abundant resident within 
our limits, but it is now rare in this vicinity excepting possibly 
the northern portion of Lake County, Illinois. It is to be re- 
gretted that this valuable bird, which devours innumerable insect 
pests and is so easily fostered, should have been driven from 
this locality, chiefly by unscrupulous hunters but also by severe 
winters in earlier years. 

The range of the Bob-white covers eastern North America 
from Ontario to the Gulf of Mexico and westward to the Great 



"Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute,. Vol. VIII, 1876, 123. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 83 

Plains. Of late years the range has been gradually extended 
westward along the lines of railroads, and it has been introduced 
into many of the western states, including California, Oregon 
and Washington. 

Genus BONASA Stephens, 1819. 

Bonasa umbellus (Linnaeus). Buffed Grouse. 

Tetrao umbellus LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 275. 
Bonasa umbellus STEPHENS, Gen. Zool., XI, 1819, 300. 
Popular synonyms: PABTBIDGE. RUFFLED GROUSE. PHEASANT. 
DRUMMING GBOUSE. 

In 1876, when Mr. E. W. Nelson prepared his report* on 
the Birds of Northeastern Illinois, and for many years thereafter, 
this species was a common resident, frequenting the timbered 
sections of our area. They are still occasionally met with in 
Lake County, Indiana. Major Bendire quotes the following 
observations of Mr. Manly Hardy, of Brewer, Maine, as a 
reliable description of the method of drumming of the Ruffed 
Grouse: "The cock Grouse usually selects a mossy log, near 
some open hedge, clearing or wood-road, and, partly screened 
by bushes, where he can see and not be seen. When about to 
drum, he erects his neck feathers, spreads his tail, and, with 
drooping wings, steps with a jerking motion along the log some 
distance each way from his drumming place, walking back and 
forth several times, and looking sharply in every direction ; then, 
standing crosswise, he stretches himself to his fullest height, 
and delivers the blows with his wings fully upon his sides, his 
wings being several inches clear from the log. After drumming, 
he settles quietly down into a sitting posture and remains, silently 
listening for five or ten minutes, when, if no cause of alarm is 
discovered, he repeats the process." 

In 1886, while collecting on the summit of the Alleghanies 
near Eagle rock, five miles from Deer Park, Maryland, I flushed 
a whip-poor-will at the base of a large fallen log which was 
almost entirely hidden from sight among the rhododendron 
bushes. As I was examining the nest of the whip-poor-will, it 
was my good fortune to hear the soft call of a hen Ruffed 
Grouse and then a note which I did not recognize as the drum- 
ming of the male, as it was softer and seemed quite unlike the 
sound of the drumming when heard at a distance. I remained 

*Bull. of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 121. 



84 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

perfectly quiet and the bird soon appeared with a slow measured 
step, with its tail spread, and with its wings lowered to within 
two or three inches of the log but never allowed to touch it. 
Its head was not depressed nor was its tail held as far forward 
as is the case in the strutting of the turkey cock. As he turned 
he slightly lowered his feathers and tail, and retraced his steps 
to the other end of the log strutting as before. The drumming 
seemed to be produced by one long beat and two short spasmodic 
ones. 

The range of the Ruffed Grouse includes the eastern United 
States from Georgia and Arkansas northward into southern 
Canada, and westward to the Great Plains. 

Genus LAGOPUS Brisson, 1760. 

Lagopus lagopus (Linnaeus). Willow Ptarmigan. 

Tetrao lagopus LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 159. 

Tetrao saliceti TEMM., Man., II, 1820, 474. 

Lagopus albus AUDUBON, Synop., 1839, 207. 

Lagopus lagopus STEJNEGER, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., VIII, 1885, 20. 

Popular synonyms: WHITE PTARMIGAN. WILLOW GROUSE. 

It is very doubtful if this species should be included in the 
fauna of our area. It is done because of the following published 
notes. In his "Catalogue of Animals observed in Cook County, 
Illinois,"* Mr. Robert Kennicott records this species with the 
comment "Sometimes found in the timber along Lake Michigan." 
Regarding Mr. Kennicott's note, Mr. E. W. Nelson says :f "This 
note was based I think, upon the capture of two specimens, 
December, 1846, near Racine (Wisconsin), as noted by Dr. 
Hoy (Wis. Agr. Rep., 1852)." 

The A. O. U. Check-list gives the following as the geograph- 
ical range of this Ptarmigan: "Arctic regions; in America 
south to Sitka and the British Provinces. Accidental in New 
England (Bangor, Maine, and Essex County, Massachusetts)." 

Genus TYMPANUCHUS Gloger, 1842. 

Tympamichus americanus (Reichenbach). Prairie Hen. 

Tetrao cupido WILSON, Amer. Orn., Ill, 1811, 104, pi. 27 (nee 

Linnaeus). 

Cupidonia cupido BAIRD, Birds N. Amer., 1838, 628. 
Cupidonia americanus REICHENBACH, Syst. Av., 1852, p. xxix. 
Tympanuchus americanus RIDGWAY, Auk, Jan., Ill, 1886, 133. 
Popular synonyms : PRAIRIE CHICKEN. PINNATED GROUSE. 



*Trans. Illinois State Apri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854, 580. 

tBirds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 122. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 85 

Formerly an abundant resident, but now fast disappearing. 
They are still occasionally found in the western portion of Cook 
County, Illinois, and in Lake County, Indiana. Mr. E. W. Nel- 
son wrote in 1876 :f ^Once excessively abundant; now rather 
scarce within thirty miles of Chicago. Still exists in large num- 
bers on the larger prairies, but is becoming much less numerous 
in all the more settled districts. In many places the farmers 
are in the habit of collecting their eggs by the pailful to use for 
culinary purposes. Such a drain as this, with the annual 
slaughter by sportsmen, and the restriction of their breeding 
grounds by cultivation, is rapidly lessening their numbers except 
in the remote prairie districts." 

The range of the Prairie Hen may be said to include the 
"prairies and open cultivated districts of the Mississippi Valley." 
Also, while its range is being gradually contracted eastward it 
is being extended westward. 

Genus PEDICECETES Baird, 1858. 

Pedioecetes phasianellus campestris (Ridgway). Sharp-tailed Grouse. 

Tetrao phasianellus (nee Linnaeus) AUDUBON, Orn. Biog., IV, 1838, 
569, pi. 382. 

Pedioccetcs phasianellus BAIED, B. N. Amer., 1858, 626 (part). 

Pedioc&tes phasianellus var. columbianus NELSON, Bull. Essex Insti- 
tute, Vol. VIII, 121. 

Pedioccetes columlianus ELLIOT, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
1862, 403. v 

Pedioccetes phasianellus campestris RnXJWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash- 
ington, II, April 10, 1884, 93. 

Popular synonyms: SPIKE-TAIL. SPBIG-TAIL. PRAIBIE CHICKEN. 
PIN-TAIL. 

This species is included in the bird fauna of our area on the 
strength of the note given by Air. Robert Kennicott in his "Cata- 
logue of Animals Observed in Cook County, Illinois."* He says : 
"Not uncommon, formerly." Mr. E. W. Nelson says:f "If 
this species now occurs it is extremely rare. At present it is 
restricted to the northwestern portion of the state. The last 
record of its occurrence in this vicinity is furnished by my friend 
Mr. T. H. Douglas, who informs me that in the fall of 1863 or 
1864, while two gentlemen were shooting prairie chickens near 
Waukegan, they found and secured a covey of these birds, 
numbering fourteen individuals. These had, in all probability, 
been raised in the immediate vicinity." 



tBirds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 121. 
*Trans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854, 586. 



86 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The range of this Grouse includes the plains and prairies 
east of the Rocky Mountains eastward to Wisconsin and Illinois, 
and from Manitoba southward to New Mexico. 

FAMILY PHASIANID^E: PHEASANTS AND WILD TURKEYS. 
Genus MELEAGrEJS Linnaeus, 1758. 

Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris (Vieillot). Wild Turkey. 

Meleagris silvestris VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., IX, 1817, 447. 
Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris ALLEN, Auk, XIX, 1902, 420. 
Meleagris gallopavo LINNAEUS, of previous writers on the birds of this 

region. 
Meleagris gallopavo var. americana (BART.) COUES, of some authors. 

Mr. E. W. Nelson states* that this species was formerly plen- 
tiful within our limits.. As early as 1853-1854^ Mr. Robert Ken- 
nicott made a similar statement. It is now fairly common in the 
densely wooded districts of the southern portion of Illinois. 

Once this species was found in the northeastern United States 
but now in those regions it is rare. Otherwise its range may be 
given as the eastern United States. 

ORDER COLUMB^E: PIGEONS. 

FAMILY COLUMBIDJE: PIGEONS. 
Genus ECTOPISTES Swainson, 1827. 

Ectopistes migratorius (Linn.). Passenger Pigeon. 

Columba migratoria LINNJEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 285. 
Ectopistes migratoria SWAINSON, Zool. Journ., Ill, 1827, 362. 
Popular synonyms: WILD PIGEON. WOOD PIGEON. 

This species was many years ago an abundant resident within 
our limits, but now it is exceedingly rare if it occurs at all. I 
have a fine male of this species which was shot by Mr. Charles 
S. Raddin at Rogers Park in July, 1882. December 10, 1890, I 
received four of these pigeons, in the flesh, from Waukegan, Illi- 
nois, at which locality it was claimed they were shot. Three of 
these specimens were males and one a female. A pair of these is 
now in the collection of the Chicago Academy of Sciences. In 
the fall of 1891 I shot a pair at Lake Forest, Illinois. These birds 
were mounted and are now in the collection of the Chicago Nor- 
mal School. 



Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 121. 
tTrans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854, 586. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 87 

The following notes regarding the presence of the Passenger 
Pigeon within our limits, or in the immediate vicinity, are of con- 
siderable interest. In 1853 Mr. Robert Kennicott listed* this 
bird as a resident of Cook County with the comment "Very abun- 
dant." In 1876, Mr. E. W. Nelson wrote,f "Very abundant 
migrant; I5th of March to middle of April, and in October and 
November. Sometimes arrives in February. A few isolated 
pairs still breed in unfrequented woods." In the Auk, July, 1895, 
Vol. XII, 298, Mr. Ruthven Deane, of Chicago, published notes 
which he had collated from authentic sources. These notes have 
a distinct bearing on the Chicago Area and its vicinity. Mr. 
Deane writes : "The occurrence of the Wild Pigeon in this sec- 
tion of the country, and in fact throughout the west generally, is 
becoming rarer every year and such observations and data as 
come to our notice should be of sufficient interest to record. 

"I have, in the past few months, made inquiry of a great many 
sportsmen who are constantly in the field and in widely distributed 
localities, regarding any observations on the Wild Pigeon, and 
but few of. them have seen a specimen in the past eight or ten 
years. 

"I have made frequent inquiry among the principal game deal- 
ers in Chicago and cannot learn of a single specimen that has been 
received in our markets in several years. * * * 

"A fine male Pigeon was killed by my brother, Mr. Charles 
E. Deane, April 18, 1877, while shooting snipe on the meadows 
near English Lake, Indiana. The bird was alone and flew di- 
rectly over him. I have the specimen now in my collection. 

"In September, 1888, while Teal shooting on Yellow River, 
Stark County, Indiana, I saw a Pigeon fly up the river and alight 
a short distance off. I secured the bird which proved to be a 
young female. 

"On September 17, 1887, Mr. John F. Hazen and his daugh- 
ter Grace, of Cincinnati, Ohio, while boating on the Kankakee 
River, near English Lake, Indiana, observed a small flock of 
Pigeons feeding in a little oak grove bordering the river. They 
reported the birds as quite tame and succeeded in shooting eight 
specimens. 

"In the spring of 1893, Mr. C. B. Brown, of Chicago, Illi- 
nois, collected a nest of the Wild Pigeon containing two eggs at 
English Lake, Indiana, and secured both parent birds. * * * 

*Trans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854, 586. 

tBirds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 120. 



88 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

"Mr. John Ferry informs me that three Pigeons were seen 
near the Desplaines River in Lake County, Illinois, in September, 
1893. One of these was shot by Mr. F. C. Farwell. 

"In an article which appeared in the Chicago Tribune, No- 
vember 25, 1894, entitled 'Last of his Race/ Mr. E. B. Clark gives 
his experience in observing a fine male Wild Pigeon in Lincoln 
Park, Chicago, Illinois, in April, 1893. I quote from the article: 
'He was perched on the limb of a soft maple and was facing the 
rising sun. I have never seen in any cabinet a more perfect 
specimen. The tree upon which he was resting was at the south- 
east corner of the park. There were no trees between him and 
the lake to break from his breast the fullness of the glory of the 
rising sun. The Pigeon allowed me to approach within twenty 
yards of his resting place and I watched him through a powerful 
glass that permitted as minute an examination as if he were in 
my hand. I was more than astonished to find here close to the 
pavements of a great city the representative of a race which al- 
ways loved the wild woods and which I thought had passed from 
Illinois forever!' 

"Mr. R. W. Stafford of Chicago, Illinois, who has shot hun- 
dreds of Pigeons in former years within the present city limits 
of Chicago, informs me that in the latter part of September, 1894, 
while shooting at Marengo, Illinois, he saw a flock of six flying 
swiftly over and apparently alight in a small grove some distance 
off." 

Mr. Deane adds: "The above records will show that while 
in this section of country large flocks of Passenger Pigeons are 
a thing of the past, yet they are still occasionally observed in 
small detachments of single birds." 

In the Auk, January, 1895, Vol. XII, 80, Mr. Benjamin T. 
Gault published the following record: "During late years the 
Passenger Pigeon has become extremely rare in northeastern 
Illinois, at least so far as the neighborhood of Chicago is con- 
cerned. My latest record was made at Glen Ellyn on Sunday, 
September 4, 1892. It was a young of the year, very tame and 
unsuspicious. It was discovered in the company of some jays 
and feeding about the piles of dirt recently made in excavating 
for the foundation of a house, well within the limits of the town, 
and was also observed to be picking the grain from some horse- 
droppings, in which occupation it was harassed somewhat by the 
jays." 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 89 

In the Auk, October, 1895, Vol. XII, 389, Mr. James O. Dunn, 
of Chicago, published the following records: "While collecting 
with Mr. Wallace Craig, September 3, 1891, I shot a male Wild 
Pigeon in an oak grove in Chicago, near 75th Street, between 
Stony Island Avenue and Lake Michigan. It was feeding and 
flew up at our approach, alighting perhaps ten feet from the 
ground, where I shot it. It was not at all wild, and was a bird of 
the year. We saw two others in the same grove, but did not 
secure them. 

"April 8, 1894, Mr. Edward J. Gekler saw a flock of about 
fifteen Wild Pigeons flying while in a woods near Liverpool, 
Indiana. 

"Mr. Kaempfer, a taxidermist of this city, had a fine male 
Passenger Pigeon mounted on one of his shelves which was 
brought in on March 14, 1894. The gentleman who brought it 
said he shot it near Liverpool, Indiana, and saw quite a number 
of them at the time." 

In the Auk, January, 1896, Vol. XIII, 81, Mr. Ruthven Deane 
published the following record: "Mr. John F. Ferry of Lake 
Forest, Illinois, has kindly notified me of the capture of a young 
female which was killed in that town on August 7, 1895. The 
bird was brought to him by a boy who had shot it with a rifle 
ball, and although in a mutilated condition he preserved it for his 
collection." 

Mr. Henry K. Coaie reports the following records for our 
vicinity: "In June, 1879, I found Wild Pigeons breeding in 
the woods along the Desplaines River west of Lake Forest ; ex- 
amined two nests, one with two and the other with one egg. 
On September 13, 1879, I saw a flock of these birds in the same 
woods and took several specimens. On May 2, 1887, I saw Wild 
Pigeons at Grand Crossing, Chicago." 

Mr. George Clingman took a male Passenger Pigeon at Bryn 
Mawr on September 30, 1891. This locality is a suburb of the 
city of Chicago. 

In the second edition of the A. O. U. Check-list of North 
American Birds, published in 1895, the following is given as 
the range of the Passenger Pigeon: "Eastern North America, 
from Hudson Bay southward, and west to the Great Plains, 
straggling thence to Nevada and Washington. Breeding range 
now mainly restricted to portions of the Canadas and the north- 



90 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

ern border of the United States, as far west as Manitoba and 
the Dakotas." 

Genus ZENAIDURA Bonaparte, 1854. 

Zenaidura macroura (Linnaeus). Mourning Dove. 

Columba macroura LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 164 (par). 
Columba carolincnsis LINN^US, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 286. 
Zenaidura carolincnsis BONAPAETE, Consp. II, 1854, 84. 
Zenaidura macroura RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., VIII, 1885, 355. 
Popular synonyms: TURTLE DOVE. AMERICAN TURTLE DOVE. CARO- 
LINA DOVE. COMMON DOVE. 

A common summer resident. The favorite nesting sites of 
this species are in the hedges of osage orange (Madura auran- 
tiaca), or on the ground. Of late years, I have found it nesting 
quite frequently on the ground in the higher fields of our area. 
It arrives early in March and departs the last of October. Mr. 
E. W. Nelson says:* "Straggling parties are occasionally ob- 
served during the winter. In many places this species becomes 
semi-domesticated, breeding in the trees in the yard and showing 
but little fear when approached." 

The range of the Mourning Dove covers the whole of tem- 
perate North America, from the southern part of the British Pos- 
sessions southward to the Isthmus of Panama and the West 
Indies. Its breeding range is coincident with its North American 
Range. 

ORDER RAPTORES: BIRDS OF PREY. 

FAMILY CATHARTID^E: AMERICAN VULTURES. 

Genus CATHARTES Illiger, 1811. 

Cathartes aura (Linnaeus). Turkey Vulture. 

Vultur aura LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 86. 

Cathartes aura ILLIGER, Prodromus, 1811, 236. 

Rhlnogryphus aura RIDGWAY, in Hist. N. Amer. B., Ill, 1874, 344. 

Popular synonyms: BUZZARD. TURKEY BUZZARD. CARION CROW. 

While the Turkey Vulture is a common summer resident in 
the southern portion of Illinois, it is but a rare visitant within 
our area. Some years ago, Mr. Harry Phillips shot one of these 
birds on his farm at Worth, Illinois, about fourteen miles from 
Chicago. This individual was sitting on the top of a tree in a 
pasture, and Mr. Phillips, observing that it was a species un- 
known to him, shot it and presented the skin to The Chicago 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 121. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 9 1 

Academy of Sciences. Mr. B. T. Gault informs me that on April 
I, 1896, he saw three Turkey Vultures flying near the tracks of 
the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad near Sacramento Ave- 
nue, Chicago. The birds were so near that the naked red of 
their heads was plainly discernible. Even at the time that Mr. 
E. W. Nelson wrote his "Birds of Northeastern Illinois," in 
1876, these Vultures were fully as rare \vithin our limits as they 
are now. Mr. Nelson states that they were then a common sum- 
mer resident sixty miles south of Chicago. 

The range of the Turkey Vulture is an extensive one, covering 
the whole of temperate and tropical America from the southern 
portion of the British Possessions southward to Patagonia and 
the Falkland Islands. 

FAMILY FALCONHLE: KITES, HAWKS, EAGLES, ETC. 

Genus ELANOIDES Viefflot, 1818. 
Elanoides forficatus (Linnaeus). Swallow-tailed Kite. 
Falco forficatus LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, 1, 1758, 89. 
Falco furcatus LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 129. 
Nau-cleriis furcatus VIG., Zool. Journ., II, 1825, 387. 
Elanoides forficatus COUES, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1875, 

345. 

Popular synonyms: SWALLOW-TAILED HAWK. WHITE-HEADED SWAL- 
LOW KITE. FISH-TALL HAWK. SNAKE HAWK. 

While this species may have been quite common many years 
ago, it is certainly a very rare visitant to our area at the present 
time. I have but one record of the taking of this species within 
our vicinity : Mr. J. Graf ton Parker, Jr., shot one at Lake Villa, 
a few miles north of Chicago, on June 5, 1895. ^ r - Henry K. 
Coale reports the taking of three adult specimens at Highland 
Park in April, 1905. In his "Catalogue of Animals observed in 
Cook County, Illinois,"* Mr. Robert Kennicott lists the Swallow- 
tailed Kite with the following comment: "Though once com- 
mon, this fine bird is now rare. It is still found in the middle 
of the state." Mr. Kennicott also states that it was known to 
nest in Cook County. Mr. E. W. Nelson says:f "I can testify 
to its scarcity at present (1876), only two or three instances of 
its occurrence in this vicinity within the last twenty years having 
been ascertained.'' 

The range of this species includes the United States east of 
the Great Plains and from Canada southward into South Amer- 



*Trans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854, 581. 

fBirds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VTII, 1876, 118. 



92 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

ica. It is much more common in the interior of the United States 
and is only a casual visitant east of the Alleghanies. Its breed- 
ing range is quite coincident with its geographical distributions 
in the United States. 

Genus CIRCUS Lacepede, 1801. 

Circus hudsonius (Linnaeus). Marsh Hawk. 

Falco hudsonius LINNJEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 128. 
Circus hudsonius VIEILLOT, Ois. Am. Sept., I, 1807, pi. 9. 
Circus cyane-us var. hudsonius COUES, Key, 1872, 210. 
Circus cyaneus of some authors. 

Popular synonyms: HARRIER. MARSH HARRIER. RIG-TAILED HAR- 
RIER. AMERICAN HARRIER. 

The Marsh Hawk is a resident species but is much more 
common during its migrations than in other seasons. About two- 
thirds of the birds observed within our limits are in the young 
or reddish phase of plumage. As its name would indicate, it is 
usually seen on marshes and on prairies. Its migrations usually 
take place during the latter half of March and first half of April, 
and in October and November. 

The range of this species includes the whole of North Amer- 
ica, south in winter to Panama and Cuba. Its breeding range is 
practically coincident with its geographical distribution, though 
it nests quite sparingly in the eastern United States south of the 
parallel of 40. 

Genus ACCIPITER Brisson, 1760. 

Accipiter velox (Wilson). Sharp-shinned Hawk. 

Falco fuscus GMELIN, S. N M I, 1788, 280 (nee Fabricius, 1780). 
Accipiter fuscus BONAPARTE, Comp. List, 1838, 5. 
Astur fuscus AUDUBON, Syn. 1839, 18. 
Nisus fuscus KAUP., Mon. Falc. Cont. Orn., 1850, 64. 
Falco velox WILSON, Amer. Orn., V, 1812, 116, pi. 45, fig. 1. 
Accipiter velox VIGORS, Zool. Journ., I, 1824, 338. 
Popular synonyms: LITTLE SWIFT HAWK. PIGEON HAWK. BULLET 
HAWK. SLATE-COLORED HAWK. 

This species is a variable and at times an abundant migrant. 
Although these hawks are occasionally seen within our limits 
throughout the summer, I have no records of their having nested 
here. They arrive early in March and depart late in October. 
Mr. B. T. Gault informs me that on two occasions a Sharp-shinned 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 93 

Hawk has darted viciously at his head as he was walking through 
woods at Glen Ellyn. This would seem to indicate that the bird 
was nesting near the locality. Mr. Robert Kennicott records* the 
nesting of this Hawk within our area. Mr. E. W. Nelson says :f 
"Abundant during migrations; September I5th to October 3Oth, 
and April I5th to May loth. A few remain to breed." 

The range of the Sharp-shinned Hawk includes the whole of 
North America from Panama northward. It breeds quite 
throughout the United States and northward. 

Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte). Cooper's Hawk. 

Falco cooperii BONAPARTE, Ann. Lye. N. Y., II, 1826, 433. 
A star cooperi BONAPABTE, Comp. List, 1838, 5. 
Accipiter cooperi GRAY, List B. Brit. Mus., Accipitres, 1844, 38. 
Visits cooperi SCHLEG., Rev. Ace., 1873, 73. 

Popular synonyms : CHICKEN HAWK. BLUB CHICKEN HAWK. SWIFT 
OB BLUE HAWK OR DARTER. QUAIL OR BLUE QUAIL HAWK. 

A quite common summer resident, arriving early in March 
and departing late in October. This species is very destructive 
to young poultry, although, like other species of the Raptores, 
it repays the farmer to some extent by destroying large numbers 
of mice and other vermin. 

Cooper's Hawk breeds throughout its range which extends 
from the southern portion of the British Possessions south to 
Central America. 

Accipiter atricapillus (Wilson), American Goshawk. 

Falco atricapillus WILSON, Amer. Orn., VI, 1812, 80, pi. 52, fig. 3. 

Astur atricapillus JARD. & SELBY, Illust., 1825, pi. 121. 

Astur palumbarius var. atricapillus RIDGWAY, Proc. Bost. Soc., XVI, 

1874, 57. 

Accipiter atricapillus SEEBOHM, Brit. Birds, I, 1883, iv. 
Popular synonym : CHICKEN HAWK. 

This Hawk may be considered an exceedingly rare winter 
resident. March 30, 1889, I captured an adult male at Beverly 
Hills. This is the only recent record I know of regarding the 
appearance of this species within our limits. Mr. E. W. Nelson 
says :f "Formerly a common winter resident ; now very rare. 
Dr. A. L. Marcy of Evanston, found them quite plentiful during 
the winter of 1870-1871, and obtained specimens. The only time 
I ever saw the birds alive, was the 3rd of May, 1876, at Wauke- 
gan, when a fine adult specimen passed slowly overhead and dis- 



*Trans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854, 581. 

tBirds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 118. 



94 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

appeared toward the north." This species is one of the most 
beautiful and daring of our hawks. 

Breeding chiefly north of the United States, passing south- 
ward in winter through the larger portion of the United States. 

Genus BUTEO Cuvier, 1800. 

Buteo borealis (Gmelin). Red-tailed Hawk. 

Falco borealis GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 266. 

Buteo borealis VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., IV, 1816, 478. 

Buteo borealis var. borealis B. B. & R., Hist. N. Amer. Birds, III, 

1874, 282. 
Popular synonyms: CHICKEN HAWK. HEN HAWK. RED-TAILED 

BUZZARD. WHITE-BBEASTED CHICKEN OB HEN HAWK. EASTEBN 

RED-TAILED HAWK. 

This species is a common resident, and is the most common 
of the larger hawks. It is, however, much more abundant dur- 
ing its migrations than at other times. In our vicinity it nests 
as early as the last of February. Mr. B. T. Gault informs me 
that the striped gopher (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) seems 
to constitute a favorite article of the diet of this Hawk, and that 
he found a freshly killed specimen of that rodent on the edge of 
a nest which he examined May 10, 1895. 

The range of this species includes the eastern portion of 
North America from the fur countries south to Guatemala and 
westward to the Great Plains. 

Buteo borealis kriderii Hoopes. Krider's Hawk. 

Buteo borealis HOOPES, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1873, 238, 

pi. 5. 
Popular synonyms : WHITE RED-TAILED HAWK. WHITE HEN HAWK. 

CHICKEN HAWK. 

This species is included in the fauna of our area on the 
streflgth of a specimen presented to the United States National 
Museum by Mr. H. K. Coale. It was captured in the vicinity 
of our area July 25, 1876. Regarding this specimen, Mr. Coale 
says (Auk, Vol. II, January 1885) : "Referring to my notes, I 
find that this was one of the large hawks brought into camp by 
one of our party while on a collecting trip along the Des Plaines 
River thirty miles from Chicago northwest. It is an adult female 
and was captured while perched on a stake in a field not far from 
the big woods at Half Day, Illinois." 

The A. O. U. Check-list gives the following as the range of 
Krider's Hawk: "Plains of the United States, from Wyoming 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. Q5 

and the Dakotas to Minnesota, and south to Texas ; casual in Iowa 
and Illinois." 

Buteo borealis calurus (Cass.). Western Bed-tailed Hawk. 

Buteo calurus CASS., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, VII, 1855, 

281. 

Buteo borealis var. calurus RIDGWAY, Bull. Essex Inst., V, 1873, 186. 
Popular synonym : BLACK RED-TAIL. 

The Western Red-tail is included in the fauna of our area 
because of the following record, published by Mr. E. W. Nelson :* 
"In my collection is a fine adult specimen of this variety obtained 
near Chicago in April, 1873, ^7 mv friend Mr. C. H. Smith." 

The A. O. U. Check-list gives the following range for the 
Western Red-tailed Hawk: "Western North America, from the 
Rocky Mountains to the Pacific, south into Mexico; casual east 
to Illinois." 

Buteo borealis harlani (Audubon). Harlan's Hawk. 
Falco harlani AUDUBON, Orn. Biog., I, 1830, 441, pi. '86. 
Buteo lorealis harlani RIDGWAY, Auk. VII, April, 1890, 205. 
Popular synonym : HARLAN'S BUZZARD. 

The only record I have of the occurrence of Harlan's Hawk 
within our limits is that of a specimen which I purchased from 
a hunter who had just shot it near Calumet Lake. This specimen 
was captured October I, 1895. I* was a female and was ex- 
amined by Mr. George K. Cherrie, who pronounced it a juvenile 
bird in the dark phase of plumage. 

The range of this Hawk, as given in the A. O. U. Check-list, 
includes the "Gulf states and lower Mississippi Valley, north 
casually to Pennsylvania, Iowa, and Kansas; south to Central 
America." 

Buteo lineatus (Gmelin). Red-shouldered Hawk. 

Falco lineatus GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 268. 

. Buteo lineatus VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., IV, 1816, 478. 
Falco luteoides NUTTALL, Man., I, 1832, 100. 

Popular synonyms: HEN HAWK. CHICKEN HAWK. WINTEB BUZ- 
ZARD. 

This species is one of our resident hawks, and is quite com- 
mon during its migrations. It arrives about March 2Oth and 
nests in April. It frequents the heavily timbered woods, prin- 
cipally in the northern portion of both Cook and Dupage coun- 
ties. It is the most common of the larger hawks, especially in 



"Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 119. 



96 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

our timbered regions. Mr. Robert Kennicott includes this species 
in his list of Cook County birds,* with the following interesting 
note: "In October, 1854, a flight of apparently several thousand 
of this Hawk passed over Chicago from the Lakes, moving to- 
wards the southwest." Mr. E. W. Nelson says:f "The main 
fall migration of hawks in this vicinity takes place the last of 
September or the first of October and a statement of the num- 
bers which pass in a single day, to one who has not observed them, 
would be received with incredulity. Choosing a day when there 
is a strong south or southwest wind, the hawks commence moving 
south early in the morning and continue flying the entire day, 
and so numerously that, taking a stand at a good point, one 
would have from one to fifty hawks in view, with but very few 
intermissions, throughout the day. Among these occur all the 
migrants, but by far the greater number consist of the smaller 
species." At the present time the Red-shouldered Hawk is not 
as abundant as it was in the days of Mr. Kennicott, nor are the 
large flocks of hawks, of which Mr. Nelson speaks, to be seen 
during their migrations, excepting on rare occasions. 

The range of this species includes eastern North America from 
the southern portions of the British Possessions southward to the 
Gulf States and eastern Mexico; westward to the Great Plains. 

Buteo swainsoni Bonaparte. Swainson's Hawk. 

Buteo awainsoni BONAPARTE, Geog. & Comp. List, 1838, 3. 

Popular synonyms : BBOWN HAWK. BLACK HAWK. CHICKEN HAWK. 

Swainson's Hawk is included in the fauna of our region be- 
cause of a record published by Mr. E. W. Nelson,f who says. 
"Of rather rare occurrence in this vicinity. Have only noted it 
during the migrations. I obtained an immature specimen May 
30, 1875, at Riverdale, Illinois, and have seen others since. As 
this species breeds in southern Illinois it probably also breeds in 
the northern portions of the state." 

The range of this species includes western North America 
from Wisconsin, Illinois, Arkansas and Texas to the Pacific 
coast, and from the Arctic regions on the north, south through 
Central America and South America to the Argentine Republic. 

Buteo platypterus (Vieillot). Broad-winged Hawk. 

Falco latissimus WILSON, Amer. Orn., VI, 1812, 92, pi. 54, fig. 1. 
Buteo latissimus SHABPE, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., I, 1874, 193. 



*Trans. 111. State Agri. Soc., 581, 1855. 

tBirds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 119. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 97 

Sparvius platyptcrus VIEILLOT, Encyl. Method., Orn., Ill, 1823, 127. 
Buteo platypterus FAXON, Auk. XVIII, April, 1901, 218. 

This Hawk is a not uncommon summer resident, and during 
some seasons it is quite common during its migrations. Mr. B. 
T. Gault reports taking a set of fresh eggs of this species on 
April 15, 1889, at Jefferson, in Cook County. These birds arrive 
early in March and depart late in October. 

The range of the Broad-winged Hawk extends through east- 
ern North America, from Hudson Bay southward to the latitude 
of the upper Amazon River in South America. It breeds through- 
out its range within the United States. 

Genus ARCHIBUTEO Brehm, 1828. 

Archibuteo lagopus sancti-jonannis (Gmelin). American Rough- 
legged Hawk. 

Falco sancti-johannis GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 273. 
Buteo sancti-johannis NTJTTALL, Man., I, 1832, 98. 
Archibuteo lagopus var. sancti-johannis COUES, Key, 1872, 218. 
Popular synonym : BLACK HAWK. 

A not uncommon winter resident. Mr. B. T. Gault has at 
times found them plentiful during October and November. In 
Du Page County he has also observed them late in February. Mr. 
E. W. Nelson says* that this hawk "arrives in large numbers 
the first of October, and after remaining for a few weeks the 
majority pass further south for the winter. The last of Feb- 
ruary and the first of March they depart for the north." Mr. 
J. G. Parker has observed them between January first and April 
seventh. 

The range of this species includes the whole of North America 
north of Mexico, breeding in Arctic and subarctic regions, ex- 
cepting in Alaska. 

Genus AQUILA Brisson, 1760. 

Aquila chrysaetos (Sprungli). Golden Eagle. 

Falco chrysaetos LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 88. 

Aquila chrysaetos SPRUNGLI, in Andrae's Briefe aus der Schweiz, 

1776, 196. 

Aquila chrysaetos DUMONT, Diet. Sci. Nat., I, 1816, 339. 
Aquila fulva NUTTALL, Man., I, 1832, 62. 
Aquila chri/sactos var. canadensis RIDGWAY, 1873. 
Popular synonyms: BLACK EAGLE. RLNG-TAILED EAGLE. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 119. 



98 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The Golden Eagle is a very rare winter visitant within our 
limits. At Liverpool, Indiana, I saw a bird which I thought was 
Aquila chrysactos though it may have been a bald eagle .in im- 
mature plumage. Mr. Robert Kennicott records it as rare 
in his list of Cook County birds.* Mr. E. W. Nelson gives an 
interesting note regarding the Golden Eagle :f "Not very un- 
common during winter. Arrives in November and departs early 
in spring. Formerly nested throughout the state. In December, 
1874, while hunting Prairie Chickens in a field a few miles south 
of Chicago, my friend, Mr. T. Morris, was suddenly attacked 
with great fury by a pair of these birds, they darting so close 
that had he been prepared he could easily have touched the first 
one with his gun. As it arose to renew the attack he fired a small 
charge of number six shot, and brought it down, dead. The 
second then darted at him, and so rapidly that he did not fire 
until it had turned and was soaring up, but so near that the 
charge passed through the primaries in a body, disabling but not 
injuring the bird, which was then captured alive. The cause of 
the attack was explained by the proximity of a carcass upon 
which these birds had been feeding. The craw of the dead 
eagle contained a large quantity of carrion, as I learned upon 
skinning it." 

The Golden Eagle frequents the whole of North America, 
north of Mexico. It breeds chiefly in the unfrequented moun- 
tainous regions of its range. It also frequents the northern por- 
tions of the Old World. 

Genus EALL51ETUS Savigny, 1809. 

Haliseetus leucocephalus (Linnaeus). Bald Eagle. 

Falco leucocephalus LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 17C6, 124. 
Haliceetus leucocephalus BOIE, Isis, 1822, 548. 
Falco washingtonianus NUTTALL, Man., I, 1832, 67. 
Popular synonyms: OLD ABE. WHITE-HEADED EAGLE. GRAY EAGLE. 
AMERICAN SEA EAGLE. BIBD OF WASHINGTON. 

The Bald Eagle may be considered a rare resident. It is, 
however, rather frequent along the eastern shore of Lake Michi- 
gan during the fall and winter. In the spring of 1897 a pair 
nested near Millers, Indiana and Mr. Edward Carr obtained the 
young birds. On August 8, 1897, I saw five individuals of this 
species at Millers and obtained one of them. While Mr. J. 



*Trans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854, 580. 

tBirds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 119. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 99 

Grafton Parker and myself have been hunting together at Liver- 
pool, Indiana, we have, on a number of occasions, seen Bald 
Eagles, both in the spring and in the fall. On the Kankakee 
marshes near Kouts, Indiana, there were two nests of this species, 
both of which were occupied during the spring of 1896. One 
of the nests was in a dead oak tree and not over fifty feet above 
the ground and within twenty feet of a haystack. The female 
would allow us to approach within seventy-five yards of the 
nest before she would leave it. 

The range of this species includes the whole of North Amer- 
ica, north of Mexico ; northwest through the Aleutian Islands to 
Bering Island, Kamchatka. It breeds locally throughout its 
range. 

Genus FALCO Linnaeus, 1758. 

Falco peregrinus anatum (Bonaparte). Duck Hawk. 

Falco peregrinus AA T ILSON, Amer. Orn., IX, 1814, 120, pi. 76. 

Falco anatum BONAPARTE, Geog. & Comp. List, 1838, 4. 

Falco peregrinus B. anatum BLASIUS, List. B. Eur., 1862, 3. 

Falco communis var. anatum RIDGWAY, in B. B. & R., Hist. N. Amer. 
B., Ill, 1874, 128, 132. 

Popular synonyms: AMEBICAN PEEEGEINE. BULLET HAWK. GREAT- 
FOOTED FALCON. 

The Duck Hawk is a very rare visitant within our limits. 
Mr. George Clingman has a male specimen which was shot at 
Bryn Mawr on September 29, 1899. There are two specimens 
of this noble Hawk in the museum of the Northwestern Uni- 
versity in Evanston, which were captured in the spring of 1881 
by Mr. W. H. Ballou near the University. In the collection of 
Mr. Ruthven Deane there is a large adult specimen of this 
species which was taken in October, 1895, on Calumet Lake, 
while it was attempting to seize a duck which had just been 
shot by a local hunter and was lying among the decoys. Mr. 
E. W. Nelson says the Duck Hawk was "not uncommon during 
the migrations," at the time he wrote in 1876. He also says 
that it was "formerly a rare summer resident.'* 

The range of the Duck Hawk includes the whole of North 
America and the larger portion of South America. It breeds 
locally throughout most of its United States range. 

Falco colmnbarius Linnaeus. Pigeon Hawk. 

Falco columbarius LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 90. 



IOO THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Falco (JEsalon) lithofalco var columbarius B. B. & R. Hist. N. Amer. 

B., Ill, 1874, 143, 144. 
Popular synojiyms : AMERICAN MERLIN. BULLET HAWK. 

This little Hawk is a rare resident but not uncommon during 
its migrations. Mr. E. W. Nelson records* it as an ''abundant 
migrant, from March 2Oth to May 1st, and from September I5th 
to October 5th." He also considered it a rare summer resident. 
I have found this species very bold and unsuspicious, and have 
an adult bird in my collection, which I captured at South Chicago, 
March 18, 1890, while it was attempting to catch an English 
sparrow among the cars in the freight yard of the Illinois Central 
Railroad. 

Its range includes the northern portion of South America, 
the West Indies, and the whole of North America. It breeds 
chiefly north of the United States. 

Falco sparverius Linnaeus. American Sparrow Hawk. 

Falco sparverius LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 90. 
Popular synonyms : AMERICAN KESTRIL. MOUSE HAWK. LITTLE 
BLUE HAWK. 

A common summer resident in a portion of our area, arriv- 
ing early in the spring and departing when severely cold weather 
sets in. Mr. B. T. Gault informs me that the Sparrow Hawks 
are not common in DuPage County, and that they are not known 
to breed there. Mr. E. W. Nelson says* that this species is an 
"abundant migrant and rather common summer resident." 

The range of this species includes North America east of the 
Rocky Mountains, from the Great Slave Lake south to the north- 
ern portion of South America. 

Genus PANDION Savigny, 1809. 

Pandion haliaetus carolinensis (Gmelin). American Osprey. 
Falco carolinensis GMELIN, S. N., I, i, 1788, 263. 
Pandion carolinensis AUDUBON, B. Amer., 1831, pi. 81. 
Pandion haliaetus carolinensis RIDGWAY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, 1870, 143. 
Popular synonyms: FISH EAGLE. FISH HAWK. 

A rare migrant, seen principally along the shore of Lake 
Michigan, or on our larger inland lakes. I have observed them 
on both Berry and Calumet lakes. An adult specimen now in 
the collection of The Chicago Academy of Sciences, was taken 
on the Fox River, near Lake County, Illinois, September 28, 

*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII. 1876, 118. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. IOI 

1896. Mr. B. T. Gault reports seeing a specimen of this species 
in DuPage County on May 15, 1894. Mr. E. W. Nelson gives 
the following record:* "Not uncommon during March and 
April in spring, and during September and October in fall. Some 
seasons this species is quite numerous, especially along the Lake 
shore." 

The range of the Osprey includes the whole of North America, 
from Alaska and Hudson Bay south to northern South America 
and the West Indies. 

FAMILY STRIGID^J: BARN OWLS. 
Genus STRIX Linnaeus, 1758. 

Strix pratincola Bonaparte. American Barn Owl 

Strix flammed "LINNAEUS." WILSON, Amer. Orn., VI, 1812, 57, pi. 

50, fig. 2. 

Strix pratincola BONAPARTE, Geog. & Comp. List, 1838, 7. 
Strix flammea var. dmericand COUES, Key. 1872, 201. 
Strix flammed var. pratincold B. B. & R., Hist. N. A/ner. B., Ill, 

1874, 13. 
Popular synonym: MONKEY OWL. 

A very rare visitant. An adult male of this species is in the 
collection of the Field Columbian Museum, which was shot just 
outside the main entrance of the museum building in Jackson 
Park, Chicago, on August 15, 1896. Mr. C. A. Tallman shot 
a female near the "sag" at Worth, Illinois, on August 31, 1895. 
Mr. J. Grafton Parker, Jr., reports the taking of a specimen at 
Calumet Heights, Illinois, on November 30, 1899, by Mr. Gold. 
It is quite possible that the Barn Owls may breed within our 
limits, though very rarely. Mr. Fred Hilgard while collecting 
at Kouts, Indiana, May 30, 1896, in company with Mr. Parker 
and myself, shot an adult female. From the condition of its 
abdomen, it was evident that the bird had nested in or very near 
that locality. Mr. E. W. Nelson gives the following record :f 
"Very rare visitant. A pair were caught in a trap near Chicago 
some years since by Mr. C. H. Smith." 

Its range covers the United States, though much less common 
in the northern portion and only occasionally seen in Canada, 
and Mexico. It is wanting in unwooded districts. It breeds 
northward to about latitude 41. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 118. 
tBirds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 116. 



IO2 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

FAMILY BUBONIDJE. HORNED OWLS, SCREECH OWLS, ETC. 
Genus ASIO Brisson, 1760. 

Asio wilsonianus (Less.)- American Long-eared Owl. 

Strix otus WILSON, Amer. Orn., VII, 1812, 73, pi. 51, fig. 3 (nee 

Linnaeus). 

Otus wilsonianus LESS., Traits Orn., I, 1831, 110. 
Otus vulgaris var. wilsonianus ALLEN, Bull. M. C. Z., Ill, 1872, 180, 
Otus vulgaris of some authors. 

Asio wilsonianus COUES, Check List, ed. 2, 1882, 81, No. 472. 
Popular synonym : LESSER HOBNED OWL. 

Quite abundant in past years, the Long-eared Owl is now a 
rather uncommon resident. It is principally found in the timber 
which skirts some of the swamp lands of our area. Mr. B. T. 
Gault informs me that this species occurs regularly in DuPage 
County during the early spring and late fall. Removing the 
timber from our vicinity for the purpose of settlement will prob- 
ably eventually drive this Owl entirely from our limits. Its 
strictly nocturnal habits and its attachment for certain localities 
have made it less well known than are some of the other species. 
"Its favorite haunts are dense willow thickets, where it may be 
surprised taking its daytime nap, standing bolt upright, with 
feathers closely pressed to its body, and long ear-tufts erect, thus 
presenting a very comical figure." Mr. Robert Kennicott in- 
cludes this species in his list of Cook County birds* with the 
notation "common," and also states that it is "known to nest in 
Cook County." 

The range of this species covers North America in general, 
from the limit of forests on the north, south to the Mexican 
tablelands. Its breeding range is coincident with its geographical 
distribution. 

Asio accipitrinus (Pall.). Short-eared Owl. 

Strix accipitrina PALL., Reise Russ. Reichs., I, 1771, 455. 

Strix Irachyotus FORST., Phil. Trans., LXII, 1772, 284. 

Otus Irachyotus BOIE, Isis, 1822, 549. 

Brachyotus palustris BONAPARTE, 1838. 

Asio accipitrinus NEWT., Yarrell's Brit. B., Ed. 4, I, 1872, 163. 

Popular synonyms : MARSH OWL. PRAIRIE OWL. SWAMP OWL. 

The Short-eared Owl is a summer resident within our limits. 
It probably nests with us also, for I have found them nesting a 
few miles south of Chicago, at Lowell, Indiana, and have observed 
them throughout the summer in Cook County. Mr. Robert Ken- 
nicott records it as having nested in Cook County,* and says: 



'Trans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854, 581. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 103 

"Abundant on the prairies. It flies much by day. It has been 
said to nest in bushes ; but I have always found it nesting on 
the ground." Mr. E. W. Nelson says: "The most abundant 
species of the family. Arrives from the north in large numbers 
the first of November and disperses through the state. They are 
common everywhere, on prairies and marshes, during the winter. 
Remain concealed in a bunch of grass or reeds until about two 
o'clock, P. M., when they commence flying low over the ground 
in search of their prey." 

Its range covers the whole of North America, and it is nearly 
cosmopolitan. It breeds from about latitude 39 norduvard. 

Genus SYRNIUM Savigny, 1809. 

Syrnium varium (Barton). Barred Owl. 

Strix nebulosa FORSTEB,* of authors, not of Forster. 
Strix -varius BARTON, Fragm. N. H. Penn., 1790, 11. 
Syrnium rarium PREBLE, N. Amer. Fauna, No. 22, 1902, 109. 
Popular synonym : HOOT OWL. 

The Barred Owl has become an uncommon resident. From 
the year 1887 to the year 1892 this species was fairly common 
on the timbered ridge at Beverly Hills, and also in the woods 
west of Evanston and Lake Forest. In the fatter woods Mr. 
Ned Pratt obtained several sets of eggs. Since the building of 
the small suburban towns in the vicinity of Chicago, the Barred 
Owls have gone to the heavier wooded portions of the state, 
very few having been seen within our limits since the year 1892. 
Mr. E. W. Nelson found this Owl rare in this vicinity, "owing to 
the lack of heavy timber." He only knew of two instances of 
its capture. 

Its range covers North America, east of the Great Plains 
from Hudson Bay southward to Georgia and Texas. It breeds 
throughout its range. 

Genus SCOTIAPTEX Swainson, 1837. 

Scotiaptex nebulosa (Forster). Great Gray Owl. 

Strix nebulosa FORSTER, Philos, Trans., LXII, 1772, 424. 

Strix cincrca GMELIN. S. N.. I. i. 1788, 291. 

Scotia ptcx cincrca SWAIXSON, Classification B., II, 1837, 217. 

Syrnium cincrcum BONAPARTE, List, 1838, 6. 

Scotiaptex nebulosum PREBLE, N. Amer. Fauna, No. 22, 1902, 109. 

Popular synonyms : GREAT CINEREOUS OWL. SPECTRAL OWL. 



*' 'Strix nebulosa Forster plainly having been based on the great gray owl, the 
name Strix varius Barton seems to be the next name available for the Barred Owl." 
Preble, N. Amer. Fauna. No. 22, 1902, 109. 



IO4 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

I have been unable to find more than two records of this Owl 
having been taken or observed within our limits. Mr. Robert 
Kennicott includes it in his list* of Cook County birds, with the 
comment "rare." Mr. E. W. Nelson says : "A very rare winter 
visitant." 

Its range covers Arctic America, southward in winter to the 
northern United States. Breeds entirely north of the United 
States. 

Genus CRYPTOGLAUX|| Richmond, 191. 

Cryptoglaux tengmalmi richardsoni (Bonaparte). Richardson's Owl. 
Strix tengmalmi Sw. & Rich., Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 1831, 94, pi. 82 

(nee Gmelin). 

Nyctale richardsoni BONAPARTE, Geog. & Comp. List, 1838, 7. 
Nyctale tengmalmi var. richardsoni RIDGWAY, Amer. Nat., VI, May 

1872, 285. 
Popular synonym : SPAEBOW OWL. 

The only records I have of the occurrence of this rare Arctic 
Owl within our limits are the following notes of Mr. Ruthven 
Deane, published in the Auk. The first note also includes the 
first recorded capture of Richardson's Owl in the state of Illinois. 
Mr. Deane says:f "The only previous capture of this Owl in 
the State was recorded in the 'Ornithologist and Oologist* (Vol. 
X, March, 1885), one having been taken October 15, 1884, at 
Rockford. I am indebted to Mr. Robert H. Van Schaack for 
the following information: 'The Richardson's Owl was shot by 
my son, Louis F. Van Schaack, December 26, 1902, in Kenil- 
worth, Illinois. He found the bird along a small ditch that 
drains from the Skokie Swamp; he shot the Owl with a toy 
air gun! I examined the specimen while in the possession of the 
taxidermist who mounted it, who informed me that he had 
mounted another specimen of this species about the same time, 
which was said to have been shot not far from Chicago, but I 
have been unable to get ,any definite locality or date." In Oc- 
tober of the same year, Mr. Deane published the following note :$ 
"In recording the second capture of this Owl for the State, I 
mentioned that another specimen had been reported, but that 
I was unable to get any definite information as to locality and 
date. Through the kindness of Mr. Frederick C. Pierce of 
Chicago I am now enabled to record a third specimen which was 



*Trans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854, 581. 

|| Auk, Vol. XVIII, April, 1901, 193, Nyctala Brehm 1828 preoccupied by Nycta- 
lus Bowdish, 1825, for a genus of Mammals. 
fAuk, Vol. XX, July 1903, 305. 
JAuk, Vol. XX, October 1903, 433. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. IQ5 

taken in Cicero, in December, 1902, and is now in his possession." 
The following range of this Owl is given in the A. O. U. 
Check-list: "Arctic America, south in winter into the northern 
United States. Breeds from the Gulf of St. Lawrence and 
Manitoba northward." 

Cryptoglaux acadica (Gmelin). Saw-whet OwL 

Strix acadica GMELIN, S. N., I, 1788, 296. 

"Nyctale acadica BONAPARTE, Geog. & Comp. List, 1838, 7. 

Popular synonyms: WIHTE-FRONTED OWL. ACADIAN OWL. 

Although this species has not been found nesting within our 
limits, adult specimens have been taken throughout the year. Mr. 
B. T. Gault and myself have observed this species during May 
and June in the pine region of Lake County, Indiana. Mr. Gault 
saw one individual perched upon the iron rafters of the Illinois 
Central Railway station at the foot of Lake Street, Chicago, in 
September. A specimen in my collection was taken at Colhour, 
Indiana, on March 13, 1890. Nearly all the records I have, 
however, are of specimens captured during the winter months. 
Mr. E. W. Nelson gives a very interesting note.* He says: 
"Not an uncommon species. Is of frequent occurrence in Chi- 
cago, where, upon some of the most frequented streets in the 
resident portion of the town, over a dozen specimens have been 
taken within two years. Whether resident or not I have been 
unable to determine." 

The range of the Saw-whet Owl practically includes the whole 
of North America. It breeds from the middle States northward ; 
also throughout the western mountain regions as far south as 
the northern portion of Mexico. . 

Genus MEGASCOPS Kaup, 1848. 

Megascops asio (Linnaeus). Screech OwL 

Strix asio LINNJETJS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 92. 
Scops asio BONAPARTE, Comp. List, 1838, 6. 
Megascops asio STEJNEGER, Auk, II, April, 1885, 184. 
Popular synonyms: MOTTLED OWL. LITTLE MOTTLED OWL. LITTLE 
RED OWL. LITTLE GBAY OWL. 

In past years the Screech Owl was an abundant but now it 
is a rather uncommon resident. A few still nest in the timber 
along Wolf and Hyde lakes, Indiana. Mr. Robert Kennicott 
includes it in his list of Cook County birdsf with the comment 
"Abundant." Mr. E. W. Nelson says: "Rather common. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 117. 
tTrans. 111. State Agri. Soc., Vol. I, 1853-1854, 581. 



IO6 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Resident. Often strays into Chicago and becomes confused, 
when they may be captured alive." 

The range of this species covers temperate North America 
east of the Great Plains. 

Genus BUBO Dumeril, 1806. 

Bubo virginianus (Gmelin). Great Horned Owl. 
Strix virginiana GMELIN, S. N., I, pt. i, 1788, 287. 
Bubo virginianus BONAPARTE, Geog. & Comp. List, 1838, 6. 
Popular synonyms : HOOT OWL. CAT OWL. BOOBY OWL. 

The Great Horned Owl was a common resident many years 
ago, but it is now very rare. Even as early as 1876, Mr. Nelson 
records it as formerly common but at that time a not common 
resident. In 1890, Mr. Ned Pratt collected several sets of the 
eggs of this Owl near Lake Forest, a short distance north of 
Chicago. 

The range of this species extends from Labrador south 
through eastern Mexico to Costa Rica and east of the Great 
Plains. 

Bubo virginianus arcticus (Swains.). Arctic Horned Owl. 

Strix (Bubo) arctica SWAINS., in Sw. & Rich., Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 

1831, 86, pi. 30. 
Bubo virginianus var. arcticus CASS., Illust. B. Cat., etc., 1854, 178. 

This variety of the Great Horned Owl is included in this list 
on the strength of the following published record of Mr. E. W. 
Nelson :* "A rare winter visitant. Have a fine specimen in my 
collection, taken the last of December, 1874." 

This variety of virginianus winters as far south as Idaho, 
Wyoming and South Dakota. 

Genus NYCTEA Stephens, 1826. 

Nyctea nyctea (Linnaeus). Snowy Owl. 

Strix nyctea LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 93. 

Surnia nyctea SELBY, 111. Br. Orn., I, 1833, 95, pi. 23. 

Nyctea nyctea LIGHT., Nomen. Mus. Berol., 1854, 7. 

Nyctea scandiaca NEWT., 4th ed. Yarrell's Hist. Brit. B., iii, 1872, 187. 

Nyctea scandiaca var. arctica RIDGWAY, B. B. & R., Hist. N. Amer. B., 

Ill, 1874, 61, 70. 
Popular synonyms : GREAT WHITE OWL. SNOW OWL. ERMINE OWL. 

WHITE OWL. 

An irregular winter visitant. Mr. J. Grafton Parker, Jr., 
informs me that on November 3, 1885, he observed two Snowy 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 117. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. ID/ 

Owls perched on the chimney tops of a residence on Grand 
Boulevard, near Thirty-fifth Street in Chicago. I saw three of 
these birds in a small grove near Park Manor, on March 16, 
1890. Two days later a large female, probably one of the birds 
which I had observed, was brought to me having been shot while 
it was perched on the roof of a house in Park Manor. Records 
of years ago show that the Snowy Owl was then much more com- 
mon within our limits. Mr. Robert Kennicott, in his list of Cook 
County birds,* says : "Common in winter. Last winter, during 
the very cold and stormy weather, I frequently saw them capture 
prairie hens." Mr. E. W. Nelson says :f "Regular winter resi- 
dent. . More numerous in the vicinity of the Lake. Arrives in 
November and a few remain as late as the first of May." 

The range of the Snowy Owl includes the northern portion 
of the northern hemisphere. In North America it breeds only, 
north of the United States, and in winter migrates southward 
to the middle United States, or even further south in very cold 
and stormy seasons. 

Genus SURNIA Dumeril, 1806. 

Surma ulula caparoch (Miiller). American Hawk Owl. 
Strix caparoch MULLEB, S. N., suppl., 1776, 69. 
Strix hudsonia GMELIN, S. N., I, pt. i, 1788, 295. 
Surnia funerea BONAPARTE, List. 1838, 6. 
Surnia ulula var. hudsonia COUES, Key, 1872, 305. 
Surnia ulula caparoch STEJNEGEB, Auk, I, October, 1884, 363. 
Popular synonyms: HUDSONIAN HAWK OWL OB DAY OWL. 

This Owl is included in our list on the strength of the follow- 
ing records. Mr. Robert Kennicott includes it in his list of Cook 
County birds* without comment. Mr. E. W. Nelson says:f 
"Rare winter resident. Dr. J. W. Velie tells me that he obtained 
a specimen in Kane County, Illinois, the first of September, 1869." 

The American Hawk Owl is a bird of the Arctic regions of 
America, breeding from Newfoundland northward. In winter, 
it migrates to the northern border of the United States. Its 
occurrence elsewhere would be as a casual visitant. 



"Trans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854, 581. 

tBirds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 117. 



IO8 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

ORDER PSITTACI: PARROTS AND 
PAROQUETS. 

FAMILY PSITTACIDJE: PARROTS AND PAROQUETS. 
Genus CONUKUS Kuhl, 1820. 

Conurus carolinensis (Linnaeus). Carolina Paroquet. 

Psittacus carolinensis LINN^SUS, S. N. ed. 10, I, 1758, 97. 

Conurus carolinensis LESS., Traite, 1831, 211. 

Popular synonyms: ILLINOIS PAROQUET. CAROLINA PABBAKEET. 

Mr. Robert Ridgway says:* "The avian-fatma of Illinois 
has lost no finer or more interesting member than the present 
species, which is probably now everywhere extinct within our 
borders, though fifty years ago it was of more or less common 
occurrence throughout the state." The only record that I have 
of the occurrence of this Paroquet within our limits, is that of 
Mr. E. W. Nelson, who says :f "Formerly occurred. Specimens 
were taken in this vicinity by R. Kennicott many years ago, and 
Dr. H. M. Bannister informs me that he has seen it in this vicin- 
ity." 

While this species formerly had quite an extended range, it 
is now found only in limited portions of Florida and the states 
bordering the Gulf of Mexico, and portions of the lower Missis- 
sippi Valley as far north as Arkansas and the Indian Territory. 

ORDER COCCYGES : CUCKOOS, AND 
KINGFISHERS. 

FAMILY CUCULID^E: CUCKOOS, ETC. 
Genus COCCYZUS Viefflot, 1816. 

Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus). Yellow-billed Cuckoo. 

Cuculus americanus LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 111. 

Coccyzus american-us BONAPABTE, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 

III, ii, 1824, 367. 
Popular synonyms: RAIN CBOW. WOOD PIGEON. Cow-cow. 

This species is a common summer resident, arriving early 
in May and departing in October. 

The range of this Cuckoo includes North America east of 
the Great Plains, and it breeds from Florida north to New Bruns- 
wick. It winters south through Mexico and Central America as 
far as Costa Rica. 
Coccyzns erythrophthalmus (Wilson). Black-billed Cuckoo. 

Cuculus erythropthalmus WILSON, Amer. Orn., IV, 1811, 16 pi. 28. 



*The Ornithology of Illinois, Vol. I, 1889, 397. 

tBirds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 187G, 11 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. KX) 

Coccyzus erythrophthalmus BONAPAETE, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, III, ii, 1824, 367. 
Popular synonym: RAIN CROW. 

This Cuckoo is a summer resident, but it is not as plentiful 
as the yellow-billed species and is often confounded with it. It 
also arrives and departs at about the same time as the latter 
species. 

Its range includes eastern North America, west to the Rocky 
mountains and it breeds northward as far as Labrador and Mani- 
toba. In winter it migrates southward as far as the valley of 
the Amazon River. 

FAMILY ALCEDINnXE: KINGFISHERS. 
Genus CERYLE Boie, 1828. 

Ceryle alcyon (Linneaeus). Belted Kingfisher. 

Alcedo alcyon LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 115. 
Ceryle alcyon BOIE, Isis, 1828, 316. 

The Belted Kingfisher, commonly called Kingfisher, is a 
common summer resident, arriving early in April and departing 
in October. 

Its range includes the whole of North America from the 
Arctic Ocean south to Panama and the West Indies. It breeds 
throughout the United States and northward. 

ORDER PICI: WOODPECKERS. 

FAMILY PICID^J: WOODPECKERS. 
Genus DRYOBATES Boie, 1826. 

Dryobates villosus (Linnaeus). Hairy Woodpecker. 
Picus villosus LINN.EUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 175. 
Dryobates villosus CABANIS, Mus. Hem., IV, ii, June 15, 1863, 66. 
Popular synonym : BIG SAPSUCKEB. 

This species is a common resident in the northern portion of 
our area, but is rather rare in the southern portion. It nests 
abundantly in the vicinity of Glen Ellyn, Illinois. 

The range of this species includes the northern and middle 
portions of the United States and the more southern portions of 
the British Possessions from the Atlantic coast to the Great 
Plains. 

Dryobates pubescens medianus (Swainson), Downy Woodpecker. 
Picus pubescens LINN^US, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 175 (in part). 



I1O THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Picus (Dendrocopus) medianus SWAISON, in Sw. & Rich., Fauna Bor. 

Amer., II, 1831, 308. 

Picus medianus NUTTALL, Man II, 1834, 601. 
Dryobates pubescens CABANIS, Mus. Hein., IV, ii, June lo, 1863, 62 

(in part). 

Dryobates pubescens mediamis BBEWSTEB, Auk, Jan., 1897, 82. 
Popular synonym : LITTLE SAPSUCKEB. 

A rare resident, although common during its migrations. 
Mr. Robert Kennicott reported it to be "common' within our 
limits as well as throughout the state, and states that it nests in 
Cook County. Mr. E. W. Nelson says : "Resident. Much more 
numerous at all seasons than the hairy woodpecker." 

The range of the Downy Woodpecker includes eastern and 
northern North America, west to British Columbia and to the 
Great Plains and south to the Gulf of Mexico. Dr. Ridgway 
states that its range also includes nearly the whole of Alaska. 

Genus PIOOIDES Lacepede, 1801. 
Picoides arcticus (Swainson). Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker. 

Picus (Apternus) arcticus SWAINSON, in Sw. & Rich., Fauna Bor. 

Amer., II, 1831, 313. 

Picoides arcticus GRAY, Gen. B., I, 1845, 434. 
Popular synonym: BLACK-BACKED THBEE-TOED WOODPECKEB. 

This Woodpecker is included in our list on the strength of 
the following records. Mr. E. W. Nelson says :* "Rare winter 
resident. A specimen was shot from a telegraph pole, in Chi- 
cago, a few year since, by Dr. J. W. Velie. It is a common 
species in Northern Wisconsin, and before the pines along the 
Lake were destroyed was probably a regular winter visitant to 
this state." Mr. Eliot Blackwelder reports the occurrence of an 
individual of this species at Morgan Park, Illinois, December 29, 
1894. 

The range of this species covers northern North America, 
from the Arctic regions south to the northern United States. 

Genus SPHYRAPICUS Baird, 1858. 

Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus). Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. 
Picus varius LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 176. 
Sphyrapicus varius BAIBD, Birds N. Amer., 1858, 103. 
Popular synonym: RED-THBOATED SAPSUCKEB. 

This is the most common of our migratory woodpeckers. 
They seem to enjoy the scantily wooded portions of our city 

*Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull., Vol. VIII, 1876, 115. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. Ill 

parks, the noise of the cable lines and traffic teams apparently not 
disturbing them in the least. They arrive early in April from 
the south and remain with us until the middle of May. During 
their fall migration they appear in September and depart in 
October. Mr. E. W. Nelson says that "the males in spring 
often have the white nuchal band tipped with red much as in var. 
nuchal is. In the collection of Mr. C. X. Holden is a fine specimen 
obtained at Chicago, which has the red extending over the head 
and neck much like the distribution of color in Sphyrapicus ruber, 
but of a much lighter shade." 

The breeding range of this species is from the northern 
United States northward and in winter they migrate southward 
to the West Indies and through Mexico to Costa Rica. 

Genus CEOPHLCEUS Cabanis, 1862. 

Ceophlceus pileatus abieticola Bangs. Northern Pileated Woodpecker. 
Pious pileatus LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 113 (in part). 
Hylatomus pileatus BAIBD, B. N. Amer., 1858, 107 (in part). 
Ceophlceus pileatus CABANIS, Jour, fur Orn., 1862, 176 (in part). 
Ceophlceus pileatus abieticola BANGS, Auk, XV, April, 1898, 176. 
Popular synonyms: WOODCOCK. LOGCOCK. BLACK WOODCOCK OB 
LOGCOCK. 

The only records I have of the occurrence of this species with- 
in our limits are the following. Mr. Robert Kennicott places it 
in his list of Cook County birds with the following notation: 
"Rare. Not uncommon formerly. Numerous in southern Illinois." 
Mr. E. W. Nelson says: "A rare winter visitant. Two speci- 
mens were taken near Chicago during the winter of 1873." Mr. 
George Clingman reports the taking of a specimen at Half Day, 
Illinois, on December 30, 1893. Mr. J. Graf ton Parker and my- 
self observed this species at Kouts, Indiana, during the months 
of June and December, 1896. 

The range of this Woodpecker includes the heavily wooded 
districts from the southern Alleghanies northward. 

Genus MELANERPES Swainson, 1831. 

Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Linna3us). Red-headed Woodpecker. 

Picus erythrocephalus LINN.EUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 113. 
llelanerpes erythrocephalus SWAINSON, in Sw. & Rich., Fauna Bor. 
Amer., II, 1831, 316. 



112 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

A common summer resident, a few remaining within our 
limits during the winter. The majority of these Woodpeckers 
arrive the last of April, and remain with us until about the first 
of October, when they move southward. 

The range of this species includes the eastern United States 
and British Possessions, east of the Rocky Mountains. Strag- 
glers are occasionally seen as far west as Utah and Arizona, and 
they are rare in the New England states. Its breeding range is 
coincident with its distribution. 

Genus CENTURUS Swainso-n, 1837. 

Centurus carolinus (Linnseus). Red-bellied Woodpecker. 
Picus carolinus LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 113. 
Cent-urus carolinus BONAPARTE Geog. and Camp. List, 1838, 40. 
Melanerpes carolinus RIDGWAY, Ann, Lye. N. Y., X, January, 1874, 

378. 
Popular synonyms: CAROLINA WOODPECKER. ZEBRA WOODPECKER. 

The Red-bellied Woodpecker was formerly a common but 
now it is a rare migrant. Mr. H. K. Coale reports the taking of 
a male specimen in Chicago on October 29, 1876. A specimen 
in my collection was taken by Mr. Graham Davis in Hyde Park, 
Chicago, May 3, 1887. This species breeds abundantly at Kouts, 
Indiana. In his report, Mr. E. W. Nelson says : "A rare sum- 
mer resident. Not very uncommon during the migrations. De- 
parts the last of October." In the Ornithology of Illinois, Mr. 
Robert Ridgway says : "Mr. H. K. Coale informs me that he 
saw a pair in Lincoln Park, Chicago, in July, and that they were 
evidently breeding there, as he saw one of them come out of a 
hole in the dead top of an oak tree." 

The range of this species covers the eastern and southern 
United States. It is rare in the northern portions, but it does 
occur casually as far north as Massachusetts and Michigan. 

Genus COLAPTES Swainson, 1827. 

Colaptes auratus luteus Bangs. Northern Flicker. 

Cuculus auratus LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 112 (in part). 

Picus auratus LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 174 (in part). 

Colaptes auratus VIGORS, Zool. Journ., Ill, 1827, 444 (in part). 

Colaptes auratus luteus BANGS, Auk, XV, April, 1898, 177. 

Popular synonyms: YELLOW-HAMMER. HIGH-HOLDER. HIGH-HOLE, 
GOLDEN-WINGED WOODPECKER. YELLOW-SHAFTED FLICKER. WAKE- 
UP. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 113 

A very common resident, though a large number are some- 
what migratory, arriving early in April and departing in October, 

Its range covers eastern and northern North America, south 
to North Carolina, west to the base of the Rocky Mountains. Oc- 
casional on the Pacific slope, from California northward. 

ORDER MACROCHIRES: GOATSUCKERS, 

SWIFTS. 

FAMILY CAPRIMULGID^: GOATSUCKERS, ETC. 
Genus ANTROSTOMUS Gould, 1838. 

Antrostomus vociferus (Wilson). Whip-poor-will. 

Cayrimnlgus vociferus WILSON, Amer. On., V, 1812, 71, pi. 41, figs. 

1-3. 
Antrostomus vociferus BONAPARTE, Geog. & Comp. List, 1838, 8. 

Formerly this species was a common summer resident, but now 
it is quite rare. It arrives the last of April and departs in 
September. Mr. Robert Kennicott includes this species in his 
list* of Cook County birds with the annotation "Abundant. 
Found throughout the state." He also states that it nests in 
Cook County. In 1876, Mr. E. W. Nelson reportedf that it was 
a "common summer resident." 

Its range includes that portion of North America east of the 
Great Plains, and from about latitude 50 in the interior south 
through eastern Mexico to Guatemala. 

Genus CHORD EILES Swainson, 1831. 

Chordeiles virginianus (Gmelin). Nighthawk. 

Caprimitlgus rirf/inianiis GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 1028. 

Chordeiles virginianus SWAINSON, in Sw. & Rich., Fauna Bor. Amer., 

II, 1831, 496. 

Chordeiles popetite BAIRD, B. N. Amer.. 1858. 1.~>1. 
Popular synonyms : BULL BAT. WHIP-POOB-WILL. 

The Nighthawk is a summer resident but it is more common 
during its migrations, especially that of the fall. Mr. E. W. 
Nelson makes the following statement :f "A common summer 
resident. Arrives the loth of May and departs in immense 
flights, often lasting several hours, the first of September." Mr. 
Nelson also records the finding of variety henryi at Waukegan, 
a few miles north of our limits, by Mr. Rice in July, 1875. He 
says that this specimen was the first one taken in this vicinity, 



*Trans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1-854, 581. 

tBirds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 114. 



114 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

and adds: "The spring of 1876, I found these birds breeding, 
with var. popetue in considerable numbers among the sand hills 
on the Lake shore, near Waukegan. I should judge that the two 
forms existed in about equal numbers at that place. They are, 
however, less common in other localities I have visited. Among 
the specimens examined were individuals that exhibited a perfect 
intergradation of the two forms. Some specimens would have 
the white patch on the wings like those in typical henryi, while 
the tail was marked as in popetue, and vice versa. Other speci- 
mens showed a varying degree of white, on the wings and tail, 
between the two varieties. In none is the lightness of the back 
quite so prominent as in specimens from the western plains." 

The range of the Nighthawk includes eastern North America, 
west to the Great Plains and central British Columbia, and from 
Labrador south through tropical America to the Argentine Re- 
public. 

FAMILY MICROPODID^E: SWIFTS. 
Genus CENTURA Stephens, 1825. 

Chaetura pelagica (LinnaBus). Chimney Swift. 

Hirundo pelagica LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 192. 
Cypselus pelasgius BONAPARTE, Syn. 1828, 63. 
ChcBtura pelasgia STEPH., Gen. Zool., XIll, pt. ii, 1825, 76. 
Popular synonyms: CHIMNEY SWALLOW. CHIMNEY SWEEP. 

A common summer resident, arriving late in April and depart- 
ing about the middle of September. 

Its range covers eastern North America east of the Plains, and 
from Labrador and the Fur Countries southward. It winters 
south of the United States so far as known. 

FAMILY TROCHILIIXaE: HUMMINGBIRDS. 
Genus TROCHILUS Linnaeus, 1758, 

Trochilus colubris Linnaeus. Ruby-throated Hummingbird. 
Trochilus colulris LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 120. 

A common summer resident, arriving the last of April and 
departing in September. Mr. A. W. Carter found two nests of 
this species in May, 1905. One of these, which he found near 
Wolf Lake, Indiana, about the first of the month, contained fresh 
eggs. The other, which he saw about May 10, contained young 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 115 

birds. Both of the nests were over thirty feet from the ground, 
and were situated near the end of the branches of a large tree. 

The range of this species covers North America, east of the 
Plains and from the Fur countries south, in winter, to Cuba and 
the adjacent islands, and through Mexico to Central America. It 
breeds from Florida to Labrador. 

ORDER PASSERES: PERCHING BIRDS. 

FAMILY TYRANNID^E : TYRANT FLYCATCHERS. 
Genus TYEANNUS Cuvier, 1799. 

Tyrannus tyrannus (Linnaeus). Kingbird. 

Lanius tyrannus LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1^58, 94. 

Muscicapa tyrannus WILSON, Amer. Orn., I, 1808, 66, pi. 13, fig. 1. 

Tyrannus intrepidus VIEILLOT, Gal. Ois.. I, 1824. 214, pi. 133. 

Tyrannus carolinensis TEMM., Tabl. Meth., 183G, 24. 

Tyrannus tyrannus JORDAN, Man. Vert., ed. 4, 1884, 96. 

Popular synonyms: BEE BIED. BEE MARTIN. 

The Kingbird is a common summer resident, arriving late in 
April, and departing late in September. Mr. E. W. Nelson says :* 
"In the summer of 1875, Mr. Rice saw one of these birds plunge 
repeatedly into a stream in the manner of a Kingfisher. Shoot- 
ing the specimen he found its stomach contained aquatic insects." 

The range of the Kingbird is extensive, including North 
America from the British Provinces southward, though it is less 
common west of the Rocky Mountains. In winter, it passes 
southward through Mexico and Central America to Peru and 
Bolivia. 

Genus MYIAECHUS Cabanis, 1844. 

Myiarchus crinitus (Linnaeus). Crested Flycatcher. 

Musicapa crinita LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1TG6, 325. 
Tyrannus crinitus Sw., Quart. Journ,, XX, 1S2G, 271. 
Myiarchns crinitus LICIIT., Nomencl. Mus. Berol., 1854. 16. 
Popular synonyms: GREAT-CRESTED FLYCATCHER. GREAT YELLOW- 
BELLIED FLYCATCHER. 

This species is a rare summer resident but is more common 
during its migrations. It arrives early in May and departs about 
the middle of September. Mr. Robert Kennicott lists it as a 
common summer resident. f Mr. E. W. Nelson reports it as a 
"rather common summer resident." 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 113. 
tTrans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854. 582. 



Il6 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The range of this species covers the eastern United States 
and British Possessions, west to Manitoba and the Great Plains. 
In winter, south to Panama and Colombia. It breeds from 
Florida northward. 

Genus SAYORNIS Bonaparte, 1854. 

Sayornis phoebe (Latham). Phcebe. 

Muscicapa fusca GMELIN, S. N., I, 1788, 93 (nee Bodd., 1783). 

Muscicapa phoebe LATHAM, Ind. Orn., II, 1790, 489. 

Tyrannus fusous NUTTALL, Man., ed. 2, I, .1840, 312. 

Sayornis fuscus BAIRD. P>. N. Amer., 1858, 184. 

Sayornis phoebe STEJNEGEB, Auk, II, Jan. 1885, 51. 

Popular synonyms: PEWEE, BARN PHGEBE. PEWIT FLYCATCHER. 

The Phoebe is a common summer resident, arriving late in 
March and departing from the last of September to the middle 
of October. The Phoebe is noted for the persistency with which 
it will nest in a spot particularly suitable to its desires. It has 
been known to nest for several years in the same spot, though 
the nest has been repeatedly destroyed. 

Its range includes the eastern United States and British Pos- 
sessions, west to the eastern edge of the Great Plains, and from 
New Brunswick and the Mackenzie River southward. It winters 
from the south Atlantic and Gulf states southward, and breeds 
from South Carolina, Louisiana and western Texas northward. 

Genus NUTTALLORNIS Rid-way, 1887. 

Nuttallornis borealis (Swainson). Olive-sided Flycatcher. 

Tyrannus borealis SWAINSON, in Sw. & Rich., Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 

1831, 141, pi. 35. 

Muscicapa cooperi NUTTALL, Man., ed. I, 1832, 282. 
Tyrannus cooperi BONAPARTE, 1838, in Nuttall's Man., ed. 2, I, 1840, 

298. 

"Nuttallornis lorealis OBERHOLZER, Auk, XVI, Oct., 1899, 331. 
Contopus borealis BAIRD, B. N. Amer., 1858, 188. 

This flycatcher is a very rare migrant. I have a specimen 
taken by Mr. Graham Davis at Forty-seventh Street and Grand 
Boulevard, Chicago, May 26, 1887. A pair were seen near the 
north pond in Lincoln Park, Chicago, on May 20, 1904, by Mr. 
Ruthven Deane and Mr. Herbert E. Walter. Mr. E. W. Nelson 
says :* "Not an uncommon migrant, from May I5th to 25th, and 
the last of September and first of October. I have taken one 
specimen as late as June 2nd. It may breed." 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 113. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 117 

The range of this species includes the whole of temperate 
North America, breeding from the northern border of the United 
States northward to British Columbia and the Saskatchewan 
River. 

Genus CONTOPUS Cabanis, 1855. 

Contopus virens (Linnaeus). Wood Pewee. 

Muscicatpa virens LINNAEUS, S. X., ed. 12, I, 1766, 327. 
Tyrannus virens NUTTALL, Man., ed. 2, I, 1840, 316. 
Contopus virens CABANIS, J. f. O., III. 1855, 479. 

The Wood Pewee is a common summer resident, arriving 
early in May, and departing from the first to the last of October. 

The range of this species covers eastern North America, west 
to the Great Plains, and from southern Canada southward. It 
breeds nearly throughout its range in the United States and 
Canada. In winter, it migrates southward through eastern 
Mexico to Guatemala. 

Genus EMPIDONAX Cabanis, 1855. 

Empidonax flaviventris Baird. Yellow-bellied Flycatcher. 

Tyrannula flaviventris BAIRD (W. M. & S. F.), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Philadelphia, I, 1843, 283. 
Empidonax flaviventris BAIBD, B. N. Amer., 1858, 198. 

A rather common migrant, arriving early in April and return- 
ing in September. There are some indications that it may have 
nested within our limits. Dr. Hoy found it to be a summer 
resident in the vicinity of Racine, Wisconsin, a few miles north 
of our area. Mr. E. W. Nelson says:* "A common migrant. 
The first of July, 1873, I found them quite common in a dense 
swampy thicket in Northern Indiana, where they had probably 
nested." 

Its range covers eastern North America, and it breeds from 
the northern United States northward. In winter it migrates 
southward through eastern Mexico to Colombia. 

Empidonax virescens (Vieillot). Green-crested Flycatcher. 
Muscicapa acadica GMELIN, S. X.. I, 1788. 047. 
Platyrhyncnos virescens VIEILLOT, Xouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat, XXVII, 

1818, 22. 

Empidonax acadicus BAIBD, B. N. Amer., 1858, 197. 
Empidonax rirescens BBEWSTER, Auk, XII. April. 1805. 157. 
Tyrannula acadica Sw., in Bonaparte's Comp. and Geog. List, 1838, 24. 
Popular synonym: ACADIAN FLYCATCHER. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute. Vol. VIII, 1876. 114. 



Il8 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

A not uncommon summer resident, breeding locally in the 
rather heavy timber in the northwestern portion of our area. It 
arrives early in May and departs about the twenty-fifth of Sep- 
tember. Mr. Robert Kennicott includes this species in his list 
of Cook County birds* with the annotation, "Abundant," and 
says that it is known to nest in Cook County. Mr. E. W. Nelson 
says :f that it is "A rare summer resident." Mr. Robert Ridgway 
says :J "This is probably the most numerous and generally dis- 
tributed species of the genus in the State." 

The range of this species covers the eastern United States, 
excepting that it is rare or casual in the New England states. 
It breeds nearly throughout its range, and migrates southward to 
Cuba and Yucatan. 

Empidonax traillii (Audubon). Traill 's Flycatcher. 
Muscicapa traillii AUDUBON, Orn. Biog., I, 1832, 236. 
Tyrannus traillii NUTTALL, Man., ed. 2, I, 1840, 323. 
Empidonax traillii BAIRD, B. N. Amer., 1858, 193. 

Empidonax pusillus var. traillii B. B. & R., Hist. N. Amer. B., II, 
1874, 369, pi. 44, fig. 8. 

A not uncommon summer resident, arriving early in May and 
departing in September. It is more common during its migra- 
tions. Mr. B. T. Gault and the writer observed a brood of young 
birds, of this species, near Calumet Lake, July 10, 1896. 

The range of this species includes the Mississippi Valley, from 
Ohio, Illinois and Michigan westward to the Pacific coast, and 
from the Fur Countries southward into Mexico. 

Empidonax minimus Baird. Least Flycatcher. 

Musicapa acadica "GMELIN," NUTTALL, Man., I, 1832, 288 (nee 

Gmelin). 
Tyrannula minima BAIBD (W. M. & S. F.), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Philadelphia, July, 1843, 284. 
Empidonax minimus BAIBD, B. N. Amer., 1858, 195. 

A rather uncommon summer resident, arriving early in May 
and departing early in September. 

The range of this species includes North America east of the 
Great Plains. It breeds from the northern United States north- 
ward, and winters southward at least into Central America. 
Westward it is a casual visitor to the base of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. 



*Trans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854. 582. 

tBirds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VTTI, 1876, 114. 

^Ornithology of Illinois, Vol. I, 1889, 357. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 

FAMILY ALAUDID.E: LARKS. 
Genus OTOCORIS Bonaparte, 1838. 

Otocoris alpestris (Linnaeus). Homed Lark. 

Alauda alpestris LIXK.EUS, S. X., ed. 10, 1758, 166. 

Eremophila alpestris BOIE, Isis, 1828, 322. 

Otocoris alpestris BONAPABTE, Nouvi Ann. Sci. Nat. Bologna, II, 1838, 
407. 

Popular synonyms: SHORE LARK. SNOW LARK. SKYLARK. AMERI- 
CAN SKYLARK. PRAIRIE LARK. SNOWBIRD. 

The Horned Lark is a rare winter resident within our limits. 
No doubt its presence has been overlooked by many of our Illi- 
nois observers, for it differs from Otocoris alpestris praticola only 
in size, being larger and a trifle darker in color.* 

The range of this species covers northeastern North America, 
Greenland and the northern parts of the Old World. In winter 
it passes south in the eastern United States to the Carolinas, 
Illinois, etc. 

Otocoris alpestris praticola Henshaw. Prairie Horned Lark. 

Otocoris alpestris praticola HENSHAW, Auk, I, July, 1884, 264. 
Popular synonyms: The same as Otocoris alpestris. 

A common resident, breeding within our limits from the last 
of February to June. 



*In his "Birds of Northeastern Illinois" (Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. 
VIII, 1876, 110), Mr. E. W. Nelson says: "Two current and readily distinguish- 
able varieties (of alpestris) are found during the winter, one of which is also 
found in summer. Aware of their identity, yet wishing confirmation, I sent Mr. 
Bidgway specimens of the two. The winter resident he pronounced typical var. 
alpestris, and the permanently resident form var. leucolaema Cs." 

On the strength of this knowledge, Mr. Nelson includes the variety leucolaema 
Coues, which is a species inhabiting the "interior of British America, and Alaska, 
south in winter into western United States," in his list. He gives the following 
note: "It is a permanent resident, found in equal numbers throughout the year. 
Sometimes the last of February and regularly during March and April the first 
set of eggs are deposited, and early in May the fully fledged young commence to 
appear. After a short rest the female hands the guidance of the young over to 
the male and resumes her work on a second set of eggs. When the second brood 
are able to follow, the party wander wherever inclination leads through the fall 
and winter, until the breeding season again approaches, when they disband. 

"A remarkable characteristic of the young of leucolaema from Illinois is that 
they are exactly like the young of alpestris, although the young of the two varie- 
ties are, usually, even more distinct than the adults. So closely like the young 
of alpestris are they, that Mr. Ridgway had labelled young specimens from this 
vicinity, and from southern Illinois, 'alpestris,' and supposed this to be the resi- 
dent variety until he received the adults above mentioned." 

Regarding the identification of the specimens sent to him by Mr. Nelson, Mr. 
Ridgway says in his "Revised Catalogue of the Birds of Illinois," 1881, p. 183, 
"Mr. Nelson includes the pale form distinguished by the name of leucolaema 
Coues, in his list. This, however, is an error, so far as the specimens upon 
which the statement was based are concerned, but one for which I r.m chiefly re- 
sponsible. A series of specimens was submitted to me for examination, and' cer- 
tain examples, in very pale plumage, I pronounced to be the 'var. leucolaema.' 
In this I was mistaken, the individuals in question proving to be the true alpes- 
tris, in much faded summer plumage. Although it is frequently not easy to dis- 
tinguish the adults of the two forms, there is never any difficulty with the young, 
that of leucolaema being many shades lighter in color, the difference being, more- 
over, absolutely constant. I was only made aware of my mistake by the subse- 
quent inspection of young birds said to be the same form which I had previously 
identified as leucolaema; and, neglecting to explain the case in time, am thus 
responsible in great measure for the statement made by Mr. Nelson In regard 
to these birds, as cited above." 



I2O THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The range of this species includes the upper Mississippi Valley 
and from the region of the Great Lakes eastward to New Eng- 
land, breeding practically throughout this range. It winters 
south to South Carolina and Texas. 

FAMILY CORVID^E: CROWS, JAYS AND MAGPIES. 
Genus PICA Brisson, 1760. 

Pica pica hudsonia (Sabine). American Magpie. 

Corvus pica WILSON, Amer. Orn., IV, 1811, 75, pi. 35, fig. 2 (neo 

Linnaeus). 

Corvus hudsonicus SABINE, App. Franklin's Journ., 1823, 25, 671. 
Pica melanoleuca AUDUBON, Synop., 1839, 157. 
Picus caudata vaf. hudsonica ALLEN, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ill, 

1872, 178. 

Pica pica hudsonica JORDAN, Man. Vert., ed. 4, 1884, 94. 
Popular synonym : BLACK-BILLED MAGPIE. 

This species is included in this list on the strength of Mr. 
Robert Kennicott's statement that is was "not uncommon in 
winter" at the time his list of Cook County birds was published.* 

This is a species which ranges from the Plains westward to 
the Cascade Mountains and north to Alaska. It is casual visitor 
east and south to Michigan. 

Genus CYANOCITTA Strickland, 1845. 

Cyanocitta cristata (Linnasus). Blue Jay. 

Corvus cristatus LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I. 1758, 100. 
Cyanurus cristatus Sw. & RICH., Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 1831, 495. 
Cyanocorax cristatus BONAPARTE, List, 1838, 27. 
Cyanocitta cristata STRICKLAND, Ann. Nat. Hist., XV, 1845, 261. 
Cyanura cristata' "Sw." in Nelson's List, Bull. Essex Inst. Vol. VIII, 
1876, 112. 

The Blue Jay is an abundant resident. 

Its range is extensive, covering the whole of North America, 
east of the Great Plains and from the Fur Countries on the north 
southward to the Gulf of Mexico. It breeds throughout its 
range. 

Genus CORVUS Linnaeus, 1758. 

Corvus corax principalis Ridgrway. Northern Raven. 

Corvus corax WILSON, Amer. Orn., IX, 1825, 130, pi. 75, fig. 3 (nee 
Linnaeus). 



*Trans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854, 585. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 121 

Corvus corax var. carnivorus BAIBD, BBEWEB & RIDGWAY, Hist. N. 

Amer. Birds, II, 1874, 233 (in part). NELSON, Birds N. E". 

Ilinois, Bull. Essex Inst., VIII, 1876, 112. 

Corvus corax sinuatus RIDGWAY, Ora. Illinois, I, 1889, 331 (in part). 
Corvus corax principalis RIDGWAY, Man. N. Amer. Birds, 1187, 361. 

The raven may be considered an occasional winter and early 
spring visitant to our area. I have known of but two specimens 
being taken within our limits during the past ten years. Both 
of .these were shot at Calumet Heights, Illinois; one by Mr. 
George Knowles, and the other by Mr. Richard Turtle. At dif- 
ferent times, observers have reported the presence of the Raven 
within our limits. Many years ago, this species seems to have 
been much more common. Mr. Robert Kennicott records* it as 
"common throughout the state," and says that the Raven was 
known to nest in Cook County. Mr. E. W. Nelson says (1876) : 
"Formerly a not uncommon resident; now occurs only in winter 
and is rare. Frequents the sand hills along the Lake shore from 
the last of October until spring." Mr. Nelson places this note 
under the name "C. corax var. carnivorus," which, in part at 
least, is a synonym of Corvus corax principalis. 

Though nearly all the observers who have published reports 
on the birds of northern Illinois, have considered the Ravens of 
our region to be the subspecies sinuatus, I am convinced from the 
study of specimens which have come into my hands that all are 
the Northern Raven, or the larger form principalis. This opinion 
is also supported by the general range of the two forms, as given 
ia the Check-list of the American Ornithologists' Union and by 
Dr. Ridgway in the "Birds of North and Middle America."t 
Sinuatus is a smaller form whose range barely reaches as far 
north, in the Mississippi Valley, as southern Illinois and southern 
Indiana. A specimen which I took at Meredosia, Illinois, some 
years ago was pronounced by Dr. Ridgway to be principalis, and 
in a recent letter, he says : "It would seem likely that the Raven 
of northern Illinois, at least, should be principalis." 

This question needs further investigation and all specimens 
of the Raven which are taken within our limits should be care- 
fully examined, measured and studied. 

Corvus brachyrhynclios C. Lu Brehm. American Crow. 

Corvus corone WILSON, Amer. Orn., IV, 1814, 79, pi. 25, fig. 3 (nee 

Linnaeus). 



*Trans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854, 585. 
tBull. U. S. Nat. Museum. No. 50, Part III. 259. 262. 



122 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Corvus brachyrhynchos C. L. BBEIIM, Beitriige zur Vogelkunde, II, 

1822, p. 56. 

Corvus americanus AUDUBON, Orn. Biog., II, 1834, 317. 
Corvus brachyrhynchos RICHAEDSON, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XVI, 

1903, 125. 
Popular synonym : COMMON CROW. 

The American Crow is an abundant resident. In his list of 
Cook County bird's, Mr. Robert Kennicott says that the Crow 
was at that time (1853-1854) "Common throughout the state." 
Mr. E. W. Nelson, on the other hand, while listing the Crow as 
resident, says: "This is far from an abundant species in North- 
ern Illinois, at any season or locality. A small number breed 
in the low pines on the sand hills along the Lake shore, and in 
winter unite in small flocks and move from place to place." 

The range of the Crow includes the whole of North America 
from the Fur Countries on the north southward to the southern 
border of the United States. It is rare or local in the interior 
western districts. 

FAMILY ICTERIME: BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES, ETC. 
Genus DOLICHONYX Swainson, 1827. 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus). Bobolink. 

Fringilla oryzivora LINN.EUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 179. 
Icterus agripennis BONAPARTE, Obs. Wilson, 1824, No. 87. 
Dolichonyx oryzivorus SWAINSON, Zool. Journ., Ill, 1827, 351. 
Popular synonyms : BOB LINCOLN. REED BIRD. RICE BIRD. SKUNK 

BLACKBIRD. 



The Bobolink is a common summer resident, arriving the last 
of April and departing about the middle of October. 

The range of this species covers eastern North America, west- 
ward to Nevada, Utah and Idaho, and from Ontario and Mani- 
toba southward in winter to the southern portions of South 
America. It breeds from the middle states northward. 

Genus MOLOTHRUS Swainson, 1831. 

Molothms ater (Boddaert). Cowbird. 

Oriolus ater BODDAERT, Tabl. PI. Enlum., 1783, 37. 
Icterus pecoris BONAPARTE, Obs. Wilson, 1824, No. 88. 
Fringilla ambigua NUTTALL, Man., I, 1832, 484 (= young)i 
Molothrus pecoris SWAINSON, Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 1831, 277. 
Molothrus ater GRAY, Hand-List, II, 1870, 36, No. 6507 (after Bodd., 

PI. Enlum. 606, fig. 1). 
Popular synonyms : Cow BLACKBIRD. Cow BUNTING. COWPEN 

BUNTING. CLODHOPPER. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 123 

An abundant summer resident, arriving early in April and de- 
parting in October. 

The range of the Cowbird covers North America from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the southern portion of the 
British Possessions southward, in winter, into Mexico. 

Genus XANTHOCEPHALUS Bonaparte, 1850. 

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Bonap.) Yellow-headed Blackbird. 
Icterus xanthocephalus BONAPARTE, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 

V, 1826, 223. 
Agclaius xanthocephalus Sw. & RICH., Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 1831, 

281. 

Icterus ictcrocephalus BONAPARTE, Amer. Orn., I, 1835, 27, pi. 3. 
Xanthocephalus icterocephalus BAIBD, B. N. Amer., 1858, 531. 
Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus JORDAN, Man. Vert, ed. 4, 1884, 92. 

A common summer resident, arriving the last of April and 
departing in September. This Blackbird once nested in vast 
numbers in the Calumet region but is becoming scarcer each 
year, for the smaller marshes and lakes are being rapidly drained 
for commercial and agricultural purposes. Unlike the Red- 
winged Blackbird, the male of this species is very shy during the 
bleeding season. 

The range of this species covers western North America from 
Wisconsin, Illinois, Kansas and Texas to the Pacific coast, and 
from the Sakatchewan River southward into Mexico. It is also 
a casual visitor to some of the eastern states, Florida and Cuba. 

Genus AGELAITJS Vieillot, 1816. 

Agelaius phoenicens (Linnasus.) Red- winged Blackbird. 
Oriolus phceniceus LINN.EUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 161. 
Agelaius phoeniceus VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat, XXXIV, 

1819, 539. 

Icterus phoeniceus DAUD., Licht., Verz., 1823, No. 128. 
Popular synonyms : RED-WINGED STARLING. SWAMP BLACKBIED. RED- 

SHOULDEEED BLACKBIRD. 

The Red-winged Blackbird is an abundant summer resident, 
arriving early in March and departing when the severely cold 
weather sets in. 

The range of this species includes temperate North America, 
from the Fur Countries southward, in winter, as far as Costa 
Rica. It breeds in suitable places from Texas northward nearly 
throughout its range. 



124 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Genus STURNELLA Vieillot, 1816. 

Sturnella magna (Linnaeus). Meadowlark. 

Alauda magna LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 167. 
Sturnus ludovicianus LINNJEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 17G6, 290. 
Sturnella magna SWAINSON. Phil. Mag., I, 1827, 436. 
Popular synonym : FIELDLARK. 

The Meadowlark is a common summer resident, arriving in 
March and departing when severely cold weather sets in. In 
1876 Mr. E. W. Nelson recorded it as "an abundant summer resi- 
dent," and also states that "in mild winters a few are resident." 

The range of the Meadowlark covers the eastern United 
States and British Possessions west to the Great Plains. It breeds 
from the Gulf of Mexico northward. 

Sturnella neglecta Audubon. Western Meadowlark. 

Sturnella neglecta AUDUBON, B. Amer., VII, 1843, 339, pi. 487. 
Sturnella magna var. neglecta ALLEN, Bull. M. C. Z., Ill, No. 2, July, 

1872, 178. 
Popular synonym : WESTERN FIELDLABK. 

The only record that I have found of the taking of the 
Western Meadowlark within the limits of our area, is that of 
Mr. E. W. Nelson, who says :* "A regular but rather rare sum- 
mer resident upon prairies. A more frequent visitant during 
migrations. A fine specimen is in the collection of my friend 
Mr. A. W. Bray ton, taken near Chicago the last of May, 1876. 
This form is probably a common summer resident upon the prai- 
ries in the western portion of the state." 

The range of this Meadowlark covers the western United 
States, east to the prairie districts of the Mississippi Valley, Illi- 
nois, Wisconsin, and from British Columbia and Manitoba, south 
through central and western Mexico. 

Genus ICTERUS Brisson, 1760. 

Icterus spurius (Linnaeus). Orchard Oriole. 

Oriolus spurius LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12. I, 1766, ]62. 

Icterus spurius BONAPARTE, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, III, 

1823, 363. 
Popular synonyms : BROWN ORIOLE. CHESTNUT-COLORED ORIOLE. 

While the Orchard Oriole was formerly common, it is now 
a rather uncommon summer resident, arriving early in May and 
departing in August. I am informed by Mr. J. Grafton Parker, 

*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 111. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 125 

Jr., that in June, 1880, he found the Orchard Oriole breeding 
abundantly in apple orchards near Evanston, Illinois. 

The range of this Oriole includes the United States east of 
the Plains, and from near the northern border south, in winter, 
as far as Colombia. It breeds throughout its United States 
range. 

Icterus galbula (Linnaeus). Baltimore Oriole. 

Coracias galbula LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, -1758, 108. 
Oriolus Baltimore LINN.EUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 162. 
Icterus Baltimore DAUD.. Tr. Orn., II, 348. 

Icterus galbula COUES, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, V, April, 1880, 98. ' 
Popular synonyms: GOLDEN ORIOLE. GOLDEN ROBIN. HANGING 
BIBD. FIRE BIRD. PEA BIRD. 

The Baltimore Oriole is a common summer resident, arriving 
the last of April and departing in September. 

Its range extends throughout eastern temperate North Amer- 
ica, west quite to the base of the Rocky Mountains, and south, 
in winter, through Mexico to Colombia. It breeds chiefly north 
of latitude 35. 

Genus EUPHAGUS Cassin, 1866. 

Euphagns carolinns (Miiller). Rusty Blackbird. 

Turdus carolinus MULLER, Syst. Nat., Snppl., 1776, 140. 
Quiscalus ferrugineus BONAPARTE, Obs. Wils., 1824, No. 46. 
Scolecophagus ferrugineus SWAINSON, in Sw. & Rich.. Fauna Bor. 

Amer., II, 1831, 286. 
Scolecophagus carolinus RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., VIII, 1885, 

356. 
Euphagus carolinus RICHMOND, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, XVI, 

1903, 128. 
Popular synonym : RUSTY CRACKLE, 

This species is an abundant migrant, arriving early in March 
and remaining until the last of April. In the fall it returns about 
the first of October and departs for its winter home when the 
severely cold weather sets in. 

Its range includes eastern North America, \vest to Alaska 
and the Great Plains. It breeds from northern New England 
and Michigan northward and in Alaska. 

Enphagus cyanocephalus (Wagler). Brewer 's Blackbird. 

Psarocolius cyanocephalus WAGLER, Isis, 1829, 758. 

Scotecophagus cyanocephalus CABANIS. Mus. Hein., I. 1851, 193. 

Euphagus cyanocephalus RICHMOND. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 
XVI, 1903. 128. 

Popular synonyms: VIOLET-HEADED BLACKBIRD. BLUE-HEADED BLACK- 
BIRD. 



126 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

This species is included in this list on the strength of the 
following statement of Mr. E. W. Nelson, who says: "A very 
rare visitant in company with the preceding (Rusty Blackbird)." 
It is also very rarely seen in other portions of Illinois. Mr. 
Robert Ridgway says* that he had observed but a single speci- 
men, "a female shot at Mount Carmel in December, 1866, and 
now in the collection of the National Museum at Washington." 

The range of Brewer's Blackbird extends from Minnesota, 
Nebraska, Kansas, Indian Territory, and Texas westward to the 
Pacific coast, and from the Saskatchewan region southward to 
Mexico. During its migrations it has been observed 'in Wiscon- 
sin, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri and Louisiana. 

Genus QUISCALUS Vieillot, 1816. 

Quiscalus quiscula seneus (Ridgway). Bronzed Grackle. 

Quiscalus ceneus RIDGWAY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, June, 

1869, 134. 

Quiscalus quiscula ceneus &TEJNEGER, Auk, II, Jan., 1885, 43, Foot-note. 
Quiscalus purpureus ccneus RIDGWAY, Nom. N. Amer. B., 1881, No. 

278b. 
Popular synonyms: WESTERN CEOW BLACKBIRD. CROW BLACKBIRD. 

The Bronzed Grackle is a common summer resident, arriving 
early in March, and departing when the cold weather sets in. 

The range of this species extends from the Alleghanies and 
southern New England north to Newfoundland and the Great 
Slave Lake, west to the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains, 
and south to Louisiana and Texas. 

FAMILY FRINGILLIDJE: GROSBEAKS, FINCHES, 
SPARROWS, ETC. 

Genus HESPERIPHONA Bonaparte, 1850. 

Hesperiphona vespertina (W, Cooper). Evening Grosbeak. 
Fringilla vespertina COOPER, Ann. Lye. N. Y. I., ii, 1825, 220. 
Coccothraustes vespertina Sw. & RICH., Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 1831, 

269, pi. 6. 
Hesperiphona vespertina BONAPARTE, Consp. Avium, I, 1850, 505. 

The Evening Grosbeak is a very irregular winter visitant to 
our area. I took a specimen at River Forest on January 13, 
1887, and another at Englewood in March, 1888. Mr. B. T. 
Gault informs me that on December 25, 1886, he observed five 



^Ornithology of Illinois, Vol. I, 1889. 324. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 127 

in Garfield Park, Chicago, where they were feeding upon the 
keys of the box elder. Mr. E. W. Nelson says :* "The winter 
of 1871 they were quite common throughout the northern por- 
tion of the state. The following winter they were much rarer, 
and since then but very few have been seen. I am told that for- 
merly, it was of much more regular occurrence." The following 
records of the occurrence of this species within our limits I take 
form Mr. Amos W. Butler's report on "The Birds of Indiana" :f 
"Five specimens were shot by Mr. H. K. Coale at Whiting, In- 
diana, on December 20, 1883. Two females were taken near 
Lake George, Indiana, December 5, 1886, which are now in the 
collection of Mr. G. Fream Morccm, San Diego, California. In 
Mr. Morcom's collection I (Mr. Butler) saw six males and two 
females, marked Berry Lake, Indiana, April 3, 1887; also four 
females from the same locality, April 18, 1887, an d a male and 
female, dated May 10, 1887. Mr. R. Turtle, a taxidermist of 
Chicago, showed me (Mr. Butler) a number of these birds, of 
which he said he killed ten, May 8, 1887, at Berry Lake, Indiana, 
and thirteen May 10, at Whiting. The latest record I have of 
its occurrence in spring is May 13, 1887, when it was found in 
Lake County, Indiana. Mr. L. T. Meyer reported them from 
Whiting, Lake County, Indiana, in January and February, 1890." 
Mr. H. K. Coale has furnished me with the following interesting 
record: "On February n, 1887, Mr. E. A. Colby shot twelve 
Evening Grosbeaks in Chicago which he presented to me in the 
flesh. He also saw several flocks during the winter feeding on 
the buds of trees." 

The above records indicate that during the years 1886 and 
1887 there was a rather phenomenal appearance of the Gros- 
beaks within the limits of our area. During recent years while 
this species has been a constant it could hardly be considered a 
common winter visitant, though the number of individuals ob- 
served has been quite large during some seasons. 

The home of the Evening Grosbeaks is in the coniferous for- 
ests of the northwest. Their range includes the western British 
Provinces, east to Lake Superior : in the Rocky Mountains south 
into the L'nited States and eastward irregularly in winter to 
Michigan and Indiana and, casually, to the Atlantic coast. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 104. 
+ Twenty-second Annual Report Dept. of Geol. and Nat. Resources, Indiana, 
1897, 912, 913. 



128 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Genus PINICOLA Vieillot, 1807. 

Pinicola enucleator canadensis (Cabanis). Canadian Pine Grosbeak. 

Loxia enucleator LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 299, part (nee 

1858). 

Pyrrhula enucleator BONAPARTE, Syn. 1828, 119. 
Pinicola canadensis CABANIS, Mus. Hein., I, Aug., 1851, 167. 
Pinicola enucleator COUES, Key N. Amer. Birds, 1872, 127, (part). 
Pinicola enucleator B. canadensis RIDGWAY, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 

April, 1878, 66. 

The Canadian Pine Grosbeak is a very rare and irregular 
winter visitant. The only records that I have for its occurrence 
during recent years within our limits are the following. In Jan- 
uary, 1887, I took a specimen at River Forest. In December, 
1885, Mr. John F. Ferry took a number of specimens from a 
flock at Lake Forest. It seems to have been more common 
.many years ago. Mr. E. W. Nelson says : "Formerly common ; 
now a rare winter visitant." In his "Birds of Indiana" Mr. 
Amos W. Butler states that Mr. George L. Toppan "once noted 
it in Lake County, Indiana, and thinks it was in the winter of 
1884-1885." 

Its range includes the coniferous forests of the northern por- 
tions of North America and the breeding range extends from 
northern New England and Minnesota, and in the Rocky Moun- 
tains in Colorado northward nearly to the limit of trees. In the 
winter it migrates southward into the United States especially 
in the northeastern portion. 

Genus CARPODACUS Kaup, 1829. 

Carpodacus purpureus (Gmelin). Purple Finch. 

Fringilla purpurea GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 923. 
Carpodacus purpureus GRAY, Gen. B., II, 1844, 384. 
Popular synonyms: PURPLE LINNET. PURPLE GROSBEAK. ROSY 
LINNET. ROSEATE GROSBEAK OR FINCH. STRAWBERRY BIRD. 

The Purple Finch is an irregular migrant and a not uncom- 
mon winter resident. It arrives in the fall in September and 
remains until May. I have no records of its breeding within 
our limits. That it has nested in northern Illinois, however, is 
shown by the following records. Mr. E. W. Nelson says:* 
"Common winter resident; a few breed." Professor W. W. 
Cooke statesf that its eggs have been taken at Polo, Ogle County, 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 105. 
tBird Migration in the Mississippi Valley, p. 179. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 129 

Illinois. And according to Mr. NehrlingJ this Finch has been 
taken at Waukegan, Illinois, during the breeding season. 

The range of the Purple Finch covers the whole of eastern 
North America, from the Gulf of Mexico northward to Labrador 
and the Saskatchewan River, and from the Atlantic coast west- 
ward to the Plains. It breeds from Illinois and Pennsylvania 
northward though chiefly north of the United States. 

Genus LOXIA Linnaeus, 1758. 

Loxia curvirostra minor (Brehm). American Crossbill. 

Loxia curvirostra FORSTEB, Phil. Trans., LXII, 1772, 402 (nee Lin- 
naeus) . 

Crucirostra minor BBEHM, Naumannia, 1853, 193. 

Loxia curvirostra var. americana COUES, Key, 1872, 351. 

Loxia curvirostra minor RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., VIII, 1885, 
354. 

Popular synonyms: RED CBOSSBILL. AMERICAN RED CBOSSBILL. 

This Crossbill is an irregular and very erratic winter visitant. 
In May, 1899, I obtained three specimens from a large flock in 
the woods bordering Wolf Lake, Indiana. Nearly every winter 
it may be seen in the woods near Lake Forest, Illinois, about 
twenty-four miles north of Chicago. According to Mr. Amos 
W. Butler,* Mr. C. E. Aiken observed them in Lake County, 
Indiana, and in Cook County, Illinois, during the years 1869 and 
1870. They were again observed in Lake County, Indiana, in 
May, 1887. Mr. Aiken also informed Mr. Butler that "they 
became very abundant in the vicinity of Chicago, including Lake 
County, Indiana, in July and August, 1869, and remained until 
late in the fall. They fed greedily on sunflower seeds, and were 
so sluggish that one could approach within a few feet of them, 
so that they fell an easy prey to boys with catapults." Mr. E. W. 
Nelson says :f "Formerly a common winter resident ; now rare." 

The range of the American Crossbill covers temperate North 
America, and it breeds from the northern portions of the United 
States northward to certain portions of Alaska. It also breeds 
sparingly in the higher portions of the eastern United States, 
and in the Alleghanies. In many localities of the more southern 
portion of its range it is irregularly abundant in winter. 

Loxia leucoptera Gmelin. White-winged Crossbill. 
Loxia leucoptera GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 540. 



*Birds of Indiana. Twenty-second Annual Report, Dept. Geol. and Nat. Re- 
sources, Indiana, 1897, 919. 

tBirds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 105. 
JNorth American Birds, Pt. IX, 31. 



130 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Curvirostra leucoptera WILSON, Ainer. On., IV, 1811, 48, pi. 31, 
fig. 3. 

The White-winged Crossbill is a very rare winter visitant. 
The first record I have of the capture of this species is that of a 
specimen in the collection of Mr. B. T. Gault which was taken 
near Chicago in the seventies. In the year 1894, from the ninth 
to the twentieth of November, enormous flocks of these Crossbills 
passed along the lake shore and many were shot with sling- 
shots by boys. I have several fine specimens which were taken 
by Mr. Claude Tallman at Morgan Park, Illinois, on November 9, 
1894. Mr. Amos W. Butler states, J that during the summer of 
1869, Mr. C. E. Aiken found this species in the vicinity of Chi- 
cago, and in Lake County, Indiana, in company with the American 
Crossbill, and that they remained throughout the winter succeed- 
ing. Mr. E. W. Nelson says:* "A winter resident of rare oc- 
currence at present." 

The range of this species covers northern North America, 
breeding from northern New England and the northern Rocky 
Mountain districts in the United States northward. 

Genus ACANTHIS Bechstein, 1803. 

Acantsis hornemannii exilipes (Coues), Hoary Redpoll. 

^giothus exilipes COUES, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1861, 385. 
Acanthis hornemannii exilipes STEJNEGEB, Auk, I, April. 1884, 152. 
sEgiothus canescens CABANIS, of some authors. 

Popular synonyms: MEALY REDPOLL. HOARY LINNET. WHITE- 
BUMPED REDPOLL. 

Regarding the occurrence of this species within our limits, 
Mr. Robert Ridgway says:f "I have seen specimens in the col- 
lection of Mr. E. W. Nelson, that were collected in the vicinity 
of Chicago, but I am unable to give dates of their capture." 
Mr. Nelson himself says : "Rare' winter visitant with the pre- 
ceding (Acanthis lindria)." 

This species ranges through Arctic America and northeastern 
Asia, migrating southward at times to the northern United 
States. 

Acanthis linaria (Linnaeus). Redpoll. 

Fringilla linaria LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 182. 
Acanthis linaria BONAPARTE, & SCHLEG., Mon. Lox., 1850, 48. 
Linaria minor Sw. & RICH., Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 1831, 267. 



$ Birds of Indiana. Twenty-second Annual Report, Dept. Geol. and Nat. Re- 
ources, Indiana, 1897, 921. 

*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 105. 
fOrnithology of Illinois, Vol. I, 1889, 2'33. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 13! 

/Egiothus linari-us CABANIS, Mus. Hein., 1851, 161. 
Popular synonyms: LESSER REDPOLL. COMMON REDPOLL. DUSKY 
REDPOLL. SNOWBIED. REDPOLL LINNET. 

The Redpoll is a common winter resident, arriving in flocks 
about the last of October and remaining until the first of April. 

The range of this species covers the northern portion of the 
northern hemisphere, breeding north of the United States and 
passing southward in winter at times as far as Virginia and 
Kansas and quite regularly to the middle United States. 

Acanthis linaria holboellii (Brehm). Holboll's Redpoll. 

Linaria holbcellii BBEHM, Handb. Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 280. 
Acanthis linaria B. Holboellii DUBOIS, Consp. Av. Europe, 1871, 18. 

The only record of the occurrence of this species within our 
limits that I have been able to find is that of a female taken 
in Chicago by Mr. George F. Clingman on November 2, 1878, 
and recorded by Mr. H. K. Coale in the Bulletin of the Nuttall 
Ornithological Club, Volume VIII, page 239. 

This Redpoll ranges through the northern portions of the 
northern hemisphere and near the seacoast. In North America 
it passes southward in winter to northern New York and Mas- 
sachusetts. 

Acanthis linaria rostrata (Coues). Greater Redpoll. 

JEgiothus rostratus COUES, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1861, 

378. 
Acanthis linaria rostrata STEJNEGEB, Auk, I, April, 1884, 153. 

The Greater Redpoll is a rare winter visitant. There is a 
specimen in the collection of The Chicago Academy of Sciences 
taken in the seventies by Mr. C. N. Holden, which is in the 
plumage of the young male. Mr. H. K. Coale also reports this 
species as being found in the vicinity of Chicago. It probably 
occurs with Acanthis linaria. 

Its range includes northeastern North America and Green- 
land. It is a somewhat irregular winter visitant to New England, 
New York and Illinois. 

Genus ASTRAGAUNUS Cabanis, 1851. 

Astragalinus tristis (Linnseus). American Goldfinch. 
Fringilla tristis LINN.EUS, S. X., ed. 10, I, 1758, 181. 
Chrysotnitris tristis BONAPARTE, List. 1838, 33. 
AstragaUnvs tristis CABANIS. Mus. Hein., I, July, 1851, 159. 
Spinus tristis STEJNEGER, Auk, I, October, 1884. 302. 



132 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Popular synonyms : SUMMER YELLOW-BIRD. LETTUCE-BIRD. THISTLE- 
BIRD. BLACK-WINGED AND BLACK-CAPPED YELLOW-BIRD. 

The American Goldfinch is a very common resident of our 
area. In the winter the plumage of the male is changed to more 
somber colors, resembling those of the female. "The yellow is 
replaced by a yellowish brown ; the black of the crown wanting, 
that of the wings and tail browner. The throat is generally 
yellowish ; the under parts ashy brown passing behind into white." 

The range of this species covers the whole of temperate North 
America, and it breeds nearly throughout its geographical range. 

Genus SPINUS Koch, 1816. 

Spinus pinus (Wilson). Pine Siskin. 

Fringilla pinus WILSON, Amer. Orn., II, 1810, 133, pi. 17, fig. 1. 
Chrysomitris pinus BONAPARTE, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 33. 
Spinus pinus STEJNEGER, Auk, I, 1884, 362. 
Popular synonyms: PINE FINCH. PINE LINNET. PINE GOLDFINCH. 

The Pine Siskin is a winter migrant and an irregular winter 
resident within our limits. It often associates with Astragalinus 
tristis. It arrives early in October and departs late in May. 
It may rarely frequent this region during the summer, for Dr. 
Jordan has taken a specimen near Indianapolis, Indiana, in mid- 
summer, and, according to Mr. Amos W. Butler, "one was ob- 
served at Wabash, Indiana, with goldfinches, several times be- 
tween June 10 and 20, 1892." Mr. E. W. Nelson says:* "A 
common winter resident associating with the preceding." 

The range of the Pine Siskin covers North America in gen- 
eral, breeding in British America, in the high mountain regions 
of the western United States and Mexico and also, though spar- 
ingly, in the higher regions of the northeastern United States. 
It winters irregularly throughout the greater portion of the 
United States. 

Genus PASSERINA Vieillot, 1816. 

Passerina nivalis (Linnaeus). Snowflake. 

Emberiza nivalis LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 176. 
Passerina nivalis VIEILLOT, Fauna Franc., 1820, 86. 
Plectrophenax nivalis STEJNEGER, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., V, 1882, 33. 
Popular synonyms: WHITE SNOWBIRD. SNOW BUNTING. 

The Snowflake is an irregular winter visitant, and may be 
looked for from early in November until the middle of the fol- 

*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 105. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 133 

lowing March. In November, 1891, Mr. J. Graf ton Parker, Jr. 
and myself observed the shores of Wolf and Hyde lakes, In- 
diana, almost covered with these birds and they were so tame that 
we tried to catch them with our hands. Mr. Parker also found 
them very abundant on the beach at Miller's, Indiana, on Decem- 
ber 17, 1895. Mr. E. W. Nelson says:* "An abundant winter 
resident. The fifth of March, 1875, I saw a flock of these birds 
in a tree in Chicago. The males were chanting a very low and 
somewhat broken, but very pleasant song, bearing considerable 
resemblance to that of Spisella monticola!' 

The range of the Snowflake is quite extensive, covering the 
northern portion of the northern hemisphere, southward in win- 
ter into the northern United States, occasionally being observed 
as far south as Georgia, Kentucky and Kansas. 

Genus CALCARIUS Bechstein, 1803. 

Calcarins lapponicus (Linnaeus). Lapland Longspur. 

Fringilla lapponica LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 180. 
Plectrophanes lapponica SELBY, Trans. Linn. Soc., XV, 1827, 156, 

pi. 1. 
Calcarius lapponicus STEJXEGEB, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., V, June 5, 

1882, 33. 
Popular synonym : BEOWN SNOWBIBD. 

This Longspur is a common winter resident, and is abundant 
during the fall and spring migrations. It may often be seen in 
very large flocks on the prairies of our area. It arrives in Sep- 
tember and remains with us until spring, nearly all departing 
by the last of April and after they have obtained their spring 
plumage. A few tarry and I have taken them as late as the third 
of May. Mr. B. T. Gault took an adult female in full summer 
plumage at Sheffield, Indiana, on June 14, 1889. He saysif 
"The bird was alone and seemed to be thoroughly at home with 
her surroundings, being shot near the sand hills close to the lake 
shore. She was quite fat and appeared to be in excellent condi- 
tion, but the ovaries showed no approach of the breeding season." 
Mr. E. W. Nelson speaks of an unusually large flight of Long- 
spurs which took place on the twentieth of March, 1873. He 
says:t "A continuous series of large flocks occupied over two 
hours in passing." 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876. 105. 

tAuk, Vol. VI, July, 1889, 278. 

t Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII. 1876. 106. 



134 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The range of this species covers the northern part of the 
northern hemisphere, and in winter it migrates southward to 
Kansas, Colorado and Kentucky, in fact during the winter it is 
abundant in the interior of the United States. It has also been 
observed in South Carolina and as far south as Texas. 

Calcarius pictus (Swains.). Smith's Longspur. 

Emleriza (Plectrophanes) picta SWAINSON, in Sw. & Rich., Fauna 
Bor. Amer., II, 1831, 250, pi. 49. 

Plectrophanes pictus BONAPARTE, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 37. 

Calcarius pictus STEJNEGER, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., V, June 5, 
1882, 33. 

Popular synonyms : PAINTED LONGSPUB OB BUNTING. SMITH'S BUNT- 
ING. PAINTED LABK BUNTING. 

Smith's Longspur is an irregular migrant in our vicinity. 
Mr. E. W. Nelson records this species as a common migrant, 
and says :* "March 30, 1875, near Lake Calumet, I found a flock 
containing about -seventy-five individuals. " I have been un- 
able to find any records of its appearance, within our limits, since 
the date of Mr. Nelson's observation until May 5, 1893, when 
this species appeared in greater numbers than Calcarius lap- 
ponicus, and seemed to prefer the elevated portions of the ground 
in the vicinity of Worth Township. In their spring migrations, 
these Longspurs arrive the last of March and remain until May ; 
in the fall, they return about the first of October. In the collec- 
tion of the Field Columbian Museum there are four specimens 
which were taken at Worth, May 3, 1894. In the year 1896 
Smith's Longspurs seemed to be quite abundant. As recorded 
by Mr. Amos W. Butler, in his Birds of Indiana, f in the spring 
of 1896, "They were first seen near Chicago, April 16, where 
Mr. Eliot Blackwelder saw about a hundred, two days later. 
Mr. C. A. Tallman reported seeing a hundred and fifty. Each 
of these gentlemen saw them repeatedly that spring, as did also 
Mr. Parker." In the fall of the same year Mr. Butler says that 
a flock of fifty were seen in Cook County by Mr. C. A, Tallman 
on the third of October and that others were seen on the eleventh 
of the same month. 

The range of this species extends from the Arctic coast south- 
ward through the interior of North America to Texas. It 
breeds in the far north. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 106. 
t Twenty-second Annual Report, Dept. Geol. and Nat. Resources, Indiana, 1897, 
932. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 135 

Genus POCECETES Baird, 1858. 

Pooecetes gramineus (Gmelin). Vesper Sparrow. 

Fringilla graminea GMELIN. S. X., I, ii, 1788, 992. 

Embcriza graminea WILSON, Amer. Orn., IV, 1811, 51, pi. 31, fig. 5. 

Pooecetes gramineus BAIRD, B. N. Amer., 1858, 447. 

Popular synonyms: GRASS FINCH. BAY-WINGED BUNTING. 

A common summer resident, arriving in April and departing 
the last of September. 

Its range covers North America east of the Plains, and from 
Nova Scotia and Ontario southward. It breeds chiefly north of 
Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri, and winters chiefly south of 
that latitude. 

Genus PASSERCULUS Bonaparte, 1838. 

Passerculus sandwichensis savanna (Wilson). Savanna Sparrow. 

Fringilla savanna WILSON, Amer. Orn., Ill, 1811, 55, pi. 22, fig. 2. 
Emberiza savanna AUDUBON, Syn., 1839, 103. 

Passerculus savanna BONAPARTE, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 33. 
Passerculus sandicichensis savanna RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

Ill, 1880, 178. 
Ammodramus sandwichensis savanna RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

VIII, 1885, 354. 
Popular synonyms: GRASS BIRD. GROUND BIRD. GRASSHOPPER 

SPARROW. 

The Savanna Sparrow is a common summer resident, arriving 
the last of March and departing in October. 

The range of this species covers eastern North America, 
breeding chiefly north of the United States and wintering chiefly 
south of latitude 40. 

Genus COTURNICULUS Bonaparte, 1838. 

Coturniculus savannarum passerinus (Wilson). Grasshopper Sparrow. 
Fringilla passerina WILSON. Amer. Orn., Ill, 1S11, 76, pi. 26, fig. 5. 
Fringilla savannarum NUTTALL'S Man.. I, 1832, 404. 
Coturniculus passerinus BOXAPARTE. Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 32. 
Ammodromus passerinus GRAY, Gen. of B., II, 1844, 373. 
Ammodramus savannarum passerinus RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 

VIII, September 2, 1885, 355. 
Coturniculus savannarum passerinus RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

VIII, October, 1885, 568. 
Popular synonyms : YELLOW-WINGED SPARROW. GRASSHOPPER BIRD. 

GRASSBIRD. GROUND BIRD. 

The Grasshopper Sparrow is a common summer resident, ar- 
riving early in April and departing about the middle of Sep- 
tember. 



136 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The range of this species covers the eastern United States 
from southern Canada southward, in winter to the southern 
states, eastern Mexico, and south to Costa Rica. It breeds 
throughout its range excepting in the more southern portions. 

Genus AMMODRAMUS Swainson. 1827. 

Ammodramus henslowii (Audubon). Henslow's Sparrow. 

Emberiza henslowii AUDUBON, On. Biog., I, 1831, 360, pi. 77. 
Coturniculus henslowi BONAPARTE, Geog. and Oomp. List, 1838, 32. 
Ammodromus henslowi GRAY, Gen. B., II, June, 1849, 374. 
Popular synonym : HENSLOW'S BUNTING. 

Henslow's Sparrow is a not uncommon summer resident, 
arriving about the middle of April and departing by the last of 
September. 

The range of this species covers the eastern United States, 
west to the Plains, breeding as far north as Massachusetts and 
northern Illinois and wintering in the southern states. 

Ammodramus leconteii (Audubon). Leconte's Sparrow. 

Emleriza leconteii AUDUBON, B. Amer., VII, 1843, 338, pi. 488. 
Coturniculus lecontii BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., I, 1850, 481. 
Ammodromus leconteii GRAY, Gen. B., II, .June, 1849, 374. 
Popular synonym : LECONTE'S BUNTING. 

Leconte's Sparrow is a rare migrant within our limits. It 
arrives about the middle of April, and returns in the fall in 
September. Regarding this species, Mr. E. W. Nelson says:* 
"I obtained a fine specimen May 13, 1875, at Riverdale, Illinois, 
and by my notes I see that a second specimen was observed the 
2ist of the same month near where the first was obtained. The 
specimen in my possession was flushed from a small depression 
in the prairie near the Calumet River, where the moisture had 
caused an early growth of coarse grass, about three inches in 
height. After darting off in an erratic course a few rods, it 
suddenly turned, and alighting ran rapidly through the grass, 
from which it was with difficulty started again and secured." 
In a similar habitat and on the Desplaines River at Worth, Mr. 
Eliot Blackwelder and myself have observed a number of these 
Sparrows each spring. Mr. Blackwelder also saw them at the 
same place on September 16, 1896. Mr. B. T. Gault saw this 
Sparrow in Du Page County on September n, 1894. A male 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 107. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 137 

was taken by Mr. Harry Swarth at Worth in our area, on Oc- 
tober 12, 1905. 

The range of Leconte's Sparrow extends from Manitoba 
southward (in winter) to Texas, and from the eastern portion 
of the Plains eastward through the prairie districts of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley, wintering in South Carolina, Alabama and 
Florida. 

Ammodramus nelsoni Allen. Nelson's Sparrow. 

Ammodramus caudacutus var. nelsoni ALLEN, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. 

Hist., XVII, March, 1875, 293. 
Ammodramus nelsoni NORTON, Proc. Portland Soc. Nat. Hist., II, 

March 15, 1897, 102. 
Popular synonym: NELSON'S SHABP-TAILED FINCH. 

Nelson's Sparrow is of peculiar interest to the ornithologists 
of our vicinity, for the type specimens upon which Mr. Allen 
based his opinion that it should be made a variety of the sharp- 
tailed sparrow Ammodramus caudacutus, of the salt marshes 
of the Atlantic, came from within our limits. Mr. E. W. Nel- 
son, writing to Mr. Allen regarding the finding of this species, 
says* "While collecting birds on the Calumet Marshes at Ains- 
worth, Illinois, September 17, 1874, I noticed a number of small 
sparrows in the tall grass along the Calumet River. At first I 
thought they were Swamp Sparrows; observing a difference I 
shot one and at once recognizing it, I went in search of more. 
Within an hour I had killed eight fine specimens. They were very 
abundant, as I must have seen over one hundred in walking 
about a mile and a half. They were very difficult to kill, owing 
to their habit of rising suddenly, darting off in an irregular 
manner for a few rods, and then dropping into the grass and 
lying so close that it was almost impossible to put them up 
again * * * Dr. Velie, while collecting near Ainsworth, October 
7, also shot several specimens of the Sharp-tailed Finch, about 
the sloughs which are found abundantly in this locality." Mr. 
Nelson also saysrf "The I2th of June, 1875, I saw several of 
these birds in the dense grass bordering Lake Calumet, where 
they were undoubtedly breeding. The first of October, 1875, 
I again found them abundant on the Calumet Marsh, and also 
found them numerous in the wild rice bordering Grass Lake, 
Lake County, Illinois, the loth of November the same year." 

*Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. XVII, March, 1875, 293. 

tBirds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 107. 



138 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

I have taken the nest and eggs of this species from near 
Calumet Lake, and have also observed the birds at Liverpool, 
Indiana. I do not know at what date they arrive in the spring, 
but the fall records would seem to show that they pass through 
our vicinity during September and October. Nelson's Sparrow 
has also been taken by Mr. S. F. Dayton, who found it at Hyde 
Lake on October 6, 1898; by Mr. J. Grafton Parker, Jr., who 
found it on the wet prairies along the east shore of Lake Calumet 
on September 19, 1893 ; and by Mr. Eliot Blackwelder, who found 
it breeding, though uncommon, in the vicinity of Morgan Park, 
on September 28, 1895. A male specimen was taken by Mr. 
Harry Swarth at Worth, situated within our limits, on October 
12, 1905. Mr. Amos W. Butler states that he has a specimen 
from Hyde Park, Illinois, taken September 21, 1878, and says, 
in his Birds of Indiana :* "Mr. H. K. Coale informs me that he 
saw about a dozen Sharp-tailed Finches in the grass along Berry 
Lake, Lake County, Indiana, September 25, 1875. Dr. A. W. 
Brayton informed me he had taken this species in Lake County, 
Indiana." 

This Sparrow frequents the fresh water marshes of the in- 
terior of the United States and southern Canada, breeding from 
northern Illinois north to Dakota and Manitoba. It winters as 
far south as Texas, and visits the Atlantic coast in its migrations. 

Genus CHONDESTES Swainson, 1827. 

Chondestes grammacus (Say). Lark Sparrow. 

Fringilla grammaca SAY, Long's Eip., II, 1823, 139. 

Chondestes grammaca BONAPARTE, Geog. & Comp. List, 1838, 32, 

Popular synonyms: LARK FINCH. POTATO BIRD. 

When Mr. E. W. Nelson wrote his Birds of Northeastern 
Illinois in 1876 he reported the Lark Sparrow as a common sum- 
mer resident. It is now, however, a rare summer resident, arriv- 
ing about the middle of April, and departing in September. Mr. 
J. Grafton Parker, Jr., informs me that he obtained a nest of 
this species which contained four eggs, in a pasture near Evans- 
ton, in June, 1880. 

The range of the Lark Sparrow includes the Mississippi Val- 
ley region north to Manitoba, and from Michigan, Ohio and On- 
tario westward to the Plains. It breeds nearly throughout its 
range and winters as far south as eastern Texas. 

*Twenty-second Annual Report, Dept. Geol. and Nat. Resources, Indiana, 1897, 
948. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 139 

Genus ZONOTRICHIA Swainson. 1831. 

Zonotrichia qnerula (Nuttall). Harris' Sparrow. 

Fringilla querula NUTTALL, Man., I, ed. 2, 1840, 555. 

Zonotrichia querula GAMBEL, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, eer. 

2, I, 1847, 51. 
Popular synonyms: HABBIS'S FINCH. MOUBNING FINCH. 

Mr. E. W. Nelson reported (1876) Harris's Sparrow to be 
a very rare visitant to our vicinity. Mr. James O. Dunn says* 
that he took a specimen east of Riverdale, Illinois, which he ob- 
served in a growth of small willows. Mr. Ruthven Deane in- 
forms me that on May n, 1904, he observed a male of this species 
feeding with a flock of sparrows in the south end of Lincoln 
Park. 

The range of this Sparrow extends from the eastern border 
of the Great Plains eastward to Wisconsin, Illinois and Missouri, 
and from Manitoba southward to Texas in the winter. It is 
quite irregular in its appearance on the eastern border of its 
range. 

Zonotrichia lencophrys (Forster). White-crowned Sparrow. 
Emberiza leucophrys FOBSTEB, Philos. Trans., LXII, 1772, 426. 
Fringilla leucophrys BONAPABTE, List, 1828, 32. 

Zonotrichia leucophrys SWAINSON, in Sw. & Rich., Fauna Bor. Amer., 
II, 1831, 493. 

The White-crowned Sparrow is a common migrant, the larger 
number passing northward in April and returning, on their fall 
migration, the latter part of September and the early part of 
October. 

The range of this Sparrow includes nearly all of North Amer- 
ica, and it breeds in the mountain ranges of the west and from 
Wisconsin and Vermont northward. 

Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin). White-throated Sparrow. 
Fringilla albicollis GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 92G. 
Zonotrichia albicollis SWAINSON. Classif. B., II, 1837, 288. 
Popular synonyms: PEABODY BIBD. YELLOW-BBOWED SPABBOW. 

The White-throated Sparrow is an abundant migrant, and 
"a rare summer resident" (Nelson), passing northward in April 
and returning, on the fall migration, the latter part of September 
and in October. 

The range of this species is chiefly east of the Great Plains. 
It breeds from the northern portion of the United States north- 



*Auk, Vol. XII, 1895, 395. 



I4O THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

ward, and it winters from Massachusetts southward on the At- 
lantic coast and in the Mississippi Valley from Missouri and 
Illinois southward. 

Genus SPIZELLA Bonaparte, 1832. 

Spizella monticola (Gmelin). Tree Sparrow. 

Fringilla monticola GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 912. 
Fringilla canadensis LATH., Ind. Orn., I, 1790, 434. 
Spizella monticola BAIBD, B. N. Amer., 1858, 472. 
Zonotrichia canadensis "LATH." of some authors. 

Popular synonyms: WINTER CHIPPY. CANADIAN SPARROW. WINTER 
SPARROW. 

The Tree Sparrow is a common winter resident, arriving 
about the middle of October and departing near the middle of 
April. 

The range of the Tree Sparrow includes North America 
east of the Plains, and from South Carolina, Kentucky and the 
Indian Territory north to the Arctic Ocean. It breeds north of 
the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, and winters from 
the northern border of the United States southward. 

Spizella socialis (Wilson). Chipping Sparrow. 

Fringilla socialis WILSON, Amer. Orn., II, 1810, 127, pi. 16, fig. 5. 
Spizella socialis BONAPARTE, Geog. & Comp. List, 1838, 33. 
Zonotrichia socialis GRAY, Hand-list, II. 1870, 94, 7397. 
Popular synonyms: CHIPPY. CHIP-BIRD. HAIR-BIRD. 

A common summer resident, arriving toward the middle of 
April and departing from the last of September to the middle 
of October. 

The range of the Chipping Sparrow covers North America 
east of the Rocky Mountains and from Newfoundland and the 
Great Slave Lake southward to eastern Mexico. It breeds in 
Mexico and the Gulf States northward, and it winters in the 
southern portion of its range. 

Spizella pallida (Swainson). Clay-colored Sparrow. 

Emberiza pallida SWAINSON, in Sw. & Rich., Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 

1831, 251. 
Spizella pallida BONAPARTE, Geog. & Comp. List, 1838, 33. 

The only record that I have found of the occurrence of this 
species within our limits is that of Mr. E. W. Nelson, who says:* 
"A rare summer resident about the borders of prairies. Speci- 
mens are in Mr. Holden's collection taken near Chicago." 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 108. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 14! 

The A. O. U. Check-list gives its range as follows : "Interior 
of North America, from Illinois and Iowa west to the Rocky 
Mountains, Arizona, and Cape St. Lucas, and from Guanajuato 
and Oaxaca north to the Saskatchewan Plains. Breeds from 
Iowa and Nebraska northward." 

Spizella pusilla (Wilson). Field Sparrow. 

Fringilla pusilla WILSON, Amer. Orn., II, 1810, 121, pi. 16, fig. 2. 
Fringilla juncor-um XUTTALL, Man., I, 1832, 499. 
Spisella pusilla BONAPARTE, Geog. & Comp. List, 1838, 33. 
Popular synonyms: FIELD CHIPPY. FIELD CHIP-BIBD. RED-BILLED 
CHIPPY. 

The Field Sparrow is a common summer resident, arriving 
early in April, and departing early in October. 

Its range includes southern Canada and the United States 
east of the Plains and south to the Gulf of Mexico and Texas. 
It breeds from South Carolina, Kentucky and Kansas northward. 

Genus JUNCO Wagler, 1831. 

Junco hyemalis (Linnaeus). Slate-colored Junco. 

Fringilla hyemalis LINN.EUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 183. 
Fringilla nivalis WILSON, Amer. Orn., Ill, 1810, 129, pi. 16, fig. 6. 
Junco hyemalis SCL., P. Z. S., 1857, 7. 

Popular synonyms: SNOWBIBD. COMMON SNOWBIBD. SLATE-COLOBED 
SNOWBIRD. BLACK OB GBAY SNOWBIBD. 

The Slate-colored Junco is an abundant migrant. It arrives 
the last of February and remains in our vicinity until May. In 
its fall migrations it arrives about the middle of September and 
departs on the appearance of severely cold weather. It is also 
claimed that a few of these Juncos remain within our limits 
during the more open winters. 

The range of this species covers North America, chiefly east 
of the Rocky Mountains, and it breeds in the mountain regions 
of the northeastern portions of the United States northward and 
to Alaska. It winters in the more temperate portion of the 
eastern United States as far south as the Gulf of Mexico. 

Junco montanus Ridgrway. Montana Junco. 

Junco oregonus COALE, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club., ii, p. 82, 1877. 
Junco montanus RIDGWAY, Auk, XV, p. 321, Oct., 1898. 

A. O. U. Committed, Auk, XVI, p. 119, 1899 (No. 567.1). 

A well-defined specimen of this species is in the collection of 
The Chicago Academy of Sciences, which was taken by Mr. F. 
S. Dayton, of Chicago. On October 2ist, 1898, he saw, in the 



142 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF. SCIENCES. 

woods west of North Evanston, a large flock of Juncos, in which 
there was an Arctic Towhee. He shot five of the birds, one of 
which proved to be Junco montanus, an identification which was 
later confirmed by Mr. Ridgway. Mr. Dayton says : 

"The birds were feeding on the seeds of ragweed and I would 
have passed them by but for the fact that the darkest one flew 
to the dead limb of a sapling and was so strikingly different from 
our common Juncos that I shot the bird and also four others 
which showed a very dark plumage." 

This species was recorded some thirty years ago by Mr. H. 
K. Coale (as Junco oregonus), who says:* "October 14, 1875, I 
saw a flock of some dozen birds in a willow tree and killed one 
of them with a sling; the rest flew off and were not seen again. 
The specimen was sent to Mr. Nelson, who identified it as Junco 
oreganus, the first one of this species captured in the state (Illi- 
nois), its extreme eastern range heretofore known being Kan- 
sas." Mr. Coale informs me that this specimen was taken in a 
yard in Chicago. Junco montanus would seem to be a rare win- 
ter visitant. 

The range of this species is as follows : Breeding from north- 
western Montana and northern Idaho north to Northwest Terri- 
tory and Alberta ; in winter south to Arizona, northern Chihua- 
hua, western and middle Texas, etc. East more or less casually 
to eastern Kansas, Illinois, Michigan, northern Indiana, Massa- 
chusetts, Maryland, etc. 

Junco oreganus shufeldti (Coale). Shufeldt's Junco. 

Junco hyemalis shufeldti COALE, Auk, IV, p. 330, Oct., 1887. 

Junco hyemalis shufeldti COALE, A. O. U. Check List, p. 235, 1895. 

There is a specimen of this bird in the Field Museum of 
Natural History, which was taken at Waukegan, Illinois, Feb- 
ruary 26th, 1897. It is an adult male and very typical of shufeldti. 
The skin was purchased from Mr. Henry K. Coale, who de- 
scribed the variety. 

The range of shufeldti is as follows : Breeding from the in- 
terior of northern British Columbia, east to the Rocky Mountains 
in Alberta, south to Vancouver Island, Washington and northern 
Oregon, probably to northwestern Montana and western Idaho; 
south in winter over entire Rocky Mountain plateau of the United 
States to Arizona, New Mexico and western Texas and even to 
northern Mexico ; occasional in winter in northern (and eastern?) 



'Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, Vol. 22, July, 1877. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 143 

California, straggling eastward to Illinois. This is the most 
eastern authentic range yet recorded. It is quite probable that 
both this variety and also Junco montanus may be found in some 
collections labeled hyemalis or oreganus. A lookout should be 
kept by local ornithologists for eastern stragglers of these two 
Juncos. 

Genus MELOSPIZA Baird, 1858. 

Mclospiza cinerea melodia (Wilson). Song Sparrow. 
Fringilla fasciata GMELIN, S. N., I, pt. ii, 1788, 922. 
Fringilla melodia WILSOX, Amer. Orn., II, 1810, 125, pi. 16, fig. 4. 
Melospiza melodia BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 477, part. 
Melospiza fasciata SCOTT, Amer. Nat. X, 1876, 18. 
Melospiza cinerea melodia RIDGWAY, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 50, 
pt. 1, 1901, 354. 

The Song Sparrow is a common summer resident, arriving 
early in March, and departing in October. 

The range of the Song Sparrow includes the eastern United 
States from the Atlantic coast westward quite through the Great 
Plains, breeding along the Atlantic sea-board and the northern 
United States northward to the Fur Countries and wintering 
from the latitude of about 50 south to the Gulf of Mexico. 

Melospiza lincolnii (Audubon). Lincoln's Sparrow. 

Fringilla lincolnii AUDUBON, Orn. Biog., II, 1834, 539, pi. 193. 
Melospiza lincolnii BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv.. IX, 1858, 482. 
Popular synonyms: LINCOLN'S FINCH. LINCOLN'S SONG SPARROW. 

A rare summer resident and a not uncommon spring and fall 
migrant. Mr. George K. Cherrie obtained a young bird, just out 
of the nest, at Worth, Illinois, on June 30, 1896, and on July 16, 
1896, Mr. Cherrie and Mr. J. Grafton Parker, Jr., obtained an 
adult and a nestling near Lake Calumet. These Sparrows arrive 
in May and depart from the last of September to the middle of 
October. 

While the range of this species covers practically the whole 
of North America it breeds chiefly north of the United States and 
winters in the southern states, Mexico and south to Panama. 

Melospiza georgiana (Latham). Swamp Sparrow. 
Fringilla georgiana LATHAM, Ind. Orn., I, 1790, 460. 
Fringilla palustris WILSON, Amer. Orn., Ill, 1811, 49, pi. 22. fig. 1. 
Melospiza palustris BAIRD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX. 1858, 483. 
Melospiza georgiana RIDGTVAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., VIII, 1885, 355. 
Popular*synonym : SWAMP SONG SPARROW. 



144 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

A common summer resident, arriving late in March, and de- 
parting late in October. 

The range of this Sparrow covers the eastern United States 
and British Possessions, west to the Great Plains, casually to 
Utah, and breeds from the United States northward. It winters 
southward chiefly below latitude 38. 

Genus PASSERELLA Swainson, 1837. 

Passerella iliaca (Merrem). Fox Sparrow. 

Fringilla iliaca MERREM, Beitr. Gesch. Vog., II, 1786-1787, 49, pi. 10. 

Passerella iliaca SWAINSON, Classif. B., II, 1837, 288. 

Popular synonyms : FOX-COLORED SPARROW. RUFOUS SPARROW. 

The Fox Sparrow is a common migrant, passing through 
our area in spring migrations chiefly in March and April ; re- 
turning in the fall it may remain with us until about the middle 
of November. 

The range of the Fox Sparrow covers eastern North America 
from the Gulf of Mexico northward to Alaska and the Arctic 
coast, and it breeds north of the United States and winters chiefly 
south of latitude 40. 

Genus PIPILO Vieillot, 1816. 

Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus). Towhee. 

Fringilla erythrophthalma LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 180. 
Pipilo erythrophthalmus VIEILLOT, Gal. Ois., I, 1824, 109, pi. 80. 
Popular synonyms: JAREE. CHEWINK. TOWINK. GROUND ROBIN. 

The Towhee is a common summer resident, arriving from the 
middle of March to the middle of April, and departing about the 
last of October. 

The range of this species covers the eastern United States 
and the southern portion of the British Possessions, west to the 
Plains. It breeds from Georgia and the lower Mississippi Valley 
northward ; winters from Pennsylvania and Indiana southward. 

Pipilo maculatus arcticus (Swainson). Arctic Towhee. 

Pyrgita (Pipilo) arctica SWAINSON, in Sw. & Rich., Fauna Bor. Amer., 

II, 1831, 260, pis. 51, 52. 
Pipilo maculatus var. arcticus COUES, Key, 1872, 152. 

The only record that I have found of the taking of the Arctic 
Towhee within our limits is that of Mr. F. S. Dayton who shot 
one of these birds in the woods west of North Evanston, Illinois, 
on October 24, 1898, near the same locality where he obtained 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 145 

specimens of Junco montanus three days before. The specimen 
is in the collection of The Chicago Academy of Sciences having 
been donated by Mr. Dayton. It is the skin of a typical adult 
male. 

Its range is given as follows in the A. O. U. Check-list: 
"Plains of the Platte, upper Missouri, Yellowstone and Sas- 
katchewan Rivers, west to the eastern slope of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, south in winter to Kansas, Colorado and Texas." 

Genus CARDINALIS Bonaparte, 1837. 

Cardinalis cardinalis (Linnasus). Cardinal. 

Loxia cardinalis LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, 1758, 172. 

Cardinalis virginianus BONAPARTE, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1837, III, 
part. 

Pitylus cardinalis AUDUBON, Synop., 1839, 131. 

Cardinalis cardinalis LICHTENSTEIN, Nomencl. Mus. Berol., 1854, 44. 

Popular synonyms: CARDINAL GROSBEAK. REDBIBD. CARDINAL RED- 
BIRD. VIRGINIAN REDBIRD. VIRGINIA NIGHTINGALE. CRESTED 
REDBIRD. CORN-CRAKER. 

In 1876, Mr. E. W. Nelson* reported the Cardinal to be "a 
rare and irregular summer resident," and says that "occasionally 
specimens remain until late in Autumn." I have heard of the 
Cardinal being taken in our public parks, and have myself secured 
one specimen which showed, however, unmistakable signs of 
having been an escaped cage bird. Mr. J. Grafton Parker, Jr., 
has a specimen of this species which was taken, at Kouts, In- 
diana, on December n, 1893. Some years ago I found a nest 
of the Cardinal at River Forest, Illinois. Mr. O. M. Schantz 
informs me that in the year 1904 there were two pairs nesting 
at Riverside, Illinois, and that they arrived in that locality on 
the seventeenth of April. 

The range of the Cardinal covers the United States east of 
the Great Plains, and from Iowa, the Great Lakes and southern 
New York southward. Casually it is found further north in 
Ontario and the New England states. 

Genus ZAMELODIA Cones, 1880. 

Zamelodia ludoviciana (Linnaeus). Rose-breasted Grosbeak. 
Loxia ludoviciana LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766. 306. 
Fringilla ludoviciana BONAPARTE, Amer. Orn., II. 1828, 79, pi. 15, 

fig. 2. 
Coccolorus ludovicianus AUDUBON, Syn., 1839. 133. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute. Vol. VIII, 1876, 110 



146 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Hedymeles ludoviciana CABANIS, Mus. Hein., I, June, 1851, 152. 
Goniaphca ludoviciana GUNDLACH, Report Fisco-Nat. Cuba, I, 1866, 

286. 

Zamelodia ludoviciana COUES, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, V, 1880, 98. 
Habia ludoviciana STEJNEGER, Auk, 1, Oct. 1884, 367. 
Popular synonyms : RED-BREASTED GROSBEAK. POTATO-BUG BIRD. 
The Rose-breasted Grosbeak is a common summer resident, 
arriving the last of April, and departing early in October. 

The range of the Rose-breasted Grosbeak extends east of 
Manitoba and the Great Plains, southward in winter to Cuba 
and the northern portion of South America. It breeds from 
about the latitude of Kansas and South Carolina northward. 

Genus CYANOSPIZA Baird, 1858. 

Cyanospiza cyanea (LinnaBus). Indigo Bunting . 

Tanagra cyanea LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 315. 
Fringilla cyanea WILSON, Amer. Orn., I, 1810, 100, pi. 6, fig. 5. 
Passerina cyanea VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XXV, 1817, 7. 
Spiza cyanea JARDINE, ed. Wilson's Amer. Orn., Ill, 1832, 446. 
Cyanospiza cyanea BAIRD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 505. 
Popular synonyms : INDIGO BIRD. BLUE LINNET. GREEN BIRD OB 
LINNET. 

The Indigo Bunting is a common summer resident, arriving 
the last of April, and departing the last of September. 

The range of this species covers the eastern United States, 
from Canada southward, in winter to Central America and Cuba, 
westward to the eastern edge of the Great Plains. 

Genus SPIZA Bonaparte, 1824. 

Spiza americana (Gmelin). Dickcissel. 

Emberiza americana GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 872. 

Eu&piza americana' BONAPARTE, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 32. 

Spiza americana RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nst. Mus., Ill, March 27, 
1880, 3. 

Popular synonyms: BLACK-THROATED BUNTING. LITTLE MEADOW- 
LARK. 

A common summer resident, arriving early in May and de- 
parting about the latter part of August. 

The range of the Dickcissel includes the United States east 
of the Rocky Mountains, from Massachusetts, Ontario and North 
Dakota south to Texas. It winters in Central America and 
northern South America and is rare east of the Alleghanies. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 147 

FAMILY TANAGRID^: THE TANAGERS. 
Genus PIRANGA Vieillot, 1807. 

Piranga erythromelas Vieillot. Scarlet Tanager. 

Tanagra rubra (not Fringilla rubra Linnaeus, 1758) LINN^US, S. N., 

ed. 12, I, 1766, 314. 
Pyranga rubra SWAINSON AND RICHABDSON, Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 

1831, 273. 
Pyranga erythromelas VIELLOT, Nouv, Diet. d'Hist. Nat, XXVIII, 

1819, 293. 
Popular synonym : BLACK-WINGED REDBIRD. 

The Scarlet Tanager is a common summer resident, arriving 
the last of April and departing the last of September. 

The range of this species lies east of the Great Plains, and 
from Manitoba and southern Ontario southward, in winter to 
the eastern portion of Mexico, Central America, northern South 
America and the West Indies. It breeds chiefly in the more 
northern portion of its range. 

Piranga rubra (Linnaeus). Summer Tanager. 

Fringilla rubra LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 181. 

Tanagra aestiva GMELIN, S. N., I, 1788, 889. 

Pyranga aestiva VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., ed. 2, XXVIII, 

1819, 291. 

Piranga rubra VIEILLOT, Ois. Amer. Sept., I, 1807, p. iv. 
Popular synonyms: SUMMEB REDBIBD. VEBMILION TANAGEB. RED 

TANAGEB. RED BEE-BIED. 

The summer Tanager is, at the present time at least, a very 
rare summer visitant. Mr. Robert Kennicott says that it was 
not rare at the time he wrote his list of Cook County birds.* 
He also states that the species was known to nest in Cook County. 
Mr. E. W. Nelson says:f "A rare summer visitant. I know 
of but few instances of its occurrence." Mr. O. M. Schantz of 
Morton Park, Illinois, informs me that a Summer Tanager has 
made an extended visit to his grounds, and that it has been seen 
by a number of persons who were familiar with the bird, so that 
there seems to be no question of its occurrence occasionally with- 
in our limits. Mr. Schantz saw this Tanager in April, 1904. 

The Summer Tanager is, at the present time at least, a very 
range which extends throughout the eastern United States west 
to the Plains, and from southern New Jersey and southern Illi- 
nois southward, wintering in eastern Mexico and southward to 



*Trans. Illinois State Agri, Society. Vol. 1. 1853-1854. 585. 

tBirds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 104. 



148 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Peru. It is casually found northward to southern Canada and 
Nova Scotia. 

FAMILY HIRUNDINnxaS: SWALLOWS. 
Genus PROGNE Boie, 1826. 

Progne subis (Linnaeus). Purple Martin. 

Hirundo subis LINNJEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 192. 
Hirundo purpurea LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 344. 
Progne purpurea BOIE, Isis, 1826, 971. 
Progne subis BAIRD, Rev. Amer. B., I, May, 1865, 274. 
Popular synonyms : MARTIN. HOUSE MARTIN. PURPLE SWALLOW. 
AMERICAN MARTIN. VIOLET SWALLOW. 

The Purple Martin is a common summer resident, arriving 
from the last of March to the middle of April and departing in 
September. 

The rarige of the Purple Martin extends over the whole of 
temperate North America and it winters in South America. 

Genus PETROCHELIDON Cabanis, 1850. 

Petrochelidon lunifrons (Say). Cliff Swallow. 

Hirundo lunifrons SAY, Long's Exp., II, 1823, 47. 

Hirundo fulva BONAPARTE, Amer. Orn., I, 1825, 63, pi. 7, fig. 1. 

Petrochelidon lunifrons CASSIN, Cat. Hiruu. Mus. Philadelphia Acad. 
Nat. Sci., 1853, 4. 

Popular synonyms : EAVE SWALLOW. REPUBLICAN SWALLOW. SQUARE- 
TAILED SWALLOW. WHITE-FRONTED SWALLOW. CRESCENT SWAL- 
LOW. 

The Cliff Swallow is a common summer resident, arriving 
early in April and departing in September. 

The range of this Swallow covers the whole of temperate 
North America from Nova Scotia and Alaska southward, breed- 
ing south as far as southern California, southern Texas and the 
Gulf of Mexico, though it is seemingly not found in Florida. It 
winters in Central and South America. 

Genus HIRUNDO Linnaeus, 1758. 

Hirundo erythrogastra Boddaert. American Barn Swallow. 
Hirundo erythrogastra BODDAERT, Tabl. P. E., 1783, 45. 
Hirundo horreorum BARTON, Frag. Nat. Hist. Penn., 1799, 17. 
Hirundo americana WILSON, Amer. Orn., V, 1812, 34, pi. 38. figs. 1, 2. 
Chelidon erythrogastra STEJNEGER, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., V, June 5, 

1882, 31. 
Popular synonyms : RUFOUS-BELLIED SWALLOW. FORKED-TAILED BARN 

SWALLOW. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 149 

The American Barn Swallow is a common summer resident, 
arriving the last of April and the first of May and departing 
early in September. 

The range of the American Barn Swallow covers North 
America in general, and it breeds from the Fur Countries south- 
ward to Mexico. It winters in the southern states and tropical 
America as far south as southern Brazil. 

Genus IRIDOPROCNE Coues, 1878. 

Iridoprocne Tricolor (Vieillot). Tree Swallow. 

Hirnndo bicolor VIEILLOT, Ois. Amer. Sept., I, 1807, 61, pi. 31. 
Tachycineta bicolor CABANIS, Mus. Hein., I, 1850, 48. 
Iridoprocne bicolor COUES, Birds Colorado Valley, 1878, 412. 
Popular synonyms : WHITE-BELLIED SWALLOW. BLACK AND WHITE 
SWALLOW. GBEEN-BLUE SWALLOW. 

Many years ago the Tree Swallow was reported to be an 
abundant resident, but now it is certainly a rather rare resident 
but a common migrant, arriving from the last of March to the 
middle of April apd departing in September. 

The range of the Tree Swallow covers the whole of temperate 
North America and it breeds from the table-lands of Mexico 
northward to the Fur Countries. It winters. in the West Indies, 
the southern United States and southward through Mexico and 
Guatemala. 

Genus TACHYCINETA Cabanis, 1850. 

Tachycineta thalassina lepida (Mearns). Violet-green Swallow. 

Hirundo thalassinus of authors, not of SWAINS., Phil. Mag.. I. 1827, 

366. 

Tachycineta thalassina COUES, Birds, N. W., 1874, p. 86 (part). 
Tachi/cincta lepida MEARNS, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XV, March 5, 

1892, p. 31. 
Tachycincta thalassina lepida, A. O. U. Com., Auk. XIX, July, 1002. 

p. 325. 

This bird is a distinctly western species, ranging from the 
eastern base of the Rocky Mountains westward to the Pacific 
Ocean, and from British Columbia southward, wintering as far 
south as Costa Rica. A fine male specimen of this Swallow was 
taken, by Mr. George Clingman, within our limits at South Ken- 
wood, on May 4, 1897. 

Genus RIP ARIA Forster, 1817. 

Riparia riparia (Linnaeus). Bank Swallow. 

Hirundo riparia LINN^US, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 192. 



I5O THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Cotyle riparia BOIE, Isis, 1826, 971. 

Clivicola riparia STEJNEGER Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., V, 1882, 32. 
Riparia riparia SHARPS & WYATT, Monogr. Hirundinidae, 1894, XLIV, 
Popular synonyms : SAND MAETIN. SAND SWALLOW. 

A common summer resident, arriving early in May and de- 
parting in September. This Swallow nests in the sand hills and 
clay bluffs along the lake shore. 

The range of this Swallow includes the northern hemisphere 
in general and in the Americas south to the northern portion of 
South America. It winters chiefly south of the United States 
and breeds from the middle districts of the United States north- 
ward. 

Genus STELGIDOPTERYX Baird, 1858. 
Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Audubon). Bough- winged Swallow. 

Hirundo serripennis AUDUBON, On. Biog., IV, 1838, 593. 

Stelgidopteryx serripennis BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 
312. 

Popular synonyms : ROUGH-WINGED BANK SWALLOW OB SAND MAR- 
TIN. BBIDGE SWALLOW. 

A rare spring migrant. On the twenty-ninth of April, 1879, 
Mr. H. K. Coale shot four specimens at Dolton, Illinois. On the 
fifteenth of May, 1895, I obtained three adults of this species at 
Worth, Illinois. They were flying in company with Barn and 
Bank Swallows over the marshes. Mr. E. W. Nelson says:* 
"A rare summer visitant, perhaps breeds." 

The range of this species covers the whole of the United 
States, excepting possibly the extreme northern portion. It is 
also found in southern Ontario but not in the eastern portion 
of New England. It breeds throughout its range in the United 
States and into Mexico. It winters in the southern United 
States, Mexico and southward through Central America. 

FAMILY AMPELID^E: WAXWINGS, ETC. 
Genus AMPELIS Linnaeus, 1766. 

Ampelis garrulus Linnaeus. Bohemian Waxwing. 

Lanius garrulus LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 95. 
Ampelis garrulus LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 297. 
Bomlycilla garrula BONAPARTE, Zool. Journ., Ill, 1828, pi. 16, fig. 2. 
VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XVI. 1817, 523, pi. 10, fig. 3. 
Popular synonyms: NORTHERN WAXWING. BLACK-THKOATED WAX- 
WING. WAXEN CHATTERER. 



'Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 102. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 15! 

The Bohemian Waxwing is an irregular winter visitant. I 
have not taken this species within our area. On January i, 
1896, I obtained a fine pair at Lake Forest, Illinois, and saw 
about twenty more. A few days later, Mr. John F. Ferry ob- 
tained a fine male at the same place. Mr. E. W. Nelson says :* 
"An irregular but occasionally abundant winter resident, espe- 
cially along the lake. In a letter dated March 16, 1876, Mr. 
Charles Douglas, of Waukegan, describes an 'immense' flock of 
these birds which he observed the day previous, upon the lake 
shore near that town." In his Birds of Indiana,f Mr. Amos W. 
Butler says: "Dr. J. L. Hancock informs me that March I, 
1880, he shot two from a flock of eight that were feeding on 
mountain ash berries in Chicago. March 30, 1880, over one 
hundred of these birds were killed at Whiting, Lake County, 
Indiana, and taken to a Chicago taxidermist. They were seen 
by Mr. H. K. Coale. Specimens from that lot are in the collec- 
tion of Mr. Coale, Mr. George L. Toppan and my own." Mr. 
H. K. Coale informs me that on December 4, 1880, Mr. R. A. 
Turtle shot thirty of forty specimens, out of a large flock, at 
Whiting, Indiana. 

The range of this species includes the northern parts of the 
northern hemisphere; in America, south in winter irregularly to 
Pennsylvania, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Colorado, Arizona and 
California. It breeds north of the United States. 

Ampelis cedrorum (Vieillot). Cedar Waxwing. 

BombyciUa cedrorum VIEILLOT, Ois. Amer. Sept., I, 1807, 88, pi. 57. 
Ampelis cedrorum GRAY, Gen. B., I, 1846, 278. 

Popular synonyms : CEDAB BIBD. CEDAB-LABK. CHEERY BIBD. CABO- 
LINA WAXWIXG. 

The Cedar Waxwing is a common summer resident which oc- 
casionally stays within our limits during the winter. The ma- 
jority of them arrive the last of March and depart the last of 
September. 

The range of the Cedar Waxwing includes the whole of tem- 
perate North America southward, breeding as far south as the 
southern states. It winters from the northern border of the 
United States southward as far as the West Indies and Costa 
Rica. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 103. 
tTwenty-second Annual Report, Dept. Geol. and Xat. Resources, Indiana, 1897, 
1002. 



152 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

FAMILY LANIIDJE: SHRIKES. 
Genus LANIUS Linnaeus. 1758. 

Lanius borealis Vieilot. Northern Shrike. 

Lanius borealis VIEILLOT, Ois. Amer. Sept., I, 1807, 80, pi. 50. 
Collurio borealis BAIBD, Review Amer. Birds, June, 1866, 440. 
Popular synonyms : GREAT AMERICAN SHRIKE. GREAT NORTHERN 
SHRIKE. GREAT NORTHERN BUTCHER BIRD. 

The Northern Shrike is a common winter resident, arriving 
the last of October and departing late in March. Mr. E. W. 
Nelson suggests that "sometimes they remain late in the season 
and may breed."* Probably the most advantageous places to 
observe these birds are in the city parks, where they fare 
sumptuously on the English sparrows. I have repeatedly seen 
them drive the sparrows from under the eaves of the buffalo 
pens in Lincoln Park, Chicago, in order to capture them. 

The range of this species includes northern North America, 
in winter south to about' latitude 35, and on the Pacific coast 
to northern California. It breeds north of the United States. 

Lanius ludovicianus Linnaeus. Loggerhead Shrike. 

Lanius ludovicianus LINN^US, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 134. 
Lanius ludovicianus var. ludovicianus LINNAEUS, of some authors. 
Popular synonyms : COMMON AMERICAN SHRIKE. LOUISIANA SHRIKE. 
SOUTHERN BUTCHER BIRD. 

The Loggerhead Shrike is a common summer resident, arriv- 
ing early in March and departing the first of November. 

The range of the Loggerhead Shrike covers the United 
States east of the Great Plains, and it breeds from the Gulf of 
Mexico northward excepting on the Atlantic coast where it breeds 
north to Virginia and casually to the southern portion of New 
Jersey. It also breeds through western Pennsylvania and New 
York to the New England states. 

FAMILY VIRIONIDJE: THE VIREOS. 

Genus VIREOS YLVA Bonaparte, 1838. 

Vireosylva olivacea (Linnaeus). Red-eyed Vireo. 

Muscicapa olivacea LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 327. 
Vireo olivaceus BONAPARTE, Ann. Lye. N. Y., II, 1826, 71. 
Popular synonym : RED-EYED GREENLET. 

The Red-eyed Vireo is a common summer resident, arriving 
early in May and departing early in October. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 104. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 153 

The range of the Red-eyed Yireo lies chiefly east of Colorado 
and British Columbia, and from the Arctic regions southward 
It breeds nearly throughout its North American range and win- 
ters south to Florida. 

Vireosylva philadelphica Cassin. Philadelphia Vireo. 

Vireosylvia philadelphica CASSIN, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 

V, Feb. 1851, 153, pi. 10, fig. 2. 

Vireo philadelphicus BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 335. 
Popular synonyms: PHILADELPHIA GBEENLET. BEOTHEELY-LOVE 

VIBEO. 

This Vireo is a rare migrant, arriving in the spring about the 
middle of May, and returning in the fall from the last of August 
to the last of September. In 1876, Mr. E. W. Nelson* con- 
sidered it to be a common migrant, and says: "They were so 
numerous near Waukegan about the twentieth of May 1876, 
that a dozen specimens might have been obtained in an hour." 

The range of this species lies in the eastern United States, 
chiefly west of the Alleghanies, and from the Fur Countries 
southward to Costa Rica and Panama though it has not been 
recorded from Mexico or the West Indies. It breeds chiefly 
north of the United States. There are indications that is may 
breed in the vicinity of Chicago. Mr. E. W. Nelson says : "The 
first of July, 1874, I found two pairs of these birds in a dense 
willow thicket bordering Mazon Creek, about sixty miles south 
of Chicago. Upon my approach the birds showed great anxiety, 
uttering a short complaining cry, and coming within a few feet 
of me. That they had young in the vicinity I was sure, but owing 
to the character of the covert they were not found." There is 
evidence that it also breeds in Indiana, for it is known to be a 
rare summer resident in that state, specimens having been taken 
during the months of June and July. Professor B. W. Evermann 
says that it is a rare summer resident in both Carroll and Mon- 
roe Counties, Indiana. 

Vireosylva gilva (Vieillot.). Warbling Vireo. 

Muscicapa gilva VIEILLOT, Ois. Amer. Sept.. I, 1807, 65, pi. 34. 

Vireo gilvus BONAPARTE, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, IV, 

1824. 176. 
Popular synonym : WABBLING GBEENLET. 

The Warbling Vireo was formerly a common, but it is now 
a rare summer resident, and is more common during its migra- 
tions. It arrives early in May and departs about the middle of 

*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 102. 



154 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

September. On June 9, 1885, Mr. B. T. Gault found a nest 
of this species, which contained four eggs, in Lake County, Illi- 
nois, a few miles north of our area. 

The range of the Warbling Vireo covers North America in 
general, from the Fur Countries southward into Mexico and it 
breeds quite throughout its range. 

Genus LANIVIREO Baird, 1858. 

Lanivireo flavifrons (Vieillot). Yellow-throated Vireo. 

Vireo flavifrons VIEILLOT, Ois. Amer. Sept., I, 1807, 85, pi. 54. 
Popular synonym: YELLOW-THROATED GREENLET. 

This Vireo is a not uncommon migrant, and is probably a 
rare summer resident. In the spring it arrives about the last 
of April, and in the fall it arrives in September and departs from 
the last of that month to the middle of October. On the eighth 
of June, 1885, Mr. B. T. Gault obtained a nest and the eggs of 
this species in Lake County, Illinois, a few miles north of our 
area. 

The range of this Vireo covers the United States east of the 
Great Plains, and from Canada southward. It breeds from the 
Gulf of Mexico northward, and it winters in Florida and south- 
ward through Mexico to Colombia. 

Lanivireo soltarius (Wilson). Blue-headed Vireo. 

Muscicapa solitaria WILSON, Amer. On., II, 1810, 43, pi. 17, fig. 6. 
Vireo solitarius VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XXXVI, 1819, 

103. 

Popular synonyms: SOLITARY GREENLET OR VIREO. BLUE-HEADED 
GREENLET. 

The Blue-headed Vireo was formerly a common but now it 
is a rather rare migrant. In the spring it arrives from the first to 
the last of May, and it returns in the fall from the middle of Sep- 
tember to the first week in October. Mr. B. T. Gault informs me 
that it is silent while passing through our area during its migra- 
tions, and that it occurs more plentifully during its fall migra- 
tions. 

Its range covers North America east of the Plains and from 
the Fur Countries southward. It breeds from the northern bor- 
der of the United States northward, and it winters in the West 
Indies and eastern Mexico south to Guatemala. 

Genus VIREO Vieillot, 1807. 

Vireo noveboracensis (Gmelin). White-eyed Vireo. 

Muscicapa noveboracensis GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 947. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 155 

Vireo noveboracensis BONAPARTE, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 

IV, 1824, 176. 
Popular synonyms: WHITE-EYED GBEENLET. LITTLE GBEEN HANG- 

ING-BIBD. CHICKTY-BEAVEB. 

The White-eyed Vireo is a rare visitant from other portions 
of Illinois. Mr. B. T. Gault informs me of a specimen which was 
taken at Glen Ellyn on May 24, 1898. This species is an abun- 
dant summer resident in the southern portions of Illinois, and is 
also not uncommon in other suitable localities within the state. 
Mr. E. W. Nelson recorded it* as a "summer resident. Rather 
rare. Arrives the middle of May and departs the first of Oc- 
tober." 

The range of the White-eyed Vireo covers the United States, 
east of the Rocky Mountains and from Minnesota and the south- 
ern portion of New England. It breeds from the Gulf states 
northward, and winters in the Gulf states and south to Guatemala 
and Honduras. 

Vireo bellii Audubon. Bell's Vireo. 

Vireo bellii AUDUBON, B. Amer., VII, 1844, 333, pi. 485. 
Popular synonym : BELL'S GBEENLET. 

The only records I have been able to find of the occurrence 
of Bell's Vireo within our limits are the following: Mr. E. W. 
Nelson says:* "A single specimen, obtained near Chicago, June 
23, 1875, is tne on ly instance I have recorded of its occurrence in 
this vicinity. It is a common summer resident on the more 
southern prairies of the state." Mr. H. K. Coale informs me 
that a specimen was brought to him which had been shot by a 
boy in Chicago in the spring of 1875. The identification was af- 
terwards confirmed by Dr. Ridgway. Mr. Harry Swarth re- 
ports the finding of Veil's Vireo, nesting in a thick patch of 
shrubbery at Joliet, Illinois. Subsequently several more nests 
were found. These are the first authentic nesting records for 
this region. 

FAMILY MNIOTILTID^B: WOOD WARBLERS. 
Genus MNIOTILTA Vieillot, 1816. 

Mniotilta varia (Linnaeus). Black and White Warbler. 
Motacilla varia LINN.-EUS, S. X., ed. 12. I, 1766, 333. 
Mniotilta varia VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XXI, 1818, 230. 
Popular synonyms : BLACK AND WHITE CBEEPEB. BLACK AND WHITE 
CREEPING WABBLEB. STRIPED CREEPER. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 103. 



156 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

This Warbler is a common migrant, arriving from early in 
April to the middle of May, and returning in the fall from about 
the middle of August to the first of October. In 1876, Mr. E. W. 
Nelson reported this creeping Warbler to be a not uncommon 
summer resident, but I can find no other records of its occur- 
rence within our limits during the summer months. 

The range of this species extends over eastern North Amer- 
ica, east of the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains and from 
the Fur Countries southward, in winter, through the West Indies 
and Central America to Colombia. It breeds from the southern 
states northward. 

Genus PROTONOTARIA Baird, 1858. 

Protonotaria citrea (Boddaert). Prothonotary Warbler. 
Motacilla citrea BODDAERT, Tabl. P. E., 1783, 44. 
Motacilla protonotarius GMELIN, S. N., I, 1788, 972. 
Sylvia protonotaria VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XI, 1817, 211. 
Motacilla auricollis GMELIN, S. N., I, 1788, 984. 
Sylvicola auricollis NUTTALL, Man., ed. 2, I, 1840, 431. 
Protonotaria citrea BAIRD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., 1858, 239. 
Popular synonyms : WILLOW WARBLER. GOLDEN SWAMP WARBLER. 

The Prothonotary Warbler is a rare summer visitant. It 
breeds abundantly along the Kankakee River which seems to be 
the northern limit of its breeding range in Illinois. Occasionally 
these Warblers are seen within our limits. Mr. E. W. Nelson 
says: "Two specimens were taken during the summer of 1875, 
and I have heard of several other instances of its occurrence. 
All specimens taken in this vicinity have remarkably dull colored 
plumage." Mr. H. K. Coale reports it as having been seen or 
taken in Cook County in May, 1883. Miss Amalie Hamnig, who 
is familiar with this species, writes me that she observed a 
brightly colored male at Riverside, Illinois, on June 2, 1897. Mr. 
B. T. Gault noticed one at Glen Ellyn, Illinois, on May 13, 1893. 
Mr. O. M. Schantz informs me that he saw a pair of these War- 
blers at Morton Park on May 15, 1904. During the year 1904 
the Prothonotary Warbler was also seen in Lincoln Park, Chi- 
cago. It is my belief that this beautiful bird if encouraged and 
protected may eventually become more common within our limits 
and may possibly nest here 

While this species is more abundant in the Mississippi Val- 
ley, where it breeds abundantly, its range extends from Cuba and 
South America, in winter, northward to Pennsylvania, Michigan, 
Illinois, Iowa and Nebraska. Casually it is found further north 
in New England, Ontario and Minnesota. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 157 

Genus HELMINTHOPHILA Ridgway, 1882. 

Helminthophila pinus (Linnaeus). Blue-winged Warbler. 

Certhia pinus LINN^US, S. N. f ed. 12, I, 1766, 187. 
Helminthophaga pinus BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 254. 
Helminthophila pinus RIDGWAY, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, VII 1882, 53. 
Popular synonyms : BLUE-WINGED YELLOW WABBLEB. BLUE-WINGED 
SWAMP WABBLEB. 

The Blue-winged Warbler is a rare migrant. There are but 
few known instances of its occurrence within our limits. These 
are all recent and are as follows: Mr. B. T. Gault observed it 
in DuPage County, Illinois, on August 18, 1894; on September 
I, 1894, and on June 6, 1895. The last observation was that of a 
male in song and the bird seemed to have settled for the season 
in the Addison woods. However, Mr. Gault again visited the 
Addison woods on June 22, but it was evidently too late for he 
did not find the bird. On May 30, 1900, while at Palos Park, 
on the Wabash railway, he heard the notes of this Warbler in a 
bushy field, in a somewhat elevated situation, but did not see the 
bird. Mr. Eliot Blackwelder observed it in Morgan Park on 
May 24, 1895. This species was observed in June, 1906, by Mr. 
John F. Ferry, but the nest could not be located. As this species 
is known to breed in the southern part of Illinois, and as a juve- 
nile bird has been taken by Mr. Gault in DuPage County, it does 
not seem impossible that a very few individuals may remain and 
breed within our limits. 

The range of this Warbler covers the United States, east of 
the Great Plains and from Massachusetts, southern Michigan 
and southern Minnesota southward. It breeds quite throughout 
its United States range and winters from Mexico southward to 
Guatemala and Nicaragua. 

Helminthophila chrysoptera (Linnaeus). Golden-winged Warbler. 

Motacilla chrysoptera LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 333. 
Sylvia chrysoptera LATHAM, Ind. Orn., II, 1790, 541. 
Helminthophaga chrysoptera CABANIS, Mus. Hem., I, 1850, 20. 
Helminthophila chrysoptera RIDGWAY, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, VII, 

January, 1882, 53. 
Popular synonyms : BLUE GOLDEN-WINGED WABBLEB. GOLDEN-WINGED 

SWAMP WABBLEB. 

This Warbler is not an uncommon migrant which may be 
looked for from the first to the last of May, and from the last 
of August to the last of September. Regarding the occurrence 



158 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

of this species within our limits, Mr. E. W. Nelson says :* ''Com- 
paratively rare. It breeds rarely." 

The range of the Golden-winged Warbler lies chiefly in the 
eastern United States during the summer months, breeding 
from northern New Jersey and northern Indiana to southern 
Ontario, and also in the Alleghanies southward to South Caro- 
lina. It winters southward through Central America to the 
northern portion of South America. 

Helminthophila rubricapilla (Wilson). Nashville Warbler. 

Sylvia ruficapilla (not of Latham, 1790) WILSON, Amer. On., Ill, 

1811, 120, pi. 27, fig. 3. 

Sylvia rubricapilla WILSON, Amer. On., VI, 1812, 15. 
Helminthophaga ruficapilla BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 

1858, 256. 
Helminthophila rubricwpilla FAXON, Auk, XIII, July, 1896, 264. 

The Nashville Warbler is a rare migrant at the present time. 
Mr. E. W. Nelson reported it in 1876 to be a rare summer 
resident and very common during its migrations.f In its spring 
migrations it arrives within our limits from the first to the fif- 
teenth of May, and it returns in the fall during the month of 
September. Mr. Robert Kennicott states in his list of Cook 
County birdsj that the Nashville Warbler is "common during 
the latter part of April and throughout the month of May." In 
his Ornithology of Illinois, Mr. Robert Ridgway says that it 
"breeds in the extreme northern counties of the state." 

The range of the Nashville Warbler covers North America 
east of the Great Plains and from the Fur Countries southward, 
in winter, to Mexico and Central America. It breeds from north- 
ern Illinois and Connecticut northward. 

Helminthophila celata (Say). Orange-crowned Warbler. 
Sylvia celata SAY, Long's Exp., I, 1823, 169. 
Vermivora celata NUTTALL, Man., ed. 2, 1840, 463. 
Helminthophaga celata BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 

257, part. 
Helminthophila celata RIDGWAY, Bull. Nutt. On. Club, VII, Jan. 

1882, 54. 

Formerly the Orange-crowned Warbler was a common, but 
at the present time it is a rare migrant within our limits. In the 
spring it arrives from the last of April to the last of May ; in the 
fall it returns during the month of September. In 1876 Mr. E. 



tBirds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 98. 
*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 98. 
tTrans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854, 583. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 159 

W. Nelson recorded it as a common migrant.* I have the fol- 
lowing recent records of the taking of this species : On May 29, 
1885, I obtained a specimen in Hyde Park, Chicago; September 
10, 1888, and August 28, 1895, Mr. B. T. Gault obtained speci- 
mens in Chicago; May I, 1896, and ori October i, 1896, Mr. 
Gault also obtained specimens in Du Page County, Illinois ; on 
April 29, 1893, Mr. F. S. Dayton obtained a specimen at Bow- 
manville, Illinois. In his Birds of Indiana,f Mr. Amos W. But- 
ler has published the following records for our area: "In 1871, 
Mr. C. E. Aiken informs me, it was not rare in Lake County, 
Indiana. In that county, also, Mr. H. K. Coale obtained a speci- 
men, May 1 6, 1877, and two days later one in Cook County, Illi- 
nois, not far away. The next record I have from Cook County 
is of a specimen taken by Mr. C. A. Tallman, May 15, 1897." 

The range of this species extends through eastern North 
America from Mexico northward. It breeds as far north as the 
Yukon and Mackenzie River districts and southward through 
the Rocky Mountains. It is rare north of Virginia and east of 
the Alleghany Mountains. It migrates southward, in winter, 
chiefly through the Mississippi Valley and westward to the Great 
Basin, and winters in the southern states and Mexico. 

Helminthophila peregrina (Wilson). Tennessee Warbler. 

Sylvia peregrina WILSON, Amer. Orn., Ill, 1811, 83, pi. 25, fig. 2. 
Vermivora peregrina NUTTAIX, Man., ed. 2, I, 1840, 469. 
Helminthophaga peregrina CABANIS, Mus. Hein., I, 1850, 20. 
Helminthophila peregrina RIDGWAY, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, VII, Jan. 
1882, 54. 

The Tennessee Warbler is a common migrant, the majority 
arriving within our limits in the month of May, and returning in 
the fall from the middle of August to the middle of October. 

The range of this Warbler extends through the United 
States, east of the Rocky Mountains and it breeds from the north- 
ern border of the United States northward to the Arctic regions. 
It winters southward through eastern Mexico to the northern 
part of South America. 

Genus COMPSOTHLYPIS Cabanis. 1850. 

Compsothlypis americana ramalinae (Ridg.). Western Panda Warbler. 

Sylvia americana AUDTJBON, Orn. Biog., i. 1882, 78, part. 
Parula americana COUES, Key N. Amer. Birds, 1872, 93, part. 
Parula americana NELSON, Bull. Essex Inst., VIII, 1876. 98. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 98. 
fTwenty-second Annual Report, Dept. Geol. and Nat. Resources, 1897, 1035. 



l6o THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Compsothlypis americana RIDGWAY, Orn. 111., I, 1889, 131. 
Compsothlypis americana ramalince RIDGWAY, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

No. 50, part ii, 1902, 486. 
Popular synonym : BLUE YELLOW-BACKED WABBLEB. 

The Western Parula Warbler is a common migrant, arriving 
within our limits in the spring from about the fifth to the last of 
May, and returning in the fall from the last of August to the 
last of September. 

The range of the Western Parula Warbler covers the Mis- 
sissippi Valley and district of the Upper Great Lakes ; breeding 
from Louisiana and Texas to Michigan, Wisconsin and Minne- 
sota; occasional west to eastern Colorado; in winter southward 
through eastern Mexico and Central America to Nicaragua. 

Genus DENDROICA Gray. 1842. 
Dendroica tigrina (Gmelin). Cape May Warbler. 

Motacilla tigrina GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 985. 
Sylvia maritima WILSON, Amer. Orn., VI, 1812, 99, pi. 54, fig. 3. 
Sylvicola maritima JABDINE, ed. Wilson's Amer. Orn., II, 1832, 291. 
Dendroica tigrina BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 286. 
Perissoglossa tigrina BAIBD, Review, Amer. Birds, April, 1865, 181. 

The Cape May Warbler is a rather common migrant, but it 
so closely resembles Dendroica maculosa that it is frequently mis- 
taken for that warbler. It arrives in the spring from the first 
to the twenty-fifth of May, and returns in the fall from the last 
of August to the last of September. 

The range of this species covers North America east of the 
Great Plains and from the Hudson Bay region and Lake Winni- 
peg southward. It breeds chiefly north of the United States, 
and winters in the West Indies. 

Dendroica sestiva (Gemlin). Yellow Warbler. 

Sylvia cestiva LATHAM, Ind. Orn., II, 1790, 551. 

Motacilla &stiva GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 996. 

Sylvicola (Estiva Sw. & RICH., Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 1831, 211. 

Dendroica cestiva BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 282. 

Popular synonyms : SUMMEB YELLOW-BIBD. WILD CANAEY. 

The Yellow Warbler is a very common summer resident, ar- 
riving the last of April, and departing about the first week in 
September. 

The range of this species covers nearly the whole of North 
America. It breeds quite throughout its range in North America, 
and winters southward to Central and South America. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. l6l 

Dendroica caerulescens (Gmelin). Black-throated Blue Warbler. 

Motacilla caerulescens GMELIN, S. N., I, 1788, 960. 
Sylvia canadensis WILSON, Amer. Orn., II, 1810, 115, pi. 15, fig. 7. 
Sylvicola canadensis RICHARDSON, Rep. Brit. Assoc. for 1836, 172. 
Dendroica ccerulescens BAIED, Review Amer. Birds, April, 1865, 186. 
Popular synonyms: CANADIAN WABLEB. PINE SWAMP WAEBLEB. 

This Warbler is a common migrant, arriving in the spring 
during the month of May, and returning in the fall from the 
last of August to the earlier days of October. 

The range of this species covers North America, east of the 
Great Plains. It breeds chiefly north of the United States, but 
also in the Alleghany Mountains south to northern Georgia. It 
winters southward to the West Indies and Guatemala. 

Dendroica coronata (Linnaeus). Myrtle Warbler. 

Motacilla coronata LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 333. 

Sylvia coronata LATHAM, Ind. Orn., II, 1790, 538. 

Sylvicola coronata Sw. & RICH., Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 1831, 216. 

Dendroica coronata GRAY, List Gen. B., App., 1842, 8. 

Popular synonyms : MYBTLE BIRD. YELLOW-BUMPED WABBLEB. YEL- 

LOW-CBOWNED WOOD WABBLEB. 

The Myrtle Warbler is an abundant migrant, arriving in the 
spring from the first of April to the last of May, and returning 
in the fall from early in September to the last of October. 

The range of the Myrtle Warbler lies chiefly east of the 
Rocky Mountains though it straggles more or less commonly 
westward to the Pacific coast. It breeds from the northern 
United States northward and winters from southern New Eng- 
land and southern Illinois southward to the West Indies and 
through Mexico to Panama. 

Dendroica maculosa (Gmelin). Magnolia Warbler. 

Motacilla maculosa GMELIN, S. N., I., ii, 1788, 984. 

Sylvia maculosa LATHAM, Ind. Orn., II, 1790, 536. 

Sylvicola maculosa Sw. & RICH., Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 1831, 213, 

pi. 40. 

Dendroica maculosa BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 284. 
Popular synonym : BLACK AND YELLOW WABBLEB. 

The Magnolia Warbler is an abundant migrant, arriving in 
the spring during the month of May, and returning in the fall 
from the last of August to the last of September. 

The range of the Magnolia W r arbler extends through North 
America, east of the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains, from 
Hudson Bay southward to Panama and the West Indies. It 



l62 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

breeds from the northern United States northward and south- 
ward in the Alleghanies to Pennsylvania, and it winters from 
the Bahamas and Mexico south to the West Indies and Panama. 

Dendroica rara (Wilson). Cerulean Warbler. 

Sylvia ccerulea WILSON, Amer. Orn., II, 1810, 141, pi. 17, fig. 5. 
Sylvia rara WILSON, Amer. Orn., Ill, 1811, 119, pi. 27, fig. 2. 
Dendroica c&rulea BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 280. 
Dendroica, rara RIDGWAY, Auk, XIV, 1897, 97. 

Popular synonyms: BLUE WABBLEB. AZUBE WABBLEB. WHITE- 
THROATED WABBLES. 

The Cerulean Warbler is a rare summer resident in the heavy 
timber of DuPage County, Illinois, and a few probably breed 
in the woods bordering the Desplaines River at River Forest. 
Mr. B. T. Gault has observed this species during the summer 
months in DuPage County and at Lake Forest, Illinois. It ar- 
rives from about the tenth to the twentieth of May, and departs 
early in Sepember. Mr. H. K. Coale informs me that he shot 
a male Cerulean Warbler at Winnetka, Illinois, on May 12, 1879, 
and that he also found them breeding in woods seven miles west 
of Lake Forest, Illinois, in 1876. 

The range of the Cerulean Warbler covers the eastern United 
States, east of the Rocky Mountains and chiefly west of the 
Alleghanies, and from southern Canada southward, in winter, 
to Central America and northern South America. It breeds from 
about the latitude of 35 northward, especially in the heavily 
wooded districts of the Mississippi Valley. 

Dendroica pensylvanica (Linnaeus). Chestnut-sided Warbler. 

Motacilla pensylvanica LINN^US, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 333. 
Sylvia icterocephala LATHAM, Ind. Orn., II, 1790, 538. 
Sylvicola icterocephala JABDINE, ed. Wilson's Amer. Orn., I, 1832, 248. 
Dendroica pensylvanica BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 
279. 

At the present time the Chestnut-sided Warbler is an abun- 
dant migrant, arriving in the spring during the month of May, 
and returning in the fall from about the ninth of September to 
the third of October. In his list of the birds of Cook County, Illi- 
nois,* Mr. Robert Kennicott includes this species with the no- 
tation "Abundant," and also states that, at that time, it was 
known to breed in the county. In his Birds of Northeastern Illi- 

*Trans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854, 583. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 163 

nois,f Mr. E. W. Nelson speaks of it as an "Abundant migrant. 
Breeds sparingly away from the Lake." 

The range of the Chestnut-sided Warbler covers the United 
States, east of the Plains. It breeds from about the latitude of 
central Illinois northward to 1 the southern portion of the British 
Possessions and as far west as Manitoba, and in the Alleghanies 
as far south as Georgia. It winters from the Bahamas and 
eastern Mexico southward at least to Panama. 

Dendroica castanea (Wilson). Bay-breasted Warbler. 

Sylvia castanea WILSON, Amer. Orn., II, 1810, 97, pi. 14, fig. 4. 
Sylvia autumnalis WILSON, Amer. Orn., Ill, 1811, 65, pi. 23, fig. 3. 
Dendroica castanea BAIRD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX. 1858, 276. 
Popular synonym : AUTUMNAL WARBLER. 

As a rule, the Bay-breasted Warbler is a common migrant, 
although some seasons it is rather uncommon in its passage 
through our area. In the spring it arrives from the last of April 
to the last of May, and returns in the fall from the last of August 
to the last of September. 

The range of this Warbler covers the United States east of 
the Great Plains, breeding from northern New England and 
northern Michigan northward. It winters southward through 
eastern Mexico and Central America to northern South America. 

Dendroica striata (Forster). Black-poll Warbler. 

Mitscicapa striata FORSTER, Philos. Trans.,LXII, 1772, 406, 428. 
Sylvia striata LATHAM, Ind. Orn., II, 1790, 527. 
Sylvicola striata Sw. & RICH., Fauna Bor. Amer., II, 1831, 218. 
Dendroica striata BAIRD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 280. 
Popular synonyms: BLACK CAP WARBLER. BLACK AND WHITE 
WARBLER. 

The Black-poll Warbler is a common migrant, arriving in the 
spring during the month of May, and returning in the fall from 
about the tenth of September to the fourth of October. 

The range of this Warbler extends over North America east 
of the Rocky Mountains, and it breeds from the Catskill Moun- 
tains and northern New England northward to Alaska and Green- 
land. In the winter it migrates southward through the West 
Indies to South America where it is found as far south as Brazil 
and Chili. It has not been recorded from either Mexico or Cen- 
tral America, though during its migrations it has been observed 
in New Mexico. 



fBull. of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 



164 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Dendroica blackburnise (Gmelin). Blackburnian Warbler. 
Motacilla blackburnice GMELIN, S. N., I., ii, 1788, 977. 
Sylvia blackburnice LATHAM, Ind. Orn., II, 1790, 527. 
Sylvicola blackburnice SWAINSON, Philos. Mag., n. s., I, 1827, 434. 
Dendroica blackburnice BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 274. 
Popular synonyms : ORANGE-THROATED WARBLEE. HEMLOCK WAR- 
BLER. 

The Blackburnian Warbler is a common migrant, which in 
the spring may appear within our limits from the last of April 
to the first of May, and again in the fall from the middle of 
August to the last of September. 

The range of this Warbler covers North America chiefly east 
of Manitoba and the Plains, casually west to Utah, New Mexico 
and western Texas. It breeds from the northern United States 
northward to the southern shores of Hudson Bay, the Alleghany 
mountains south to western North Carolina, and in the higher 
altitudes of South Carolina (Pickens County) and eastern Ten- 
nessee (Roan Mountains). It winters southward through eastern 
Mexico and Central America to Peru in South America, and to 
the Bahama Islands. 

Dendroica dominica albilora Ridgway. Sycamore Warbler. 

Dendroica dominica var. albilora BAIRD, MS., RIDGWAY, Amer. Nat., 

VII, Oct. 1873, 606. 
Dendroica dominica var. albilora NELSON, Bull. Essex Inst., VIII, 

1876, 99. 
Dendroica dominica albilora RIDGWAY, A. O. U. Check List, 1895, 278. 

In 1876, Mr. Nelson reported this species as follows:* "A 
very rare summer visitant from the south." Mr. T. H. Douglas 
recently showed me a fine adult male taken at Waukegan in 
the spring of 1876. Mr. A. W. Butlerf reports it as a common 
summer resident in southern Indiana, and as a rare visitant in 
the vicinity of Brookville and Fort Wayne, Indiana. The Syca- 
more Warbler has been reported from Monroe County and from 
Detroit, Michigan. There is no apparent reason why this 
Warbler should not be found in our area, particularly in the 
swampy portions of Cook County and Lake County. Indiana. 

The range is given as follows in the A. O. U. Check-list: 
"Mississippi Valley, west to the Plains, north to Lake Erie and 
southern Michigan, and east to western North Carolina; in 
winter south to southern Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala and 
Nicaragua." 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, p. 99. 
fBirds of Indiana, p. 1065. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 165 

Dendroica virens (Gmelin). Black-throated Green Warbler. 
Motacilla virens GMELIN, S. N., I., ii, 1788, 985. 
Sylvia virens LATHAM, Ind. Orn., II, 1790, 537. 
Sylvicola virens JAEDINE, ed. Wilson's Amer. Orn., I, 1832, 279. 
Dendroica wrens BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 267. 

The Black-throated Green Warbler is a common migrant, ar- 
riving in the spring from the last of April to the last of May, 
and returning in the fall from the fourth of September to the 
middle of October. Mr. E. W. Nelson says:* "A few remain 
to breed." 

The range of this Warbler covers North America east of the 
Plains, and from the Hudson Bay region southward. It breeds 
from the northern United States northward and southward along 
the higher Alleghanies to eastern Tennessee, western North Caro- 
lina and northwestern South Carolina. It winters southward to 
the West Indies and through eastern Mexico and Central Amer- 
ica to Panama. 

Dendroica kirtlandii Baird. Kirtland's Warbler. 

Dendrioca kirtlandii BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 286. 

pi. 6. 
Dendroica kirtlandii BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 286. 

There are but two records of the taking of the very rare 
Kirtland's Warbler within our limits. A fine specimen was cap- 
tured in DuPage County, Illinois, on the seventh of May, 1894, 
by Mr. B. T. Gault, and a fine male was taken at Morgan Park, 
Illinois, on May 22, 1899, by Mr. Eliot Blackwelder. It was not 
unitl the year 1903 that anything was known regarding either the 
breeding range or the nesting habits of this shy Warbler. Early 
in June of that year Mr. E. H. Frothingham, of the museum staff 
of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, and Mr. T. G. Gale 
were in Oscoda County, Michigan, fishing in the Au Sable River. 
Mr. Frothingham, who is an experienced field ornithologist, heard 
the song of a strange bird, which was shot, and on their return 
to Ann Arbor was found to be the skin of a Kirtland's Warbler. 
Mr. Charles C. Adams, Curator of the Museum, appreciating the 
value of the discovery of this species in that locality during the 
summer months, and believing that it nested in that vicinity com- 
missioned Mr. Norman A. Wood to make a thorough survey in 
the vicinity of Oscoda County, hoping that nests might be located. 
Reaching his field of labor in Oscoda County, Mr. Wood was 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 100. 



l66 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

eminently successful. I quote from his report:* "On July 2d, 
at six A. M., I started out ; crossing the river bottom (near Butler 
bridge, Oscoda County, thirty-five miles northeast of Roscommon, 
Michigan) I came to a steep terrace which forms the edge of the 
Norway plains. This is very wet, and in places fine springs 
seep out. Here also is a dense growth of cedar with tamarack 
near the foot of the terrace. Fir, balm of Gilead and birch make 
up the timber. Climbing this slope I found a rather level plain 
with scattering Norway and jack pines. In places these have 
been cut off, and in their stead there has sprung up a more or 
less thick growth of small jack pines, yellow oak and poplar. 
The ground is covered with a mat of wintergreen, sweetfern and 
trailing arbutus. I was walking slowly through this, watching 
the junco, song sparrow, chipping sparrow and the vesper spar- 
row the most common bird of these plains when suddenly I 
heard a new song, loud, clear, joyous and full of sweet melody. 
This song may be described as follows: weche chee-chee-chee- 
r-r-r. The r sound is quite prolonged and loud. The first two 
notes are low, then the notes gradually increase in volume to the 
end. I thought it a Kirtland, although I had never before heard 
its song. I heard this song repeated at intervals of about thirty 
seconds, and from different directions. I tried to catch a glimpse 
of the singer, but for a long time failed to do so, as he kept among 
the thick jack pines and scrub oaks. I repeatedly tried to go 
where he sang last, and finally saw him flit from a bush to a yellow 
oak scrub and light about three feet above the ground. As I 
watched him he sat quite erect, threw forward his head and the 
wonderful song rang out. This song was remarkable because of 
its volume and rich melody. I was sure this was the bird for 
which I was in search ; but in order to make certain the identity 
I shot it. A moment later I held in my hand a fine adult male 
of Kirtland's Warbler." Though Mr. Wood saw other specimens 
of this Warbler, both male and female, it was not until the eighth 
of July that he was successful in his hunt for a nest. He says : 
"We had nearly reached the line of Crawford County when I 
heard a song and on stopping, soon saw a male Kirtlandii singing 
from his favorite tree. I slipped from the wagon and secured 
this male. Driving on one half mile I saw a male fly to a dead 
tree near the road. This bird had a worm in its mouth, so I 
concluded that its nest was near by, and that it would go to it 



'Bull. Michigan Orn. Club, Vol. V, March, 1904, 5. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 167 

with the worm. I went to the side of a large stub, and while I 
was watching, saw this male assume the erect singing position, 
throw forward his head and try to sing, still holding the worm 
in his mouth. This song may be written thus : ch-ch-che-che-che-a 
(the a long drawn out). He sang a number of times at intervals 
of about sixty seconds but still held the worm. He soon spied 
me and seemed rather uneasy, wagging his tail after the fashion 
of Dendroica palmarum. Now the song seemed to take an anxious 
or scolding tone and sounded like cha, che-chee wicha-a-a. 
After watching me a few minutes he dropped from the tree (on 
a long glide) to the east about three rods. I suspected he was 
going to the nest, so I hurried to the spot, but when I reached 
it he was not there ; so I stood still and waited. In a few min- 
utes he was at his place on the old tree with another worm. 
Again he sang and wagged his tail and then dove down, but this 
time two rods to the west of the tree. I started to go there, 
when just south of the tree I flushed the female from the ground 
and after a close look, saw the nest. It may be imagined with 
what delight I beheld the first nest of this rare bird ever seen, 
and with what eagerness I dropped to my knees beside it to make 
a closer examination of its contents. There were two young 
birds, perhaps ten days old, and a perfect egg; this proved to be 
the only egg found. 

"This egg was a delicate pinkish- white (since the contents 
were removed it has faded to a dull white) thinly sprinkled with 
several shades of brown spots forming a sort of wreath at the 
larger end. This egg is .^2x.^6 inches or 18 by 14 mm., and 
contained no embryo. The nest was built in a depression in the 
ground, at the foot of a jack pine about five feet tall, and was 
only five feet from the road. It was partly covered with low 
blueberries and sweetfern plants. The nest is two inches inside 
diameter and the same in depth, very neat and compact, and is 
composed of strips of soft bark and some vegetable fiber, thickly 
lined with fine dead grass and pine needles. A few hairs from 
horses' mane or tail complete the lining. 

"As I sat near the nest the female came and alighted on the 
branch of the jack pine just back of the nest. She was not at 
all shy. Once she came with a worm in her mouth, but would 
not feed the young while I was near. The male also came, but 
not so close. Both birds were very restless and uneasy only 
a few seconds in a place which made it very difficult to take 
photographs of them." 



l68 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

During his stay in this summer home of the Kirtland Warblers 
in Crawford and Oscoda Counties, Mr. Wood saw and heard 
sixteen birds, and in ten days he secured two pairs of Warblers 
with their nests, seven young and one egg ; also four adult males, 
making fifteen birds in all. Mr. Wood also says that he is in- 
clined to think "the Au Sable River is the southern boundary of 
their breeding area and that this area extends over the greater 
part of the Canadian zone of Michigan, Wisconsin and perhaps 
Minnesota. They will probably be found breeding in favorable 
localities in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, but I should not 
expect them north of Lake Superior." In spite of Mr. Wood's 
success Kirtland's Warbler must still be considered a very rare 
bird, and it probably breeds only in small colonies, and then only 
among the jack pines in favorable localities. 

Mr. Robert Ridgway gives the following as the geographical 
range of Kirtland's Warbler : "Eastern United States and more 
southern British Provinces, chiefly west of the Alleghanies; 
very irregularly distributed and breeding range unknown; has 
been found in the following states: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Mis- 
souri, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Virginia, South Carolina ; 
also in Ontario. Winters in the Bahamas." 

Dendroica vigorsii (Audubon). Pine Warbler. 

Sylvia pinus WILSON, Amer. Orn., Ill, 1811, 25, pi. 19, fig. 4. 

Sylvia vigorsii AUDUBON, Orn. Biog., I, 1832, 153, pi. 30. 

Sylvicola pinus JABDINE, ed. Wilson's Amer. Orn., I, 1832, 316, pi. 

19, fig. 4. 

Dendroica pinus BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 277. 
Dendroica vigorsii RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., VIII, September 

2, 1885, 356. 
Popular synonym : PINE CHEEPING WABBLEB. 

The Pine Warbler is a rather rare migrant, arriving in the 
spring from the middle of April to the last of May, and returning 
in the fall from the twentieth of September to the twelfth of 
October. Mr. E. W. Nelson considers it a common migrant 
and says: "The first of July, 1874, I found a large number of 
these birds with young just old enough to follow their parents, 
in the 'Pinery/ and presume they nest there regularly." Dr. 
A. W. Brayton says:* "Nelson found both young and old in 
the pine barrens, Lake County, where they undoubtedly breed 
regularly." 

The range of the Pine Warbler covers North America east 
of the Great Plains ; and from New Brunswick, Ontario and 



*Proc. Indiana Hort. Society, 1879, 108. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 169 

Manitoba southward to the Bahamas and the Gulf of Mexico. 
It breeds nearly throughout its range and winters chiefly south 
of latitude 40. 

Dendroica palmarum (Gmelin). Palm Warbler. 

Motacilla palmarum GMELIN, S. N., I., ii, 1788, 951. 
Dendroica palmarum BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., 1858, 288. 
Popular synonyms : YELLOW RED-POLL WAEBLEB. WAGTAIL WABBLEB. 
TITLABK WAEBLEE. TIP-UP WAEBLEB. RED-POLL WAEBLEB. 

The Palm Warbler is an abundant migrant, arriving in the 
spring from the twenty-first of April to the twenty- fourth of 
May, and returning in the fall from the tenth of September to 
the middle of October. It is more common in the spring than 
in the fall. 

The range of this Warbler extends over the interior of North 
America, from the Great Slave Lake southward, in winter, to 
the south Atlantic and Gulf states, the West Indies and Mexico. 
It breeds chiefly north of the United States- 

Dendroica discolor (Vieillot). Prairie Warbler. 

Sylvia discolor VIEILLOT, Ois. Amer. Sept., I, 1807, 37, pi. 98. 
Dendroica discolor BAIRD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 290. 
Popular synonym : CHESTNUT-BACKED YELLOW WABBLEB. 

The following are the only records that I have found regard- 
ing the occurrence of the Prairie Warbler within our limits. 
Mr. E. W. Nelson says:* "A very rare spring and summer 
visitant, perhaps breeding. But very few specimens have been 
taken in the vicinity of Chicago. Dr. Hoy writes that he knows 
of but one instance of its capture in Wisconsin." Mr. George 
Clingman informs me that he took a pair at Bryn Mawr, Chicago, 
during the second week of June, 1878. He also took a nest and 
eggs of this species at Forty-eighth Street and Vincennes Avenue, 
Chicago, on May 22, 1892. 

The range of the Prairie Warbler covers the United States 
east of the Great Plains, and from southern Wisconsin, Michigan 
and southern New England southward. It breeds nearly through- 
out its range in suitable localities, and winters in southern 
Florida and the West Indies. 

Genus SEIURUS Swainson, 1827. 

Seiuros aurocapillus (Linnaeus). Oven-bird. 

Motacilla aurocapilla LINN^US, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 334. 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 100. 



I7O THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Seiurus aurocapillus SWAINSON, Zool. Journ., Ill, 1827, 171. 
Turdus aurocapillus LATHAM, Ind. On., II, 1790, 328. 
Popular synonyms: GOLDEN-CEOWNED WAGTAIL OB THRUSH. WOOD 
WAGTAIL. 

The Ovenbird is a common migrant and a rare summer resi- 
dent. It arrives in April, and departs late in October. 

The range of this species covers eastern North America, from 
Alaska and the region of Hudson Bay southward, in winter, to 
Florida, the West Indies, and from Mexico south to Panama. 
It breeds from Kansas, the Ohio Valley and the mountain regions 
of South Carolina northward. 

Seiurus noveboracensis (Gmelin). Water-thrush. 

Motacilla noveboracensis GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 958. 
Turdus (Seiurus) noveboracensis NUTTALL, Man., I, 1832, 353. 
Seiurus noveboracensis BONAPARTE, Geog. & Comp. List, 1838, 21. 
Popular synonyms: WATER WAGTAIL. NEW YORK WATER-THRUSH. 
WATER KICK-UP. SMALL-BILLED WATER-THRUSH. 

In his "Catalogue of Animals Observed in Cook County, 
Illinois/'* Mr. Robert Kennicott lists the Water-thrush and states 
that it was known to nest within the County. Mr. E. W. Nelson, 
in his "Birds of Northeastern Illinois" records this species and 
says: "An abundant migrant; April 1st to May loth, and Au- 
gust 25th to October 25th. Found everywhere in damp woods 
or along the banks of streams during the migrations. A very 
few remain to breed in secluded woods." 

Previous to the year 1880 varietal forms of this species had 
been given no subspecific names. In that year, Mr. Robert Ridg- 
way recognizedf Mr. G. B. Grinnell's separation of the western 
form of this Water-thrush under the name Seiurus n&vius nota- 
bilis which later became Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis Ridg- 
way. It will be noticed that all the forms of this species were 
included under the name noveboracensis at the time Mr. Kenni- 
cott and Mr. Nelson made their observations. Since the time of 
Mr. Nelson's list (1876), I have been unable to find more than 
one authentic record of the taking, within our limits, of a typical 
specimen of noveboracensis. In the bird collection of the Field 
Museum of Natural History, Jackson Park, Chicago, there is a 
specimen of the noveboracensis, which is a typical male of the 
species, collected by Mr. Henry K. Coale at Grand Crossing, 
Chicago, on May 21, 1887. This would indicate the possibility 
of an occasional finding of birds of this species within our limits. 



*Trans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854, 582. 
tProc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ill, March 27, 1880, 12. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 17! 

It would seem, therefore, that it is highly probable that nearly 
all, if not all of the birds of this species observed before the 
year 1880 would now be classed under the subspecies notabilis. 

It is not impossible that more typical specimens of this more 
eastern form of the Water-thrush may yet be taken within our 
limits. I have examined a series of specimens, taken in this 
vicinity, which showed characteristics varying from typical nota- 
bilis to very nearly typical noveboracensis. It is well understood 
that there are intermediate forms between the variety and the 
type of the species. It is important, therefore, that all Water- 
thrushes, belonging to this species, which are taken in north- 
eastern Illinois, should be carefully studied. 

Mr. Ridgway gives the following as the range of this species :* 
"Eastern North America; north to Davis Inlet, Newfoundland, 
and shores of Hudson Bay ; breeding southward to northern New 
England, mountains of Pennsylvania and West Virginia, southern 
Michigan (?), northeastern Illinois (?), etc.; in winter south- 
ward throughout West Indies and along eastern coast districts 
of Central America to Colombia, Venezuela, British Guiana, 
Brazil (?), Trinidad, and Tobago, and to Swan Island and Old 
Providence Island, Caribbean Sea." 

Seiuros noveboracensis notabilis (Ridg.). GrinnelTs Water-thrush. 
Seiurus noveboracensis BAIRD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX. 1858 ? 261. 

part ; and of many other early writers on Illinois and western 

birds. 
Sciurus nasvius notabilis RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ill, March 

27, 1880, 12. 
Seiur-us noveboracensis notabilis RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

VIII. Sept. 2, 1885, 354; 564. 
Popular synonym : WYOMING WATEB-THBUSII. 

The Grinnell's Water-thrush is an abundant migrant, arriving 
in the spring about the first of May, and returning in the fall 
near the last of September. This Water-thrush, which without 
question is the most abundant of the water-thrushes frequenting 
our area, so closely resembles Seiurus noveboracensis that it 
seems best for me to include a description of this variety. This 
I quote from Mr. Robert Ridgway's Birds of North and Middle 
America.f "Similar to 5, n. noveboracensis, but larger, espe- 
cially the bill ; coloration of the upper parts less olive (more 
grayish sooty), that of under parts less yellowish, usually white, 
with little if any yellow tinge. Young much darker above than 



*Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 50, Pt. ii, 1902, 642. 
fBull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 50, pt ii, 1902, 645. 



172 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

that of S. n. noveboracensis, the feathers entirely dusky (except 
the buffy tip), instead of olive with a subterminal bar of dusky." 
He also says that he is not sure that the differences between the 
young of the two forms, as stated above, are constant as he had 
but one specimen of each form to examine. Mr. Ridgway also 
states that the "Mississippi Valley specimens average smaller than 
those from the Rocky Mountains and westward, and are really 
intermediate in size between S. n. notabilis and S\ n. novebora- 
censis." 

The range of this Water-thrush may be given as western 
North America, and passing more or less commonly during its 
migrations through the Mississippi Valley as far eastward as In- 
diana, and much more rarely through the states of the Atlantic 
coast to the Bahamas, Cuba, and through Mexico and Central 
America to northern South America. 
Seiurus motacilla (Vieillot). Louisiana Water-thrush. 

Turdus motacilla VIEILLOT, Ois. Amer. Sept., II, 1807, 9, pi. 65. 

Seiurus ludovicianus BONAPARTE, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 21. 

Seiurus motacilla BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., I, 1850, 306. 

Siurus motacilla COUES, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, II, 1877, 33. 

Popular synonyms: LARGE-BILLED WATER-THRUSH. WATER WAGTAIL. 
WAGTAIL. 

The Louisiana Water-thrush is a rare summer resident, arriv- 
ing about the last of April, and departing about the first of Sep- 
tember. In 1876 Mr. E. W. Nelson recorded it as a "not uncom- 
mon summer resident." 

The range of this species includes the United States, east of 
the Great Plains and from southern New England and southern 
Michigan southward in winter to the West Indies and through 
Mexico and Central America to Panama. It is a casual visitor 
further north than the above range. It breeds quite throughout 
its range within the United States. 

Genus OPORORNIS Baird, 1858. 

Oporornis formosa (Wilson). Kentucky Warbler. 

Sylvia formosa WILSON, Amer. Orn., Ill, 1811, 85, pi. 25, fig. 3. 
Oporornis formosus BAIRD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 247. 
Geothlypis formosa RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., VIII, 1885, 354. 

At the present time the Kentucky Warbler is certainly 
a very rare summer visitant from southern Illinois." In 
his report published in 1876, Mr. E. W. Nelson says* : "A very 
rare summer visitant from southern Illinois." The only other 
records of its appearance in our vicinity are the following. Dr. 
flocks along the Lake shore and on bare prairies during the migra- 



k Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 101. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 173 

records of its appearance in our vicinity are the following. Dr. 
Joseph L. Hancock says :f "I secured a female of Oporornis 
(Geothlypis) formosa one-half mile southeast of Grand Crossing, 
among the undergrowth in a small isolated patch of woods. The 
finding 'of this species in that locality is an event of unusual in- 
terest. A specimen has been reported to me by my friend Mr. 
H. K. Coale, of Chicago, as found by Mr. R. B. Trouslot at 
Piano, Illinois, a few years ago." Mr. George Clingman took a 
specimen at Bryn Mawr, Chicago, during the first week in May, 
1892. 

As the Kentucky Warbler is an abundant species in southern 
Illinois, it is quite possible that it may appear at times as a strag- 
gling summer visitant within our limits and the field students of 
ornithology should watch for it in the woodlands of our area. 

The range of the Kentucky Warbler extends through the 
United States, east of the Great Plains and from southern New 
England, southern Michigan, southern Wisconsin, Iowa and east- 
ern Nebraska southward to the Gulf of Mexico and, in winter, 
through Mexico and Central America to Colombia. It is also 
a casual winter visitor to Cuba and other islands of the West In- 
dies. It breeds nearly throughout its United States range. 

Oporornis agilis (Wilson). Connecticut Warbler. 

Sylvia agilis WILSON, Amer. Orn., V, 1812, 64, pi. 39, fig. 4. 

Trichas agilis NUTTALL, Man., ed. 2, I, 1840, 463. 

Trichas teplirocotis NUTTALL, Man., ed. 2, I, 1840, 462. 

Oporornis agilis BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 246. 

Geothlypis agilis GBEGG, Proc. Elmira Acad. Sci., 1870, (reprint, p. 7). 

Popular synonym : GEAY-HEADED WABBLEB. 

The Connecticut Warbler is a not uncommon migrant, arriv- 
ing in the spring from the middle of May to the first week in 
June, and returning in the fall from about the middle of August 
to the last of September. This species, like the Mourning War- 
bler, is not generally thought to be even a frequent visitor to our 
vicinity, for it is a shy bird and is seldom found away from bushy 
swamps and heavy underbrush and is, therefore, easily over- 
looked. 

The range of the Connecticut Warbler extends through east- 
ern North America, breeding chiefly north of the United States 
and west of Ontario. In the spring, it migrates chiefly through 
the Mississippi Valley, but in the fall probably the larger number 



tAuk, Vol. V, April, 1888, 210. 



1/4 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

return southward through the states of the Atlantic coast. It 
winters, so far as is known, in the Bahamas and in northern 
South America. 

Oporornis Philadelphia (Wilson). Mourning Warbler. 

Sylvia Philadelphia WILSON, Amer. Orn., II, 1810, 101, pi. 14, fig. 6. 
Trichas Philadelphia JARDINE, ed. Wilson's Amer. Orn.,, I, 1832, 249. 
Geothlypis Philadelphia BAIBD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 243. 
Oporornis Philadelphia RIDGWAY, B. of N. & Mid. Amer., Bull. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., No. 50, pt. ii, 1902, 628. 
Popular synonym : BLACK-THROATED GROUND WARBLER. 

The Mourning Warbler is a rather rare migrant, arriving 
about the same time, and may be found in about the same local- 
ities as the Connecticut Warbler. At the present time this species 
is becoming more abundant than it has been, particularly in the 
city parks of Chicago. 

The range of the Mourning Warbler covers North America, 
east of the Great Plains. It breeds from the northern portion 
of the United States, especially in the higher altitudes, northward. 
It winters in southern Mexico, Central America and northern 
South America. 

Oporornis tolmiei (J. K. Townsend). Macgillivray's Warbler. 
Sylvia tolmiei J. K. TOWNSEND, Narrative, April, 1839, 343. 
Geothlypis macgillivrayi BAIRD, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., IX, 1858, 

244. 

Geothlypis tolmiei STONE, Auk, XVI, Jan., 1899, 82. 
Oporornis tolmiei RIDGWAY, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 50, ii, 1902. 

631. 

In the Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum, Professor 
R. Boulder Sharpe records a specimen of the Macgillivray's 
Warbler from our region, collected by Mr. H. K. Coale. 

Mr. Coale informs me that the specimen was taken by himself 
at Wolf Lake, Indiana, on June i, 1879. 

In his "Birds of North and Middle America,"* Mr. Ridgway 
gives the following as the range of this Warbler: "Western 
United States and British Columbia ; breeding in mountains from 
Pacific coast ranges to Rocky Mountains, north to British Colum- 
bia (including Vancouver Island), south at least to Arizona, New 
Mexico, and western Texas; during migrations east to western 
Nebraska, central Texas, etc. ; south in winter to Cape St. Lucas 
and over whole of Mexico and Central America to Colombia." 



*Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 50, pt. ii, 1902, 632. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 1/5 

Genus GEOTHLYPIS Cabanis, 1827. 

Geothlypis trichas brachidactyla (Swains.). Northern Yellow-throat. 

Xylvia trichas NUTTALL, Man., I, 1832, 401, part. 

Geothlypis trichas CABANIS, in Nelson's Birds X. E. Illinois, Bull. 
Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 101. 

Geothlypis trichas A. O. U. Check-list, 1895, No. 681, part. 

Geothlypis trichas occidental** A. O. U. Check-list, 1895, No. 681 a, 
part. 

Geothlypis trichas Irachidactyla PALMEB (W), Auk, XVII, July, 1900, 
221 (crit.). 

Trichas brachidactyla SWAINSON, Anim. in Menag., 1838, 295 ("North- 
ern Provinces of United States"). 

This Yellow-throat is a common summer resident, arriving 
the last of April, and departing early in October. 

The form of this perplexing species which occurs within our 
limits has been placed by writers under both trichas and trichas 
occidentalis. While typical trichas is a distinctly eastern form 
not being found west of southern Pennsylvania, excepting a single 
accidental specimen taken in Knox County, Indiana, on May 5, 
1885 (Ridgway*), typical trichas occidentalis, on the other hand, 
is a distinctly western form and not found east of the western 
portion of the Great Plains. I have examined quite a series of 
specimens taken by various collectors within our limits. These 
show considerable variation, some approaching the eastern 
trichas, and others the western trichas occidentalis. However, 
the measurements and colors of all the specimens are such as to 
place them under trichas brachidactyla, a varietal name recog- 
nized by both Palmerf and RidgwayJ for the northern form of 
the Yellow-throat. 

Mr. Ridgway gives the following as the range of the North- 
ern Yellow-throat :J- "Northeastern United States and south- 
eastern British Provinces, from Newfoundland, southern Labra- 
dor, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, the New England 
States, Long Island, New York, and northern New Jersey, west- 
ward to northern Ontario, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and 
eastern North Dakota, and southward through Mississippi Valley 
to upland districts of the Gulf States ( ?), and east-central Texas ; 
in winter, Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Porto Rico (?), Swan 
Island, and through eastern Mexico, and Yucatan, to Guatemala, 
Nicaragua, and Costa Rica; whole United States east of the 
Great Plains during migration." 



*Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 50, pt. ii, 1902, 662. 
tAuk, Vol. XVII, July, 1900, 221. 
jBull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 50, pt. ii, 1902, 665. 



1^6 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

. Genus ICTERIA Vieillot, 1807. 

Icteria virens (Linnaeus). Yellow-breasted Chat. 

Turdus virens LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 171. 

Icteria viridis BONAPARTE, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, IV, 

1825, 252. 

Icteria virens BAIRD, Review Amer. Birds, April, 1865, 228. 
Popular synonym. YELLOW MOCKINGBIRD. 

The Yellow-breasted Chat is a not uncommon summer resi- 
dent, breeding in the heavy shrubbery in parts of our area. It 
arrives early in May, and departs about the last of August. In 
certain portions of Cook County, Mr. J. Grafton Parker and my- 
self have found this species breeding quite plentifully. 

The range of this Warbler is the United States east of the 
Great Plains. It breeds from the Gulf of Mexico northward to 
Ontario and southern New England, and it winters through east- 
ern Mexico, and Central America to Costa Rica. 

Genus WILSONIA Bonaparte, 1838. 

Wilsonia mitrata (Gmelin). Hooded Warbler. 

Motacilla mitrata GMELIN, S. N., I., pt. ii, 1788, 977. 

Sylvia mitrata LATHAM, Ind. Orn., II, 1790, 528. 

Myiodioctcs mitrata AUDUBON, Birds Amer., Oct., ed. ii, 1841, 12, 

pi. 71. 

Muscicapa selbyii AUDUBON, Orn. Biog., I, 1831, 46, pi. 9. 
Sylvania mitrata NUTTALL, Man., ed. 2, I, 1840, 333. 
Wilsonia mitrata BONAPARTE, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 23. 
Popular synonyms: HOODED FLYCATCHING WARBLER. SELBY'S WAB- 

BLER. BLACK-HEADED WARBLER. MITRED WARBLER. BLACK-CAP 

WARBLER. 

The Hooded Warbler is a rare migrant at the present time, 
and the only records of its occurrence within our limits are the 
following : Mr. E. W. Nelson says : "A rare summer resident ; 
arriving May loth to 2Oth, and leaving early in autumn." On 
May ii, 1881, Mr. B. T. Gault took a specimen at River Forest, 
Illinois. Mr. J. Grafton Parker, Jr., has the skin of a fine male 
bird which was taken in Hyde Park, Chicago, on April 28, 1884, 
by a boy who shot it with a sling-shot. In an article on the migra- 
tions of the Hooded Warbler,* Mr. W. W. Cooke reports this 
species as having been taken at Chicago on March 28, 1884, and 
on May 3, 1895. 

The range of the Hooded Warbler covers the United States 
from Massachusetts, southern Ontario, southern Michigan and 



^Bird Lore, Vol. VI, No. 1, January-February, 1904. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 177 

southern Wisconsin southward. It breeds from Texas and the 
Gulf of Mexico northward, and winters in the West Indies, east- 
ern Mexico and through Central America to Panama. 

Wilsonia pusilla (Wilson). Wilson's Warbler. 

Mmcicapa pusilla WILSON, Amer. Orn., Ill, 1811, 103, pi. 26, fig. 4. 
Sylvia wilsonil BONAPARTE, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, IV, 

1824, 179. 

Wilsonia pusilla BONAPARTE, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 23. 
Sylvania pusilla NUTTALL, Man., ed. 2, I, 1840, 335, part. 
Myiodioctes pusillus BAIBD, Lit. Rec. and Journ. Linn. Assoc. Penn. 

Coll., I, Oct., 1845, 252. 
Popular synonyms: WILSON'S BLACK-CAP. GREEN BLACK-CAPPED 

WARBLER. BLACK-CAPPED YELLOW WARBLER. 

Wilson's Warbler is a not uncommon migrant, arriving in the 
spring during the month of May, and returning in the fall from 
about the middle of August to the latter part of September. 

The range of the Wilson's Warbler extends over the eastern 
portion of North America, east of the Great Plains and from 
Newfoundland, Labrador, the shores of Hudson Bay and Mani- 
toba southward. It breeds north of the United States and mi- 
grates in winter through eastern Mexico into Central America. 

Wilsonia canadensis (Linnaeus). Canadian Warbler. 

Muscicapa canadensis LINN^US, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 327. 

Sylvia pardalina BONAPARTE, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, IV, 

1824, 179. 

Myiodioctes canadensis AUDUBON, Synop., 1839, 49. 
Sylvania bonapartii NUTTALL, Man., ed. 2, I, 1840, 332. 
Wihonia canadensis COUES, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, V, April 1880, 95. 
Sylvania canadensis RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Mus., VIII, 1885, 354. 
Popular synonyms : CANADA FLYCATCHER or WARBLER. BONAPARTE'S 

WARBLER. CANADIAN FLYCATCHING WARBLER. NECKLACED 

WARBLER. 

The Canadian Warbler is a not uncommon migrant, arriving 
from the first to the last of May, and returning in the fall from 
the middle of August to the middle of September. Mr. E. W. 
Nelson records* it as a "rare summer resident." 

The range of this species covers North America, east of the 
Great Plains and from Newfoundland and southern Labrador and 
Manitoba southward. It breeds from Massachusetts, central 
New York, northern Michigan and Minnesota northward, and 
southward in the Alleghany Mountains to North Carolina. It 
winters southward through eastern Mexico and Central America 
to northern South America. 



''Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 101. 



1/8 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Genus SETOPHAGA Swainson, 1827. 

Setophaga ruticilla (Linnaeus). American Redstart. 

Motacilla ruticilla LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 186. 
Muscicapa ruticilla LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 326. 
Setophaga ruticilla SWAINSON, Phil. Mag., I, May, 1827, 368. 
Popular synonyms: BLACK-AND-RED WARBLER. YELLOW-TAILED WAR- 
BLER or FLYCATCHER. FAN-TAILED WARBLER or FLYCATCHER. 

The American Redstart is a common summer resident, arriv- 
ing early in May, departing about the last of September. 

The range of this species covers temperate North America 
in general, though it is rare west of the Rocky Mountains within 
the borders of the United States. It breeds through its United 
States range and northward to Nova Scotia, Mackenzie, and on 
the Pacific coast to southern Alaska. It winters in the West 
Indies, Mexico, and southward through Central America, to the 
northern portions of South America. 

FAMILY MOTACILLIME: WAGTAILS AND PIPITS. 
Genus ANTHUS Bechstein, 1807. 

Anthus pensilvanicus (Latham). American Pipit. 

Alauda pensilvanica LATHAM, Synop. Birds, Suppl., I, 1787, 287. 
Anthus ludovicianus LICHTENSTEIN, Verz. Doubl., 1823, 37. 
. Anthus pensilvanicus THIENEMANN, Rhea, II, 1849, 171. 
Popular synonyms: TITLARK. AMERICAN TITLARK. PENNSYLVANIA 
PIPIT. LOUISIANA PIPIT. 

The American Pipit is a not uncommon migrant. The ma- 
jority of these birds arrive early in April and stay in our vicinity 
until about the middle of May. In the fall they return about 
the tenth of September and remain until late in October. The 
earliest of their arrival in the spring, of which I have any account, 
is that of Mr. J. Grafton Parker, Jr., who took one at Grand 
Crossing, Chicago, on March 14, 1885. The latest fall record 
for this vicinity is a specimen which I took at Liverpool, Indiana, 
on October 27, 1896. Mr. E. W. Nelson says:* "Common in 
iiocks along the Lake shore and on prairies during the migra- 
tions. Arrives about the fifteenth of May. It is then just as- 
suming the breeding dress, and remains until about the thirtieth, 
when, its moult being completed, it moves north." 

The range of the American Pipit covers the whole of North 
America, but it breeds only in subarctic regions and in the higher 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 97. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 179 

altitudes of the Rocky Mountains from Colorado northward 
where it is said to nest on the ground above timber line. It 
winters in the southern portion of the United States and south- 
ward through Mexico and Central America to Guatemala. 

FAMILY MIMIIX^: THRASHERS, ETC. 
Genus MIMUS Boie, 1826. 

Mimus polyglottos (Linnasus). Mockingbird. 

Turdus polyglottos LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 169. 
Turdus polyglottus GMELIN, S. N., I, 1788, 812. 
Mimus polyglottus BONAPARTE, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 17. 
Popular synonym : SOUTHESN MOCKINGBIRD. 

The Mockingbird is certainly a very rare visitant to our 
area. The history of its occurrence within our limits is shown, 
so far as I have been able to obtain the information, by the follow- 
ing records : Mr. Robert Kennicott reports it as rare, and states 
that it is known to nest in Cook County.* Mr. E. W. Nelson 
saysrf "A very rare summer resident. I know of but few in- 
stances of its occurrence in the vicinity of Chicago. Dr. Hoy has 
recorded six nests obtained in the vicinity of Racine, Wisconsin." 
In his report on the birds of Illinois,^ Mr. Robert Ridgway gives 
the following information: "Mr. H. K. Coale informs me that 
he saw a Mockingbird in Starke County, Indiana, sixty miles 
southeast of Chicago, January I, 1884; that Mr. Green Smith had 
met with it at Kensington Station, Illinois, and that several 
have been observed in the parks and dooryards of Chicago." Mr. 
H. K. Coale has sent me the following note: "On August 30, 
1876, I fcfund a dead full grown Mockingbird under a tree in 
Chicago, a heavy rain during the night before having probably 
killed it. It was evidently not a cage bird." A valuable record 
which I have is that of Dr. Joseph L. Hancock, of Chicago, who 
has kindly sent me the following interesting notes: "On April 
29, 1902, in the south end of South Park, Chicago, I noticed a 
Mockingbird on the ground in the mowed grass. When ap- 
proaching near the spot where the bird was foraging, it became 
frightened and flew across the driveway finally alighting in a tree. 
The bird was in beautiful fresh plumage, it probably being a male, 
because of the bright coloring and the large white patches on 



*Trans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854, 582. 

tBirds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876. 94. 

tOrnithology of Illinois, Vol. I, 1889, 105. 



ISO THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

the wings which were conspicuously displayed during flight 
especially just before alighting. 

"The warm wind coming from the south, accompanied with 
a high velocity and elevated temperature, doubtless accounted 
for the presence of this bird here, along with the great number 
of the migrants which came at the same time. The temperature 
of that day, which is herewith appended, offers confirmation of 
the fact that this rare southern visitor into our northern latitude 
was not a cage bird. 

"The hourly temperature readings from midnight to three 
o'clock in the afternoon is as follows : 

Midnight, 64 Eight A. M., 64 

One A. M., 63 Nine A. M., 69 

Two A. M., 62 Ten A. M., 72 

Three A. M., 61 Eleven A. M., 74 

Four A. M., 60 Twelve A. M., 75 

Five A. M., 60 One P. M., 77 

Six A. M., 61 Two P. M., 78 

Seven A. M., 62 Three P. M., 78 

"I saw the Mockingbird first at eleven o'clock in the morning, 
when the temperature was 74 degrees Fahrenheit. The next day 
the temperature dropped rapidly so that at one o'clock in the 
afternoon it fell to 36 degrees, causing, as might be expected, 
considerable suffering among the more delicately constituted 
migrants." At Millers, Indiana, on the eighth of May, 1905, 
Mr. Frank C. Baker and myself observed a pair of Mocking- 
birds in the long line of thickets just east of the first ridge of 
dunes. We did not disturb the birds, hoping that they might 
nest and breed in that locality. 

The range of the Mockingbird includes the southern United 
States from Mexico north to southern Maryland, southern Ohio, 
southern Indiana, southern Illinois, Colorado, and southern Cali- 
fornia. North of this area it is rare or of very irregular appear- 
ance as far north as Maine, Ontario, northern Illinois, and 
Wyoming. 

Genus GALEOSCOPTES Cabanis, 1850. 

Galeoscoptes carolinensis (Linnaeus). Catbird. 

Muscicapa carolinensis LINN^US, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 328. 
Galeoscoptes carolinensis CABANIS, Mus. Hein., I. 1850, 82. 
Mimus carolinensis "GRAY," SCL., P. Z. S., 1856, 294. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. l8l 

Mimus felivox BONAPAETE, of some early writers. 
Popular synonym : ENGLISH MOCKINGBIRD. 

The Catbird is an abundant summer resident, arriving the last 
of April and departing early in October. 

The Catbird has an extended range covering the United States 
east of and including the Rocky Mountains, and from the Sas- 
katchewan Valley southward. It is rare on the Pacific coast 
from central California north to British Columbia. It breeds 
nearly throughout its range north of the Gulf of Mexico, and 
winters in the southern portion of the United States and south- 
ward to Panama. 

Genus TOXOSTOMA Wagler, 1831. 

Toxostoma rufum (Linnaeus). Brown Thrasher. 

Turdus rufus LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 169. 

Toxostoma rufum CABANIS, Archf. Naturg., 1847, I, 207. 

Harporhynchus rufus CABANIS, Mus. Hein., I, 1850, 82. 

Mimus rufus LINNAEUS, of some early writers. 

Popular synonyms : THRASHER. FOX-COLORED or SANDY MOCKINGBIRD. 
FERRUGINOUS MOCKINGBIRD. FRENCH MOCKINGBIRD. MOCKING- 
BIRD. 

The Brown Thrasher is a common summer resident, arriving 
about the middle of April, and departing early in October. 

The range of the Brown Thrasher covers the United States 
east of the Rocky Mountains, and from Maine, Ontario and Mani- 
toba southward to the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico. It breeds 
throughout its range, and winters from Illinois and Virginia 
southward. 

FAMILY TROGLODYTID^B: WRENS. 
Genus THRYOTHORUS Vieillot, 1816. 

Thryothorus ludovicianus (Latham). Carolina Wren. 
Sylvia ludoviciana LATHAM, Ind. Orn., II, 1790, 548. 
Troglodytes ludovicianus LICHT., Verz. Doubl., 1823, 35. 
Thryothorus ludoricianns BONAPARTE, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 11. 
Popular synonyms : GREAT CAROLINA WREN. MOCKING WREN. LARGE 
WOOD WREN. 

This interesting songster is gradually adapting itself to our 
northern Illinois climate, and if protected from indiscriminate 
collectors may become one of our familiar summer residents. 
In his list of the birds of Cook County,* Mr. Robert Kennicott 
reports it as rare, and says "I have seen but two specimens of 

*Trans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854, 583. 



l82 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

this pretty songster." Mr. E. W. Nelson reported it,f "A rare 
summer visitant." Thanks to the protection afforded this bird 
by Mr. John V. Farwell, Jr., at Lake Forest, Illinois, the species 
has succeeded in raising several broods in that vicinity. Mr. 
Spencer F. Dayton writes as follows: "As I was hunting 
through the Bowmanville woods, I heard the loud ringing song 
of this Wren coming from a distance. As it struck my ear as 
unfamiliar, I traced it to the northern edge of the woods and 
found that it came from a Carolina Wren concealed in a brush 
pile. Every few minutes the bird would mount to the top of 
a stick and, with head up and tail down would utter its clear ring- 
ing notes which sounded like the syllables che-ho-vy; rich and 
mellow were the notes and they were repeated every half minute 
or so for a time and then he would drop down into the bush 
only to reappear after a time to sing again. It did not scold or 
chatter as do other wrens, and its notes, heard at a distance, had 
the quality of those of the robin." 

Mrs. John V. Farwell, Jr., informs me that she had studied 
the Carolina Wren in Virginia but hardly expected to ever see 
or hear it in the vicinity of Lake Forest, Illinois. She writes as 
follows: "On the morning of August 13, 1900, I was awakened 
by its loud clear whistle just outside of my window. It is a 
curious fact that the songs of our familiar birds do not awaken 
me, but when I hear an unusual song I am easily aroused. I have 
since had a good look at him. His song is a loud, clear, rapid 
whistle that could be heard a quarter of a mile. The syllables 
can be rendered cher-o-kee; the notes musically speaking are in 
A flat or D. Besides this song the only sound I heard him utter 
was a scolding warning; out of note, like a policeman's rattle. 
The whistling note was usually repeated three times. This bird 
has been identified by Mr. John F. Ferry and several others." 

The range of the Carolina Wren extends over the United 
States, east of the Great Plains and from southern New England, 
southernNew York, southern Ontario, and southern Michigan 
southward. It is resident nearly throughout its range. 

Genus THRYOMANES Sclater, 1861. 

Thryomanes bewickii (Audubon). Bewick's Wren. 

Troglodytes lewicJcii AUDUBON, Orn. Biog., I, 1831, 96, pi. 18. 
Thryothorus lewickii BONAPARTE, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 11. 

tBirds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 96. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 183 

Thryomanes lewickii RIDGWAY, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, II, July, 1877, 

60. 
Popular synonyms : LONG-TAILED HOUSE WBEN. LONG-TAILED WEEN. 

Bewick's Wren must be included in the avifauna of our 
region because of the record of Mr. E. W. Nelson, who says: 
"Rare summer resident. A pair of these birds appeared in a 
vacant lot in Chicago the first of June, 1876, and taking posses- 
sion of a convenient corner in the roof of an arbor proceeded to 
raise their young. At intervals through the day, the male would 
mount to the top of some house, or to the topmost twig of a tree 
in the vicinity, and sing for an hour or more. The family sud- 
denly left about the middle of July." 

While I have no other records of the appearance of this 
Wren within our limits, I can see no reason why it should not, 
at least occasionally, frequent the vicinity of Chicago. Mr. Ridg- 
way says:* "In most parts of southern Illinois, this is the 
House Wren, par excellence; and even in localities where the 
true House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) occurs Bewick's Wren 
is far the more numerous of the two." Because of the above 
records, it is very important that all observers should constantly 
have Bewick's Wren in mind as a possible visitor to our vicinity. 
It is quite erratic in its habits and is unknown in many localities 
within its general range. 

The range of this Wren includes the United States, east of 
the Great Plains and eastern Texas, and chiefly west of the 
Alleghany Mountains and south of southern Pennsylvania. In 
the Mississippi Valley it is found as far north as central Minne- 
sota. It is a migrant only in the more northern part of its range. 
It has been observed in southern Michigan, northern Indiana and 
northern Illinois. 

Genus TROGLODYTES Vieillot, 1807. 

Troglodytes aedon Vieillot. House Wren. 

Troglodytes aedon VIEILLOT, Ois. Amer. Sept., II, 1807, 52, pi. 107. 
Popular synonyms: WOOD WBEN. SHORT-TAILED HOUSE WBEN. 

At the present time the House Wren is certainly a very rare 
visitant to our area. The only specimen of this species that I 
have seen from our vicinity is one taken by Mr. Graham Davis 
in Hyde Park, Chicago, on May 16, 1886. This specimen is in 
the collection of The Chicago Academy of Sciences. Mr. Amos 



'Ornithology of Illinois, Vol. I, 1889, 92. 



184 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

W. Butler, in his Birds of Indiana > reports it as having been found 
at Chicago on April 27, 1896. In 1853-1854, Mr. Robert Kenni- 
cott recorded this species in his list of Cook County birds,* as 
"abundant" and also states that it was known to nest in the county 
at that time. Mr. E. W. Nelson, in his Birds of Northeastern 
Illinoisf says: "Rather common summer resident away from 
the immediate vicinity of the Lake. Arrives the first of May and 
departs the last of September." 

I am inclined to think that the birds found during the time of 
Mr. Kennicott and Mr. Nelson would now be referred to Trog- 
lodytes aedon parktnanii. 

The range of the House Wren covers the eastern United 
States, west to Indiana, Illinois, Missouri and Texas, and from 
Maine and southern Ontario southward to the Gulf of Mexico. 
It breeds in the northern half of its range and winters in the 
southern half. It is also said to breed in Florida. 

Troglodytes aedon parkmanii (Audubon). Western House Wren. 
Troglodytes aedon NELSON, Bull. Essex. Inst., VIII, 1876, 97, 152. 
Troglodytes aedon KENNICOTT, Trans. 111. Agric. Soc., I, 1855, 603. 
Troglodytes parkmanii AUDUBON, Orn. Biog., V, 1839, 310. 
Troglodytes cedon var. aztecus BAIBD, Review, Sept., 1864, 139. 

The Western House Wren is a not uncommon summer resi- 
dent, arriving about the last of April, and departing in October. 
This is unquestionably the common form of aedon found in north- 
eastern Illinois. Some years ago a number of specimens of the 
house wren from our area were sent to Dr. J. A. Allen for ex- 
amination. He reported that they agreed with the variety 
aztecus, even when compared with typical specimens from Ari- 
zona and other parts of the West. Mr. Robert Ridgway has also 
noted this form in the vicinity of Chicago. 

The range of this House Wren extends through the western 
United States, from Mexico northward to Manitoba and the 
Great Slave Lake. The eastern limit of its range seems to be 
Wisconsin and Indiana, and it winters from Texas south. 

Genus OLBIORCHILUS Oberholser, 1902. 

Olbiorchilus hiemalis (Vieillot). Winter Wren. 

Troglodytes hiemalis VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XXXIV, 

1819, 514. 
Anorthura troglodytes var. hyemalis COUES, Key, 1872, 351. 



*Trans. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854, 583. 
tBull. of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 97. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 185 

Troglodytes parvulus var. hyemalis B. B. & R., Hist. N. Amer. B., I, 

1874, 155, pi. 9, fig. 9. 

Olbiorchilus hiemalis OBERHOLSEB, Auk, XIX, April, 1902, 178. 
Popular synonyms : BUNTY WEEN. LITTLE LOG WEEN. 

The Winter Wren is a common migrant, arriving, in the 
spring, from the twenty-fifth of March to the tenth of May, and 
returning, in the fall, from early in September to the last of 
October. 

The range of this species extends quite generally over North 
America, east of the Rocky Mountains. It breeds from the 
northern portions of the United States northward and in the 
Alleghany Mountains southward to North Carolina. It winters 
from Ohio, Indiana and Illinois southward at least to the Gulf 
of Mexico. 

Genus CISTOTHORUS Cabanis, 1850. 

Cistothorus stellaris (Lichtenstein). Short-billed Marsh Wren. 

Troglodytes stellaris LICHTENSTEIN, in Naumann's Vog. Deutschl., Ill, 

1823, 724. 

Troglodytes brevirostris NUTTALL, Man., I, 1832, 426. 
Cistothorus stellaris CABANIS, Mus. Hem., I, 1850, 77. 

The Short-billed Marsh Wren is a not uncommon summer 
resident in suitable localities within our limits. It is, however, 
rarely seen on account of its shyness. On June 3, 1889, Mr. B. 
T. Gault found this species breeding near Sheffield, Indiana, and 
collected two males. At the same place, on June 28, he obtained 
a young bird which was about two days old. I have found the 
long grass of the region around Lake Calumet, Illinois, and some 
distance from the water, to be an excellent place for the study of 
this Wren. 

The range of this species covers the United gtates, east of 
the Great Plains, and from southern New Hampshire, southern 
Ontario, and southern Manitoba southward. It breeds locally 
throughout its range, and winters in the Southern States. 

Genus TELMATODYTES Cabanis, 1850. 

Telmatodytes palustris iliacus Ridgr^ay. Long-billed Marsh Wren. 
Troglodytes palustris SWAINSON and RICHARDSON, Fauna Bor. Amer., 

II, 1831, 319. 
Cistothorus palustris BAIRD, Cat. X. Amer. Birds, 1859, No. 208, part ; 

American Ornithologists' Union. Check List, 1895, No. 725, part; 

NELSON, Bull. Essex Inst., VIII, 1876, 97. 



l86 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Telmatodytes palustris COUES, Key N. Amer. Birds, 1872, 87, part; 

RIDGWAY, Amer. Nat., VII, 1873, 200. 
Telmatodytes palustris iliaeus RIDGWAY, Proc. Biql. Soc., Washington, 

XVI, Sept. 30, 1903, 110. 
Popular synonyms : GRASS WREN. PRAIRIE MARSH WREN. STINK- 

BIBD. 

The Long-billed Marsh Wren is an abundant summer resident 
in all of the marshes of our area, arriving near the last of April 
and departing about the last of October. 

I have had the privilege of studying an excellent series of 
specimens of this Wren, taken within our borders, and of com- 
paring them with as good series of both the eastern and the 
western forms. The characteristics of the specimens from the 
Chicago Area were very constant and the differences between 
them and both the eastern and western forms was so marked that 
I believe Mr. Ridgway's diagnosis of the species (see Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus. no. 50, pt. Ill, 489-499) is more satisfactory than any 
other arrangements of the various forms. I have, therefore, 
used his subspecific name iliaeus. 

Mr. Ridgway recognizes seven distinct forms of this species, 
of which the eastern form (Telmatodytes palustris palustris) 
ranges westward to western New York and Pennsylvania and 
south, in winter, to North and South Carolina. The western 
form (Telmatodytes palustris plesius) frequents the Rocky Moun- 
tain plateau district of the United States and British Columbia 
west to the middle of Washington and Oregon ; south during itb 
migration into Lower California and central Texas. Three other 
forms frequent only the coast districts of the southern United 
States, and one only the Pacific coast districts. 

Mr. Ridgway gives the following range for the form which 
frequents our region : "Great Plains and prairie districts of Cen- 
tral United States and south-central British Provinces ; north 
to Alberta and, probably, to Manitoba ; east to Illinois and western 
Indiana ; southward in winter over the greater part of Mexico 
(except northwestern portion) as far as Vera Cruz, Zacatecas, 
and eastern Jalisco, and along Gulf coast of United States to 
western Florida, casually to South Carolina, North Carolina and 
Virginia. 

FAMILY CERTHIIDJE: CREEPERS. 
Genus CERTHIA Linnaeus, 1758. 

Certhia familiaris americana (Bonaparte). Brown Creeper. 

Certhia familiaris WILSON, Amer. Orn., I, 1808, 122, pi. 7, fig. 1. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. l8j 

Certhia americana BONAPARTE, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 11. 
Certhia familiaris var. americana RIDGWAY, Bull. Essex Inst., V, 1873, 

180. 
Popular synonym: AMERICAN TBEE CREEPER. 

The Brown Creeper is a common migrant, and an occasional 
winter resident within our limits at Millers, Indiana, where it 
finds shelter in the heavy growth of pines among the sand hills. 
The majority of these birds arrive, in the spring, early in April 
and remain until about the middle of May. They return, in the 
fall, the latter part of September and the first half of October. 
Regarding the Brown Creeper, Mr. E. W. Nelson said (1876) : 
"Common winter resident, arriving October 1st and remaining 
until May loth. Particularly abundant the first two weeks of 
October and of April, when they frequent the streets of Chicago 
in large numbers, industriously searching the rough brick walls 
for the small spiders which they find in abundance in the numer- 
ous crevices." 

The range of the Brown Creeper covers eastern North Amer- 
ica, from the Gulf of Mexico northward. It breeds from the 
northern and more elevated portions of the United States north- 
ward, and casually further south. It winters in the southern 
portion of its range. 

FAMILY SITTID2E: NUTHATCHES. 
Genus SITTA Linnaeus, 1758. 

Sitta carolinensis Latham. White-breasted Nuthatch 
Sitta carolinensis LATHAM, Ind. Orn., I, 1790, 262. 
Popular synonyms : WHITE-BELLIED NUTHATCH. TOMTIT. BLUE SAP- 
SUCKER. 

The White-breasted Nuthatch is a not uncommon resident in 
the northern portion of our area. It is, however, more abundant 
during its migrations. The majority of these Nuthatches arrive, 
in the spring, early in April, and depart, in the fall, during the 
month of October. 

The range of this species covers the United States, east of 
the Rocky Mountains, and from the British Possessions (New 
Brunswick and Ontario) southward to the Gulf States and Texas. 
It is a resident species nearly throughout its range. 

Sitta canadensis Linnaeus. Red-breasted Nuthatch. 

Sitta canadensis LINN^US, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 177. 
Popular synonyms: RED-BELLIED NUTHATCH. CANADA NUTHATCH. 
SAPSUCKER. 



l88 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

At the present time we only know this Nuthatch as a common 
migrant, arriving in the spring, from early in April to the mid- 
dle of May, and returning, in the fall, from the latter part of 
August to early in September; it may remain in our vicinity 
until the latter part of October. It is probable that this species 
is also an occasional winter resident, for Mr. J. Grafton Parker, 
Jr., took a specimen at Lake Forest, Illinois, on December 15, 
1894; and Mr. Amos W. Butler says in his "Birds of Indiana" 
that Mr. Aiken reported these birds to be very abundant in Cook 
County, Illinois, during the winter of 1866-1867. The only 
record of its nesting within our limits is that of Mr. E. W. Nel- 
son, who says :* "A rare summer resident. I found a pair 
near Chicago with full grown young the first of July, and Mr. 
Rice observed a pair feeding unfledged young the last of April, 
1874, at Evanston, Illinois. The excavation containing this nest 
was in a tree, standing on one of the principal streets of the town. 
It was about twenty feet from the ground. The young were 
thrusting their heads out of the hole and clamoring for food, 
thus attracting his attention when they would otherwise have been 
unnoticed." 

The range of the Red-breasted Nuthatch covers North Amer- 
ica in general, northward to the limit of timber and southward, in 
winter, to the southern border of the United States. It breeds 
from the northern portions of the United States northward, and 
southward in the Alleghany, Rocky, and Sierra Nevada Moun- 
tains. 

FAMILY PARIDJE: TITMICE AND CHICKADEES. 
Genus B-EOLOPHUS Cabanis, 1850. 

Baeolophus bicolor (LinnsBus). Tufted Titmouse. 

Parus licolor LINN^US, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 340. 
Baeolophus bicolor CABANIS, Mus. Hein., I, 1850, 91. 
Lophophanes bicolor BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., I, 1850, 228. 
Popular synonym : BLACK-FRONTED TITMOUSE. 

While the Tufted Titmouse is common in the southern part 
of Illinois, it is certainly no more than a very casual visitant to 
our area. Mr. J. Grafton Parker, Jr., observed one of these birds 
at South Chicago on October 15, 1897, and it is not uncommon 
during the fall and winter months at Kouts, Indiana, sixty miles 
southeast of Chicago. Mr. O. M. Schantz informs me that early 

*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 96 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 189 

in the spring of 1900, before the trees were in leaf, he saw a 
large flock of Tufted Titmice in the woods west of Riverside, 
Illinois. Mr. E. W. Nelson says* that it "occurs only during 
fall and winter, when straggling parties occasionally visit us from 
southern Illinois, where it is one of the characteristic species." 

The range of this species covers the United States east of 
the Great Plains, and from the Connecticut Valley and southern 
Michigan southward. It is usually resident and breeds through- 
out its range. 

Genus PENTHESTES Reichenbach, 1850. 

Penthestes atricapillus (Linnaeus). Chickadee. 

Parus atricapillus LINN^US, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 341. 
Popular synonyms: BLACK-CAPPED TITMOUSE or CHICKADEE. EAST- 
ERN Or NOBTHEBN CHICKADEE. 

The Chickadee is a common resident, but is more common 
during its migrations and in winter. 

The range of this species extends over Northeastern North 
America, east of the Great Plains, and from the mountains of 
North Carolina, the Ohio Valley and Missouri northward. It 
breeds quite throughout its range. 

Penthestes carolinensis (Audubon). Carolina Chickadee. 

Pants carolinensis AUDUBON, Orn. Biog., II, 1834, 341, pi. 160. 
Popular synonyms: CAROLINA TITMOUSE. SOUTHERN CHICKADEE. 

The only records I have of the occurrence of this pretty and 
active bird within our limits are the following: Mr. E. W. 
Nelson says* that it is "a rare summer visitant to the 'Pinery,' 
at the southern end of Lake Michigan." Mr. J. Grafton Parker, 
Jr., obtained a specimen of this diminutive Chickadee at Lake 
Forest, Illinois, in December, 1890. 

The range of this species includes the Southeastern United 
States, north to New Jersey and Illinois, and west to eastern 
Texas, the Indian Territory, and Missouri. 

Penthestes hudsonicus (Forster). Hudsonian Chickadee. 

Parus hudsonicus FORSTER, Phil. Trans.. LXII. 1772, 383, 430. 
Parus hudsonicus NELSON. Bull, Essex Inst, VIII, 1876, 95. 
Parus hudsonicus RIDGWAY, Birds of Illinois, I, 1889, 82. 

The Hudsonian Chickadee may be regarded as a very rare 
winter visitant. There are but four records of its occurrence in 



*Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 95. 



I9O THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Illinois, two of these being based on specimens actually secured. 
Mr. Nelson says : "A very rare winter visitant. Dr. Hoy ob- 
served a small flock near Racine in January, 1852; and Dr. Velie 
has since observed them at Rock Island, Illinois." Mr. Ridg- 
way writes as follows : "This species can only be considered 
the merest straggler to the extreme northern portion of the 
State." On November 5, 1906, Mr. John F. Ferry obtained 
a specimen at Waukegan, Illinois, and on the eighth of the same 
month I secured two females at the same locality. These birds 
are the only specimens actually secured in the state. 

The Hudsonian Chickadee ranges in North America from 
northern New England, New York and northern Illinois north- 
ward. 

FAMILY SYLVIIDJE: WARBLERS, KINGLETS. AND 
GNATCATCHERS. 

Genus REGULUS Cuvier, 1799-1800. 

Regulus satrapa Lichtenstein. Golden-crowned Kinglet. 
Regulus satrapa LICHTENSTEIN, Verz. Doubl., 1823, 35. 
Regulus crisatus NUTTALL, Man., I, 1832, 420. 

Popular synonyms: GOLDEN-CRESTED KINGLET or WREN. AMERICAN 
GOLDEN-CREST. GOLDEN-CROWNED WREN. 

The Golden-crowned Kinglet is a common migrant, arriving, 
in the spring, from the last of March to the tenth of May, and 
returning, in the fall, from the first of October to the middle of 
November. Mr. Eliot Blackwelder reports having seen one of 
these birds on the first of December, which is an unusually late 
record. 

The range of this species covers the whole of North America. 
It breeds in the northern and elevated portions of the United 
States and northward, and winters southward in the United States 
and through Mexico and Central America to Guatemala. 

Regulus calendula (Linnaeus). Ruby-crowned Kinglet. 

Motacilla calendula LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 337. 
Regulus calendula LICHTENSTEIN, Verz. Doubl., 1823, 35. 
Popular synonym: RUBY-CROWNED WREN. 

The Ruby-crowned Kinglet is an abundant migrant, arriving, 
in the spring, from the fifth of April to the middle of May, and 
returning, in the fall,, from the last of September to the last of 
October. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. IQI 

The range of this Kinglet includes the whole of North Amer- 
ica, from the Arctic coast southward through the United States, 
and in winter south to Guatemala. It breeds chiefly north of the 
United States and also in the Rocky Mountains, the Sierra 
Nevada, and the mountains of Arizona. 

Genus POLIOPTILA Sclater, 1855. 

Polioptila caerulea (Linnaeus). Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. 
Motacilla ccerulea LINN.ETJS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 337. 
Sylvania ccerulea NUTTALL, Man., ed, 2, I, 1840, 337. 
Polioptila ccerulea SCLATER, Proc. Zool. Soc., London, 1855, 11. 
Popular synonyms: EASTERN GNATCATCHEB. BLUE WBEN. LONG- 
TAILED WBEN. 

The Blue-gray Gnatcatcher is a not uncommon migrant, ar- 
riving, in the spring, from the last of April to the last of May, 
and returning, in the fall, from the twentieth of August to the 
middle of September. It is also a rare resident. Mr. B. T. Gault 
informs me that it has been found breeding in the Addison 
Woods, DuPage County, Illinois. Mr. Amos W. Butler, in his 
Birds of Indiana, states on the authority of Mr. C. A. Tallman 
and Mr. Eliot Blackwelder, that it breeds in Cook County, Illi- 
nois. The lack of heavy timber within our limits is probably the 
reason that this species does not breed more extensively in our 
vicinity. 

The range of the Blue-gray Gnatcatcher covers the United 
States east of Nebraska and western Texas and chiefly south of 
Latitude 43. It breeds in suitable localities quite throughout its 
range, and migrates southward, in winter, as far as the West 
Indies and Guatemala. It has also been reported as far north 
as Ontario. 

FAMILY TURDID^]: THRUSHES, BLUEBIRDS, ETC. 
Genus HYLOCICHLA Baird, 1864. 

Hylocichla mustelina (Gmelin). Wood Thrush. 

Turdvs mustclinus GMELIN, S. N., I, ii, 1788, 817. 

Hylocichla mustelina RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ill, August 

27, 1880, 166. 
Popular synonyms : WOOD ROBIN. BELL THRUSH. BELL BIRD. 

This beautiful bird and sweet songster is a common summer 
resident, arriving, in the spring, the last of April and departing, 
in the fall, early in September. Because of its favorite haunts 



192 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

which are in damp woodlands and shaded dells, the Wood 
Thrush, while common, is not, perhaps, a well known bird. Its 
rich and melodious song, however, once heard can never be for- 
gotten, and it is by its song that the bird is best known, at least 
in rural districts. It is said that the mockingbird has never been 
able to imitate the beautiful harmony and liquid melody of the 
Wood Thrush's song. 

The range of this Thrush covers the United States, east of 
the Great Plains, and the eastern and southern portions of the 
British Possessions. It breeds from Georgia and southern Mis- 
souri northward and winters from Florida and Texas southward. 

Hylocichla fuscescens (Steph.). Wilson's Thrush. 

Turdus fuscescens STEPH., Gen. ZooL, X, i, 1817, 182. 

Turdus wilsonii BONAPARTE, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, IV, 

1824, 34. 
Hylocichla fuscescens RIDQWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ill, August 

27, 1880, 166. 
Popular synonyms: VEEBY. TAWNY THRUSH. 

Wilson's Thrush is a not uncommon migrant, arriving, in the 
spring, from the last of April to the last of May and returning 
in the fall from the middle to the last of August. Mr. Robert 
Kennicott records* this species as "common throughout the 
state," and also states that it is known to nest in Cook County, 
Illinois. Mr. E. W. Nelson says: "Rather rare summer resi- 
dent. Arrives in small numbers the second week of May and 
departs the first of September." I have no authentic records of 
the eggs of this species having been taken within our area during 
recent years. Mr. J. Grafton Parker thinks that it may be a 
rare summer resident here. 

The range of Wilson's Thrush extends through the United 
States east of the Great Plains and from Manitoba, Ontario and 
Newfoundland southward. It breeds from New Jersey and 
northern Indiana northward and in the Allgehany Mountains 
south to North Carolina. It winters to some extent in the south- 
ern states, but chiefly through Central America to Brazil. 

Hylocichla fuscescens salicicola (Ridgway). Willow Thrush. 

Turdus fuscescens BAIRD, B. N. Amer., 1858, 922, 927 (Ft. Bridger, 

Wyoming). 
Hylocichla fuscescens salicicola RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., IV, 

April 6, 1882, 374. 

Turdus fuscescens salicicola COTJES, Key, ed. 2, 1884, 246. 
Popular synonym : ROCKY MOUNTAIN VEEBY. 



*Trang. Illinois State Agri. Society, Vol. I, 1853-1854, 582. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 193 

The Willow Thrush is a not uncommon migrant in suitable 
localities of our area. In the spring, it arrives from the last 
of April to the last of May, and returns, in the fall, from the last 
of August to the middle of September. The following are the 
records of the taking of this species within our limits, which are 
known to me, and they also indicate the localities where these 
birds may be found more frequently at the proper seasons : 

On September 16, 1877, Mr. Henry K. Coale captured a 
specimen near Chicago. This is the first record of its occurrence 
in Illinois. 

Mr. J. Grafton Parker, Jr., took a specimen at Grand Cross- 
ing, Illinois, on April 29, 1886. This was a male bird. He also 
.captured two birds at Liverpool, Indiana, on May 5, 1894. 

Mr. B. T. Gault captured a male of this species on the sixth 
and a female on the twenty-first of May, 1894, at Glen Ellyn, 
Illinois. 

Mr. Frank M. Woodruff took this species at Evanston, Illi- 
nois, on April 27, 1896. 

Mr. B. T. Gault also obtained a specimen in DuPage County, 
Illinois, on September 17, 1896. 

Mr. Henry K. Coale obtained a specimen at Ravinia, Illinois, 
on May 17, 1890. 

While the records mentioned show the actual taking of speci- 
mens, others have been seen in the same localities. It is well 
to bear in mind that this variety closely resembles pale specimens 
of Hylocichla fuscescens. 

The range of the Willow Thrush as given in the A. C. U. 
Check-list of North American Birds (1895) is as follows: 
"Rocky Mountain region, north to British Columbia, east to 
Dakota, occasionally to Illinois, casually to South Carolina; in 
winter south to southern Brazil." 

Hylocichla aliciae (Baird). Gray-cheeked Thrush. 
Turdus alicice BA-IBD, B. N. Amer., 1858, 217. 
Turdus swainsoni var. alicice COUES, Key, 1872, 73. 
Hylocichla alicice RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ill, August 27, 

1880, 166. 
Popular synonym : ALICE'S THRUSH. 

The Gray-cheeked Thrush is an abundant migrant, arriving, 
in the spring, from the first to the last of May, and returning, in 
the fall, from the last of August to about the second week in 
October. 



JQ4 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

In its migrations, this Thrush passes through the United 
States, east of the Great Plains, northward to the Arctic coast, 
Alask. y-.d eastern Siberia ; in winter it passes southward through 
Ter America to Colombia. It breeds north of the United 



Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni (Cabanis). Olive-backed Thrush. 

Turdus swainsoni CABANIS, Fauna Per., 1845-1846, 187. 

Turdus ustulatus B swainsoni RIDGWAY, Field and Forest, II, May, 

1877, 195. 
Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ill, 

August 27, 1880, 166. 
Popular synonym : SWAINSON'S THRUSH. 

The Olive-backed Thrush is an abundant migrant, arriving, 
in the spring, from the last of April to the last of May, and re- 
turning, in the fall, from the first of September to the middle 
of October. Mr. E. W. Nelson thought it possib'e that this 
species might be a rare summer resident. He says:* "I ob- 
tained a specimen near Chicago, June 7, 1873, an d July 9, the 
same year, Mr. Rice obtained a second specimen." 

The range of the Olive-backed Thursh covers America from 
Brazil and Peru through North America, east of the Great Basin, 
to Labrador and Alaska ; it is also found as a straggler on the 
Pacific coast. It breeds in the mountainous portions of the north- 
eastern United States, northward from Pennsylvania, in the 
southern Sierra Nevadas and northward through the Rocky 
Mountains and in British America. 

Hylocichla guttata pallasii (Cabanis). Hermit Thrush. 
Turdus pallasii CABANIS, Archiv. f. Naturg., 1847, I, 205. 
Turdus aonalaschkce pallasi RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. Ill, 

March 27, 1880, 1. 
Hylocichla unalaskw pallasii RIDGWAY. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ill, 

August 27. 1880, 166. 
Hylocichla guttata pallasii FAXON and ALLEN, Birds Berkshire Co., 

Massachusetts, 1900, 9. 
Popular synonyms : RUFUS-TAILED THRUSH. SWAMP ROBIN. SOLITARY 

THRUSH. EASTERN HERMIT THRUSH. 



The Hermit Thrush is an abundant migrant, arriving, in the 
spring, from the first of April to the twentieth of May, and re- 
turning, in the fall, from the middle of September to the last 
of October. 

The range of this species covers eastern North America from 
the Gulf of Mexico northward. It breeds from northern Michi- 



r Birds of Northeastern Illinois, Bull, of the Essex Institute, Vol. VIII, 1876, 93. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 1 95 

gan, southern New York, the northern portion of the Alleghany 
Mountains and the mountainous regions of New England north- 
ward. It winters chiefly south of latitude 40. 

Genus MERULA Leach, 1816. 

Merula migratoria (Linnaeus). American Robin. 

Turdus migratorius LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 12, I, 1766, 292. 

Merula migratoria SWAINSON, Phil. Mag., I, 1827, 368. 

Popular synonyms: ROBIN. ROBIN RED-BBEAST. ROBIN THBUSH. 
MIGRATORY THRUSH. RED-BREASTED THRUSH. AMERICAN FIELD- 
FARE. REDBREAST. 

The American Robin is an abundant summer resident, arriv- 
ing early in April, and departing in October. 

The range of the Robin covers North America, east of the 
Rocky Mountains and from Hudson Bay and Alaska southward 
to eastern Mexico. It breeds from Virginia and Kansas north- 
ward to the Arctic coast, and winters from southern Canada and 
the Northern States (irregularly) southward. 

Genus SIAT.IA Swainson, 1827. 

Sialia sialis (Linnaeus). Bluebird. 

Motacilla sialis LINNAEUS, S. N., ed. 10, I, 1758, 187. 
Ampelis sialis NUTTALL, Man., I, 1832, 444. . 
Sialia sialis HALDEM., Trego's Geog. Penn., 1843, 77. 
Popular synonym: EASTEBX BLUEBIRD. 

The Bluebird is a common summer resident, arriving from 
the last of February to the first of May, and departing usually 
during the latter half of September and the first half of October. 

The range of the Bluebird extends east of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, from Manitoba, Ontario, and Nova Scotia southward. It 
breeds from the Middle States northward, and winters southward 
to the Gulf of Mexico and Cuba. It is also resident in Bermuda. 



196 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

While I believe the following bibliography of books and 
articles relating to the birds of our area to be quite complete, I 
realize that there may be a number of articles which have been 
published in magazines and in the newspapers of Chicago that 
have escaped my attention. Those which are mentioned have 
ben consulted by the author. 

ABBOT, GIRAED ALAN. 

'03. Habits of the American Crow. Birds and Nature, Vol. XIII, 

No. 5, p. 216. May, 1903. 
'03A. Nesting of the Florida Gallinule. Birds and Nature, Vol. XIV, 

No. 1, p. 26. June, 1903. 
'03B. Nesting of the Least Bittern. Birds and Nature, Vol. XIV, 

No. 2, p. 71. September, 1903. 
'03c. Habits of the Kildeer Plover. Birds and Nature, Vol. XIV, 

p. 170. November, 1903. 

'03o. Our Old Acquaintance, the Crow. The Truth-Seeker. Novem- 
ber 14, 1903. Page 132. 
'04. The Lesser Scaup. Birds and Nature, Vol. XV, No. 2, p. 59. 

February, 1904. 
'04A. Wilson's Snipe. Birds and Nature, Vol. XV, No. 2, p. 62. 

February, 1904. 
'05. "Nesting of the Woodcock." Bulletin Mich. Ornithological 

Club, p. 10. March-June, 1905. 

ALLEN, J. A. 

'75. Notes on the Sharp-Tailed Finch. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
XVII, p. 292. March, 1875. 

AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 

'95. Check-List of North American Birds. 

ANONYMOUS. 

'95. Winter Ducks and Gulls in Lincoln Park, Chicago. The Chicago 

Daily Inter Ocean, February 18, 1895. 
'96. In a Bird Store. Chicago Tribune, March 28. 
'96A. Protecting the Birds. Chicago Record, October 5. > 
'96B. Tragedy in the Home of the Owls. Chicago Tribune, November, 

10. 

'97. Our Ocean Visitors. Chicago Evening Post, February 27. 
'97A. Chicago as a Winter Resort for Birds. Chicago Tribune, 

March 7. 

'97B. Pearls in Stomach of a King Rail. Chicago Tribune, April 2. 
*97c. Hatched a Brood of Ducks on Wooded Island. Chicago Record, 

May 2. 

'97o. Sparrows choose queer Homes. Chicago Daily News, May 14. 
'97E. Robins make nest on Tombstone in Graceland Cemetery. Chi- 
cago Daily News, June 6. 
'97r. Adds a Flock of Connecting Links. Lincoln Park Palm House 

has a decidedly novel attraction, consisting of fifteen Rails. 

Chicago Daily News, June 20. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 197 

'97o. Heron and Blue Jays Fight. Lincoln Park the scene of lively 
battle among Birds. Chicago Daily News, September 10. 

'98. To Plant More Quail. Chicago Daily News, February 16. 

'98A. Queer Nest made by two Sparrows, in stirrup of Grant Monu- 
ment in Lincoln Park. Chicago Tribune, June 19. 

'98s. Juliet leaves Romeo. Sad falling out of two Sandhill Cranes 
in Lincoln Park. Chicago Tribune, September 11. 

'98c. Bald Eagle shot, then lassoed in Chicago. Chicago Tribune, 
October 11. 

'98o. Great Day for Ducks vast flocks in Lincoln Park. Chicago 
Tribune, October 15. 

'98E. Duck Hunters Find Good Sport about Lakes Calumet and George. 
Chicago Tribune, October 29. 

'98F. Birds Pass Across Moon. Chicago Tribune, November 13. 

'99. Wild Ducks in Garfield Park. Chicago Daily News, January 17. 

'99A. Study of Bird Migration. Chicago Tribune, April 10. 

'99B. Cook County Birds. Chicago Evening Post, May 13. Mentions 
collection of Mr. George Clingman. 

*99c. Birds to Sing for Prizes. Chicago Tribune, August 9. 

'99D. Bird Congress in Jackson Park. Chicago Daily News, August 20. 

'99E. Southward Migration of Warblers, Swallow's early flight. Chi- 
cago Tribune, October 9. 

'99r. Our Ocean Visitors. Chicago Evening Post, December 8. 

'00. Kill for Love of Slaughter. Many White-winged Crossbills and 
Old Squaws wantonly killed. Chicago Tribune, February 3. 

'OOA. City Birds in Winter Time. Chicago Tribune, February 4. 

'OOB. See Wild Geese Fly North. Chicago Tribune, March 14. 

'OOc. Bird Braves Switch Engine. Chicago Tribune, May 5. 

'OOD. Useful English Sparrows. Chicago Daily News, July 7. 

'OOE. To Protect the Wild Birds. Chicago Tribune, October 17. 

'OOr. Lincoln Park is visited by fifty Canada Greese which mingle 
with the captive birds until 8 A. M., when they depart. 
Chicago Daily News, October 17. 

'OOo. Rhode Island Audubon Society car placard to be tried in Chi- 
cago. Chicago Tribune, December 1. 

'01. Chicago abounds in Birds. Chicago Tribune, March 24. 

'OlA. A flock of Pigeons have rendezvous on one of the windows in 
Judge Carter's Court Room, in County Building. Chicago 
Daily News. April 16. 

'OlB. Pelican amuses Park crowd. Chicago Daily News, August 8. 

'Olc. Lincoln Park Officers to resist game warden. Atty. Frank Ham- 
lin advises the Board is authorized by Law to keep all 
kinds of Birds in Zoo. Chicago Tribune, August 24. 

'Olo. Records of Fast Flying Pigeons. There are some birds in 
Chicago that can beat ordinary wind. Chicago Daily News, 
September 5. 

'OlE. No Lack of Game within City Limits. Chicago Tribune, Sep- 
tember 15. 

'OlF. Reason clad in Feathers. Chicago Tribune, October 20. 

'02. Robins sing Spring is Here. Chicago Tribune, April 6. 

'02A. Chicago one of the best places in the country for Bird Study. 
Chicago Daily News, May 9. 

'02B. Return of the Birds to Chicago. Chicago Tribune, May 12. 

'02c. Southside haunts of birds favorite spots on the Wooded Island. 
Chicago Tribune, June 11. 



198 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

BAKER, FEANK COLLINS. 

'97. Collecting about Chicago. Sports Afield, Vol. XIX, No. 2, p. 112. 
'97A. Same Title. The Museum, Vol. Ill, No. 10, August. 

BALLOU, WILLIAM HOSEA. 

'80. Nesting English Sparrows. Amer. Nat., Vol. XIV, p. 524. 
'80A. Bird Arrivals at Evanston, Illinois. Amer. Nat, Vol. XIV, 

July, p. 525. 
'80s. Theory of Bird Migration. Amer. Nat., Vol. ,XIV, July, p. 527. 

BEAL, F. E. L. 

'86. Some Notes on Bird Migration. Amer. Nat., Vol. XX, Sep- 
tember, p. 817; Ibis, Vol. V, January, 1887, p. 121. 

BLACKWELDEK, ELIOT. 

'97. Notes on Occurrence of Smith's Longspur. Osprey, January, 
p. 67. 

"W. B." BBEWSTEB, WILLIAM. 

'77. Nelson's Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 
Vol. II, July, 1877, pp. 68, 69. (Synopsis of E. W. Nel- 
son's article in the Bulletin of the Essex Institute, Vol. 
VIII, 1876.) 

BUTLEB, AMOS W. 

'90. Report on the Birds of Indiana. Ind. Hort. Soc., pp. 1-135. 
'91. Notes on Indiana Birds. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., pp. 164-166. 
'92. The Range of the Crossbill in the Ohio Valley, with Notes on 

Their Unusual Occurrence in Summer. Proc. Ind. Acad. 

Sci., pp. 63-72. 
'93. Bibliography of Indiana Ornithology and Notes on Indiana 

Birds. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., pp. 108-120. 
'95. Additional Notes on Indiana Birds. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., 

p. 162. 
'97: Birds of Indiana. Ind. Dep't. Geol. and Nat. Resources, 22nd 

Ann. Rep't., 1897, pp. 515-1188. 
'97A. The Unusual Occurrence of Brunnich's Murre (Uria lomvia) 

far Inland with Notes on other Rare Birds. Auk, Vol. 

XIV, 1897, pp. 197-200. 

CHASE, MRS. AGNES. 

A Chicago Park Horizon. The Wilson Bulletin, No. 26, N. S., Vol. 

VI, No. 3, p. 40. 

The Herring Gull (Larus argentatus). The Wilson Bulletin, No. 42, 
N. S., Vol. X, No. 1, pp. 38-39. 

CLARK, EDWARD BRAYTON. 

'94. "City Birds in Winter Time." Chicago Tribune, January 20, 
1894. 

'94A. "Mr. Shrike is Here." "A Chapter on the Great Northern 
Shrike. A Chicago Winter Visit9r." Chicago Tribune, Novem- 
ber 4, 1894. 

'94s. "The Last of his Race." Passenger Pigeon takes refuge in 
Lincoln Park. Chicago Tribune, November 25, 1894. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 1 99 

'94c. "Is a Royal Fisher." Story of a Lincoln Park Kingfisher. 
Chicago Tribune, December 16, 1894. 

'95. "Storm Blown Birds." Afield m Lincoln Park, Ravenia, High- 
land Park. Chicago Tribune, March 24. 

'95A. "Old Alcyon is Dead." Lincoln Park's favorite Kingfisher com- 
mits suicide. Chicago Tribune, September 15. 

'96. "Linger in Winter's Lap." An account of birds which that 
year delayed their migration. Chicago Tribune, January 10, 
1897. 

'96A. "Illinois' Rally to Save Her Birds." Chicago Inter Ocean, 
April (?), 1897. 

'96s. "Our Bird Visitors in City Parks." Chicago Inter Ocean 
April (?), 1897. 

'96c. "Snap Shots at Birds." A study of the birds at Worth, Illinois. 
Chicago Tribune, May (?), 1896. 

*96D. "Linger in Winter's Lap." Chicago Tribune, December 5. 

'98. "Odd Deaths of Birds." Local stories of bird tragedies. Chi- 
cago Tribune, April 24, 1898. 

'99. "Birds as Harbingers of Spring." A chapter on spring birds 
at Highland Park, Illinois. Chicago Chronicle, April 16, 1899. 

'99A. Some Wise Birds and Foolish," Local studies in -nest building. 
Chicago Tribune, May 28, 1890. 

'99fi. "Man's Life is Saved by a Bird." A study of the insect eating 
of birds. Chicago Tribune, July 30, 1899. 

'99c. "Midsummer in the Parks." Nature sketches in Chicago parks. 
Chicago Tribune, August 20, 1899. 

'99o. "Birds in the Cemetery." Notes on the birds in Graceland 
Cemetery. Chicago Chronicle, August (?), 1899. 

'00. Evening Grosbeaks in Graceland. Chicago Record, April 28, 
1900. 

'OOA. "Birds Deck Fall Hats." A millinery study. Chicago Tribune, 
October (?), 1900.. 

'OOe. "Bird Preparations for Winter." Chicago Tribune, November 
11, 1900. 

'01. "The Unspeakable Sparrow." Outing, January, 1901. 

'OlA. "Birds That Use Chicago as a Winter Resort." Chicago Trib-. 
une, February 17, 1901. 

'OlB. "Birds Sing Spring In." Chicago Post, March 23, 1901. Spring 
bird notes. 

'Olc. "Song Bird Has Arrived." Spring arrivals along Des Plaines 
River. Chicago Post, April 20, 1901. 

'OlD. "Return of the Birds to Chicago." Chicago Tribune, May 5, 
1901. 

'OlE. "Plumed Friends of Man." A plea for the birds. Chicago 
Chonicle, May (?), 1901. 

'OlF. "Billy the Kingfisher." A Lincoln Park bird. Chicago Record, 
June 15, 1901. 

'OlG. "A Bit of Bird Life." Local bird sketch. Chicago Post, 
October 19, 1901. 

'02. "Feathered Winter Visitors in Chicago." Chicago Tribune, 
January 12, 1902. 

'02A. "Birds of Mystery at Lake Forest." Notes on Evening Gros- 
beak visitors. Chicago Tribune, April, 1902. 

'02s. Hawks serve farmer, few chicken eaters. Chicago Record- 
Herald, August 12, 1903. 



2OO THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

"English Oppressors of the Bird World." Date lost. A study of the 
persecution of native birds by the English Sparrow. Chicago 
Times-Herald. 

CLARK, H. WALTON. 

'04. The Screech Owl. Birds and Nature, Vol. XVI, p. 225, Decem- 
ber, 1904. 

COALE, HENRY K. 

'77. Junco oregonus in Illinois. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. II, 

July, 1877, p. 82. 
'83. The Willow Thrush and Holboll's Linnet in Illinois. Bull. 

Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. VIII, October, 1883, p. 239. 
'85. Krider's Hawk in Northeastern Illinois. The Auk, Vol. II, 

1885, p. 110. 
'94. Willow Thrush in Northeastern Illinois. The Auk, Vol. XI, 

July, 1894, p. 222. 

COOKE, WELLS W. 

'88. Bird Migration of the Mississippi Valley in the Years 1884- 

1885. Bull. No. 2, U. S. Dep't. of Agri. Div. of Econom. Orn., 

1888, p. 314. 
'04. On Migration of the Hooded Warbler. Bird Lore, Vol. VI, No. 

1, January-February, 1904, p. 22. 
'04A. Migration of Warblers. Bird Lore, Vol. VI, No. 2, April, 

1904, pp. 57-60. 
'04B. Distribution and Migration of North American Warblers. Bull. 

No. 18, U. S. Dep't. of Agri. Div. Biol. Surv., 1904, p. 142. 

CBAIGMELLE, ESTHER A. 

'04. The New Year Bird Census. Wilson Bull., No. 46, N. S., Vol. 

XI, No. 1, March, 1904, pp. 19-20. 

'04A. A Summer Porch List at Hinsdale, Illinois. Wilson Bull., 
No. 49, N. S., Vol. XI, No. 4, December, 1904, p. 105. 

DEANE, RUTHVEN. 

'88. Destruction in Migration. Forest and Stream, Vol. XXI, p. 385, 
December, 1888. 

'95. Additional Notes on the Passenger Pigeon in Illinois and In- 
diana. The Auk, Vol. XII, January, 1895, p, 98. 

'95A. Additional Records of Passenger Pigeon in Illinois and Indiana. 
The Auk, Vol. XII, July, 1895, p. 298. 

'95s. Additional Notes on the Passenger Pigeon in Illinois and In- 
diana. The Auk, Vol. XII, July, 1895, p. 300. 

'99. Report of Illinois Audubon Society. Bird Lore, Vol. I, No. 2, 
p. 66, April, 1899. 

'03. Richardson's Owl in Illinois. The Auk, Vol. XX, July, 1903, 
p. 305. 

'03A. Richardson's Owl in Illinois. The Auk, Vol. XX, October, 1903, 
p. 433. 

'05. Additional Record of the European Widgeon. Auk, Vol. XXII, 
p. 76, January, 1905. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 2OI 

DKUMMOND, MARY. 

'00. Report of Illinois Audubon Society. Bird Lore, Vol. II, No. 

2, p. 65, April, 1900. 
'02. Report of Illinois Audubon Society. Bird Lore, Vol. IV, No. 

4, p. 136, July-August, 1902. 

DUNN, JAMES O. 

'95. Notes on some Birds of Northeastern Illinois. The Auk, Vol. 
XII, October, 1895, pp. 393-395. . 

EVEBMANN, B. W. 

'87. Some Rare Indiana Birds. Amer. Nat., Vol. XXI, p. 290, 
March, 1887. 

GAULT, BENJAMIN TRUE. 

'89. Lapland Longspur at Chicago in June. The Auk, Vol. V, 1889, 

p. 278. 
'94. Kirtland's Warbler in Northeastern Illinois. The Auk, Vol. 

XI, 1894, p. 258. 

'95. The Passenger Pigeon in Northeastern Illinois. The Auk, Vol. 

XII, 1895, p. 80. 

'95A. The Willow Thrush. The Auk, Vol. XII, 1895, p. 85. 

'96. Recent Occurrence of the Turkey Vulture and Bald Eagle in 

Cook County, Illinois. The Wilson Bulletin, No. 9, July 

30, 1896, p. 3-4. 
'96A. The Pine Siskin. The Wilson Bulletin, No. 11, p. 8, Nov. 30, 

1896. 
'97. Unusual Winter Visitors in DuPage County, Illinois. The 

Wilson Bulletin, No. 12, p. 10 (Meadowlarks in January), 

January 30, 1897. 
'97B. Short Notes: The Red Crossbill. The Wilson Bulletin, No. 

13, N. S.. Vol. IV, No. 2, March 30. 1897, p. 20. 
'98. Some Bird Ways. The Wilson Bulletin. No. 23, N. S., Vol. 

V, No. 6, November 30, 1898, p. 73-75. 

'99. December Horizons at Glen Ellyn, Illinois. The Wilson Bul- 
letin, No. 24, Vol. VI, No. 1, January 30, 1899, p. 5-6. 
'99A. Summer Horizons. The Wilson Bulletin, No. 28, N. S., Vol. 

VI, No. 5, September 30, 1899, p. 65. 

'00. A Correction. The Wilson Bulletin, No. 3, Vol. VII, N. S., 

July 30, 1900, p. 9. 
'OOA. The American Redstart. Birds and Nature. Vol. VIII, No. 3, 

October, 1900. 
'OOB. Bird Life at Glen Ellyn (near Chicago) Illinois. Bird Lore, 

Vol. II, No. 6, p. 187, December, 1900. 
'01. Ibid. Bird Lore, Vol. Ill, No. 1, p. 26, February-March, 1901 ; 

No. 2, p. 65, April-May; No. 3, p. 102, June- July ; No. 4. 

p. 166, August-September, 1901. 
'OlA. The Christmas Bird Census at Glen Ellyn, Illinois. Bird Lore, 

Vol. Ill, p. 32, 1901. 
'02. Food Habits of the Wilson's Snipe. The Wilson Bulletin, No. 

38, Vol. IX, No. 1. March, 1902, p. 7. 
'02A. Song Sparrow. The Wilson Bulletin, No. 38, Vol. IX, No. 1, 

March, 1902, p. 15. 



2O2 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

GOODRICH, JULIET T. 

'05. Fifth Christmas Census. Bird Lore, Vol. VII, No. 1, p. 30, 
January-February, 1905. 

HANCOCK, JOSEPH L. 

'83. Albino Cowbird. Ornith. & Oolog., March, p. 24. 

'83A Parkman's Wren in Illinois. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. VIII, 

July, 1883, p. 79. 
'88. Impeded Migration and Destruction of Birds at Chicago. The 

Auk, Vol. V, 1888, pp. 432-434. 

HOLLISTER, N. and KUMLIEN, L. 

'03. The Birds of Wisconsin. Bull. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc., N. S., 
Ill, Nos. 1, 2, 3, January to July, 1903. 

HOUGH, E. 

In "Chicago and the West," as follows: 

'88. Wild Geese. Vol. XXXI, p. 325, November 15. 

'88A. Ducks and Blackbirds, 1. c., p. 365, November 29. 

'88B. Ducks, 1. c., p. 408, December 13. 

'89. Arrival of Ducks, Vol. XXXII, p. 44, February 7. 

'89A. Bluebills and Redheads, 1. c., p. 213, April 4. 

'89B. Woodcock and Plover, 1. c., p. 491, July 4. 

'89c. Prairie Chickens in Morgan Park, Vol. XXXIII, p. 86, August 

22. 

'89D. Bluebills and Redheads in Chicago, 1. c., p. 366, August. 
'90. Yellowlegs at Lake Calumet, Vol. XXXV, p. 69, August 14. 
'90A. Wild Geese at Chicago, 1. c., p. 432 December 18. 
'90B, Redheads at Calumet Heights, 1. c., p. 456, December 25. 
'91. Pintails and Sawbills on Lake Michigan, Vol. XXXVI, p. 45, 

February 5. 
9lA. Bluebills and Canvasbacks in Calumet Lake, 1. c., p. 150, 

March 12. 

'92. Ruffed Grouse at Hinsdale, Vol. XXXVIII, p. 53, January 21. 
'92A. Bluebills at Harrison Street Bridge, 1. c., p. 322, April 7. 
'92s. Snow Buntings sold as Reed Birds, 1. c., p. 349, April 14. 
'92c. Jacksnipe at Hammond, Indiana, Vol. XXXIX, p. 138, August 

18. 
'92D. Bald Eagle killed at Calumet Heights, 1. c., p. 469, December 1. 

In "Forest and Stream," as follows : 

'93. Canvasback Ducks in Calumet Lake, Vol. XL, p. 253, March 23. 

'94. Jacksnipe at Calumet Lake, Vol. XLIII, p. 292, October 6. 

'95. Jacksnipe on Desplaines River, Vol. XLV, p. 317, October 12. 

'96. Jacksnipe at Blue Island, Vol. XLVI, p. 316, April 18. 

'96A. Duck Shooting at Calumet Heights, Vol. XLVII, p. 368, No- 
vember 7. 

'96B. Flight of Ducks at Calumet Heights, 1. c., p. 409, November 21. 

'96c. Acclimating Quail at Calumet Heights, Vol. XLVII, p. 467, 
December 12. 

'97. Cook County Birds at Academy of Sciences, Vol. XLVIII, p. 
148, February 20. 

'97A. Jacksnipe at Arlington Heights, 1. c., p. 367, Mary 8. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 203 

'97B. Raven and Snowy Owl at Calumet Heights, Vol. XLIX, p. 401. 
November 20. 

'98. Deep Water Ducks at Calumet Heights, Vol. L, p. 185, March 5. 

'98A. Jacksnipe at Chicago, 1. c., p. 24G. March 26. 

'98s. Golden Plover at Summit, 1. c., p. 387, May 14. 

'99. Jacks at Hyde Lake and Lake Station, Indiana, Vol. LIII, p. 
247, September 23. 

'00. Canvasbacks in Lake Michigan, Chicago, Vol. LIV, p. 167, 

'OOA. Canada Goose at Calumet Heights, L. C., p. 249, March 31. 

'OOB. Great Year for Ducks. Chicago Tribune, April 1. 

'OOc. Jacksnipe at the Sag, Forest and Stream, Vol. LIV, p. 328, 
April 28. 

'OOo. Art of Goose Shooting. Chicago Tribune, October 1. 

'OOE. Marshes full of Snipe, 1. c., October 1. 

'OOr. Start of Quail Season, 1. c., November 1. 

'OOo. Habits of Ruffed Grouse. Chicago Tribune, November 1. 

'OOn. Quail and Ruffed Grouse at Calumet Heights, Forest and 
Stream, Vol. LV, p. 405, November 24. 

'01. Early Shooting Season. Chicago Tribune, April 2. 

'OlA. Defect in the Quail Law; no Protection in Illinois for Quail 
or Woodcock. Chicago Tribune, July 10. 

'OlB. Teal at Tolleston, Forest and Stream, Vol. LVII, p. 285, Octo- 
ber 12. 

'02. Wild Geese at Skokie Marsh, 1. c., Vol. LVIII, p. 229, March 22. 

'02A. Mallards at Tolleston, 1. c., p. 250, March 29. 

'02B. Jacksnipe at Tolleston, 1. c.. Vol. LIX, p. 268, October 4. 

'03. Jacksnipe at Calumet Heights, I c., LX, p. 269, April 4. 

'03A. Jacksnipe at Calumet Heights, 1. c., p. 307, April 18. 

HOWEY, JOHN M. 

'83. Bobolinks in Northern Illinois. Ornith. and Oolog., February, 
p. 15. 

HUNTEB, HABBY. 

'82. Wild Pigeons at Highland Park. Forest and Stream, Vol. XVIII, 
p. 71, February. 

JONES, LYNDS. 

'00. Horizons. Wilson Bulletin, N. S., Vol. VII, No. 33, p. 36. 
October. 

KENNICOTT, ROBEBT. 

'">. Catalogue of Animals Observed in Cook County, Illinois. Trans. 
111. State Agri. Soc.. Vol. I. 1853-1854, pp. 580-589. 

"KOBAX." 

'90. Yellow Rail in Chicago. Forest and Stream, Vol. XXXV, p. 
431, December. 

KTTMLIEN. L. and HOLLISTEB, N. 
'03. See Hollister, N. 

MABBLE, C. C. 

*97. The Loggerhead Shrike. Birds and Nature, Vol. II, p. 202, June. 



2O4 THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

'00. The Yellow Headed Blackbird. Birds and Nature, Vol. VII, 
p. 12, January. 

NELSON, E. W. 

'76. Additions to the Avifauna of Illinois with Notes on other Spe- 
cies of Illinois Birds. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, Vol. I, No. 
2, July, 1876, pp. 39-44. 

'76A. Birds of Northeastern Illinois. Bull, of the Essex Institute, 
Vol. VIII, December, 1876, pp. 90-155. 

RIDGWAY, ROBERT. 

'74. Catalogue of the Birds Ascertained to Occur in Illinois. Ann. 

Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, Vol. X, January, pp. 364-394. 
'81. Revised Catalogue of the Birds Ascertained to Occur in Illinois. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., Bull. No. 4, pp. 163-208. 
'89-'95 The Ornithology of Illinois. Nat. Hist. Surv. 111., State Lab. 

Nat. Hist., Vol. I, 1889, pp. 120-fVIII, pis. XXXII; Vol. 

II, pp. 282, pis. XXXIII. 

'01.-'04. The Birds of North and Middle America. Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., No. 51, part I, 1901; part II, 1902; part III, 1904. 

Ridgway Ornithological Club, Chicago. Notices of Meetings as fol- 
lows in the Ibis: Vol. II, July, p. , 1884; Vol. Ill, 

January, p. 120, 1885; Vol. Ill, April, p. 237, 1885; Vol. 

III, July, p. 330, 1885 ; Vol. V, January, P. 122, 1887 ; Vol. 
V, October, p. 466, 1887. 

SCHANTZ, ORPHEUS M. 

'04. A Dooryard List from Morton Park, Illinois. Wilson Bulletin, 
No. 47, N. S., Vol. XI, No. 2, June, p. 57. 

SCHANTZ, O. M. and MRS. 

'05. July Horizons at Morton Park, Illinois. Wilson Bulletin, No. 
52, N. S., Vol. XII, No. 1, September. 

SHARPE, R. BOWDLER. 

'85. Catalogue of the Passeriformes or Perching Birds in the Col- 
lection of the British Museum, etc. Vol. X, London, 1885, 
p. 305. (Lists a skin of Geothlypis macgillivrayi from Chi- 
cago, collected by Henry K. Coale an adult female bird.) 

TOPPAN, GEORGE. 

'87. Spring Migration Notes for Cook and Lake Counties, Illinois 
and Lake County, Indiana. Ibis, Vol. V, p. 122, January. 
Mentions meeting of Ridgway Ornithological Club of Chicago. 

THURBER, COLLINS. 

'05. The Hermit Thrush. Birds and Nature, Vol. XVIII, No. 2, 

p. 50, September. 
'05A. The Yellow Bellied Sapsucker. Birds and Nature, Vol. XVIII, 

No. 3, p. 119, October. 

TURTLE, RICHARD. 

'02. Capture of Hudsonian Curlew, American Field, p. 221, Sep- 
tember 1.' 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 

WALTER, HEBBEET EUGENE and ALICE HALL (WALTEB). 

'05 Wild Birds in City Parks. A. W T . Mumford, Chicago, 1905. 
(Hints on identifying 145 birds based on spring migration 
in Lincoln Park, Chicago.) 

WHEELOCK, IBENE G. 

'02. Rare Birds seen at Lake Forest. Inter Ocean, March. 
'05. Regurgitative Feeding of Nestlings. Auk, Vol. XXII, p. 54, 
January. 

WOODBUFF, FBANK MOBLEY. 

'96. On Birds Reported as Rare in Cook County, Illinois. The Auk, 
Vol. XIII, 1896, pp. 179-181. 

'96A. The Raven in Illinois. The Auk, Vol. XIII, 1896, pp. 83-84. 

'97. Lake Michigan Notes. The Auk, Vol. XIV, 1897, pp. 227-228. 

'97A. The Home of the Loggerhead Shrike. The Osprey, Vol. I, No. 8, 

'98. Lake Michigan Notes. The Auk, Vol. XV, 1898, pp. 61-62. 
p. 109. 

'00. The Western Willet. Birds and Nature, Vol. VIII, p. 146, No- 
vember. 

'04. The Loon. Birds and Nature, Vol. XVI, November, pp. 191-192. 

'04A. The Sora Rail. L. c., Vol. XVI, December, pp. 201-202. 

'05. The American Robin. L. c., Vol. XVII, No. 2, p. 62, February. 

'05A. The Black Tern. L. c., No. 3, p. 134, March. 

'05s. The American Red Crossbill. L. c., No. 4, p. 191, April. 

'05c. The Prothonotary Warbler. L. c., No. 5, p. 194, May. 

'05o. The Black-crowned Night Heron. L. c., Vol. XVIII, No. 1, p. 
11, June. 

'05E. The Mourning Dove. L. c., No. 2, p. 95, September. 

'05r. The Snowflake. L. c., No. 3, p. 134, October. 

'07. Rare Northern Birds near Chicago. The Auk, Vol. XXIV, 
1907, p. 107. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 

INDEX TO SCIENTIFIC NAMES 



207 



Acanthis, 130. 

Acanthis hornemannii exilipes, 130. 
linaria, 130. 
linaria holboellii, 131. 
linaria rostrata, 131. 
Accipiter, 92. 
Accipiter atricapillus, 93. 
cooperii, 93. 
velox, 92. 
Actitis, 76. 
Actitis macularia, 76. 
Actodromas, 68. 

bairdii, 15, 69. 
fuscicollis, 69. 

maculata, 68. 

mmutilla, 23, 70, 71. 
^Egialitis, 80. 
/Egialitis meloda, 80. 

melodus var. circumcinctus, 18, 
80, 81. 

semipalmata, 15, 80. 
JEgiothus canescens, 130. 

exilipes, 130. 

rostratus, 131. 
Agelaius, 123. 
Agelaius phceniceus, 123. 
Aix, 41. 

Aix sponsa. 10, 41. 
Alaudidse, 119. 
Alcedinidse, 109. 
Ammodramus, 136. 
Ammodramus caudacutus, 137. 

henslowii, 15, 136. 

leconteii, 16, 136. 

nelsoni, 137. 

sandwichensis savanna, 135. 

savannarum passerinus, 135. 
Ampelidas. 150. 
Ampelis, 150. 
Ampelis cedrorum, 151. 

garrulus, 150. 
Anas, 36. 
Anas acuta, 40. 

albeola, 44. 

americana, 38. 

bernicla, 51. 

boschas, 36. 

ca?rulescens, 49. 

canadensis. 50. 

carolinensis, 39. 

clangula, 43. 

columbianus, 52 

clypeata, 40. 

collaris. 43. 

crecca. 39. 

discors, 39. 

fusca, 46. 

glacialis, 45. 

hyemalis, 45. 

hyperborea, 48. 

islandica, 44. 

jamaicensis, 47. 

mollissima, 45. 

nigra, 46. 

nivalis, 49. 

obscura, 37. 



penelope, 37. 

perspicillata, 47. 

rubida, 47. 

sponsa, 41. 

strepera, 37. 

vallisneria, 42. 
Anatidae, 35. 
Anorthura troglodytes var. hyemalis, 

184. 

Anser, 49. 
Anser albifrons, 49. 

bernicla, 51. 

caBrulescens, 49. 

canadensis, 50. 

gambeli, 49. 

hutchinsii, 51. 

hyperboreus var. albatus, 48. 

hyperboreus var. hyperboreus, 49. 
Anseres, 35. 
Antrostomus, 113. 
Antrostomus vociferus, 113. 
Anthus, 178. 
Anthus ludovicianus, 178. 

pensilvanicus, 178. 
Aphrizidae, 82. 
Aquila, 97. 
Aquila chrysaetos, 97. 98. 

chrysaetos var. canadensis, 97. 

fulva, 97. 
Archibuteo, 97. 
Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis, 

97. 

Ardea, 53. 
Ardea herodias, 53. 
Ardeidae, 53. 
Ardetta, 53. ' 
Ardetta exilis, 53. 
Arenaria, 82. 

Arenaria interpres, 15, 82. 
Arquatella, 68. 
Arquatella maritima, 15, 68. 
Asio, 102. 
Asio accipitrinus, 102. 

wilspnianus, 102. 
Astragalinus, 131. 
Astragalinus tristis, 131, 132. 
Astur palumbarius var. atricapillus, 

Ayth'ya, 41. 

Aythya affinis, 42, 48. 

americana, 41, 47. 

collaris, 43. 

marila, 21. 

vallisneria, 42. 

Baeolophus. 188. 
Bseolophus bicolor, 188. 
Bartramia, 75. 
Bartramia longicauda, 75. 
Bernicla canadensis, 50. 

hutchinsii, 51. 
Bonasa, 83. 
Bonasa umbellus, 83. 
Botaurus. 53. 
Botaurus exilis, 53. 

lentiginosus, 53 

minor. 53. 



208 



THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



Brachyotus palustris, 102. 

Branta, 50. 

Branta bernicla, 51. 

canadensis, 50. 

canadensis minima, 22. 

hutchinsii, 51. 

minima, 51. 
Bucephala albeola, 44. 

clangula, 43. 

islandica, 44. 
Bubo, 106. 
Bubo virginianus, 106. 

virginianus arcticus, 106. 
Bubonidae, 102. 
Buteo, 94. 
Buteo borealis, 94. 

borealis calurus, 95. 

borealis harlani, 95. 

borealis kriderii, 94. 

latissimus, 96. 

lineatus, 95. 

platypterus, 96. 

swainsoni, 96. 
Butorides, 55. 
Butorides virescens, 55. 

Calcarius, 133. 

Calcarius lapponicus, 16, 133, 134. 

pictus, 16, 17, 134. 
Calidris, 71. 

Calidris arenaria, 15, 71. 
Cardinalis, 145. 
Cardinalis cardinalis, 145. 

virginianus, 145. 
Carpodacus, 128. 
Carpodacus purpureus, 128. 
Caprimulgidse, 113. 
Cathartes, 90. 
Cathartes aura, 90. 
Cathartidse, 90. 
Certhia, 186. 

Certhia familiaris americana, 186. 
Certhiidse, 186. 
Centurus, 112. 
Centurus carolinus, 112. 
Ceophlceus, 111. 

Ceophloeus pileatus abieticola, 111. 
Ceryle, 109. 
Ceryle alcyon, 109. 
Cha3tura, 114. 
Chaetura pelagica, 114. 
Charadriidae, 78. 
Charadrius, 79. 
Charadrius dominicus, 76, 79. 

fulvus var. virginicus, 79. 

marmoratus, 79. 

pluvialis, 79. 
Charitonetta, 44. 
Charitonetta albeola, 44. 
Chaulelasmus, 37. 
Chaulelasmus streperus, 37. 
Chen, 48. 
Chen caerulescens, 49. 

hyperborea, 48. 

hyperborea nivalis, 49. 
Chondestes, 138. 
Chondestes grammacus, 15, 138. 
Chordeiles, 113. 
Chordeiles popetue, 113, 114. 

virginianus, 113. 

virginianus henryi, 113, 114. 



Circus, 92. 

Circus cyaneus, 92. 

hudsonius, 92. 
Cistothorus, 185. 
Cistothorus stellaris, 185. 
Clangula, 43. 
Clangula albeola, 44. 

clangula americana, 43. 

hyemalis, 45. 

islandica, 44. 
Coccyges, 108. 
Coccyzus, 108. 
Coccyzus americanus, 108. 

erythrophthalmus, 108. 
Colaptes, 112. 

Colaptes auratus luteus, 112. 
Colinus, 82. 

Colinus virginianus, 82. 
Columbse, 86. 
Columbida?, 86. 
Colymbus, 25. 
Colymbus auritus, 25. 

nigricollis californicus, 26. 

holbosllii, 25. ' 

septentrionalis, 27. 

toquatus, 27. 
Compsothlypis, 159. 
Compsothlypis americana ramalinse, 

159 

Contopus, 117. 
Contopus virens, 117. 
Conurus, 108. 
Conurus carolinensis, 108. 
Corvidse, 120. 
Crovus, 120. 
Corvus americanus, 122. 

brachyrhynchos, 121. 

corax, 120. 

corax var. carnivorus, 121. 

corax principalis, 120. 

corax sinuatus, 121. 

corone, 121. 

pica, 120. 
Coturniculus, 135. 
Coturniculus savannarum passerinus, 

15, 135. 

Crucirostra minor, 129. 
Crymophilus, 62. 
Crymophilus fulicarius, 62. 
Cryptoglaux, 104. 
Cryptoglaux acadica, 105. 

tengmalmi richardsoni, 104. 
Cuculidap, 108. 
Cupidonia americana, 84. 
Cyauocitta, 120. 
Cyanocitta cristata, 120. 
Cygnus americanus, 52. 

bewicki, 52. 
Cyanospiza, 146. 
Cyanospiza cyanea, 146. 

Dafila, 40. 
Dafila acuta, 40. 
Dendroica, 160. 
Dendroica asstiva, 160. 

blackburnise, 164. 

caerul-ea, 162. 

caarulescens, 16, 161. 

castanea, 163. 

coronata, 161. 

discolor, 169. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 



209 



dominica albilora, 20, 164. 

kirtlandii, 165, 166. 

maculosa, 160, 161. 

palmarum, 167, 169. 

pensylvanica, 162. 

pinus, 168. 

rara, 162. 

striata, 163. 

tigrina, 160. 

vigorsii, 168. 

virens, 165. 
Dolichonyx, 122. 
Dolichonyx oryzivorus, 122. 
Dryobates, 109. 
Dryobates pubescens medianus, 109. 

villosus, 109. 
Ectopistes, 86. 
Ectopistes migratoria, 86. 
Elanoides, 91. 
Elanoides forficatus, 91. 
Egretta, 54. 

Egretta candid issima, 54, 55. 
Empidonax, 117. 
Empidonax acadicus, 117, 118. 

flaviventris, 117. 

minimus, 118. 

pusillus var. trailii, 118. 

trailii, 118. 

virescens, 117. 
Ereunetes, 71. 
Ereunetes pusillus, 23, 71. 
Erismatura, 47. 
Erismatura jamaieensis, 47. 

rubida. 47. 
Euphagus, 125. 
Euphagus carol?nus, 125. 

cyanocephalus. 125. 

Falco, 99. 

Falco anatum, 99. 

atricapillus, 93. 

buteoides, 95. 

columbarius, 99. 

communis var. anatum, 99. 

forficatus, 91. 

furcatus, 91. 

fuscus. 92. 

peregrinus, 99. 

peregrinus anatum, 99. 

sparverius, 100. 

washingtonianus, 98. 

wilsoni, 61. 
Falconida?, 91. 
Fregata aquila, 19. 
Fringilla ambigua, 122. 

juncorum, 141. 

nivalis, 141. 

savanna, 135. 
Frin-illidae, 126. 
Fulica, 61. 
Fulica americana, 59, 61. 

atra, 62. 
Fuligula americana, 41. 

albeola, 44. 

affinis, 42. 

clangula, 43. 

collaris. 43. 

ferina, 41. 

marila, 42. 

vallisneria, 42. 



Galeoscoptes, 180. 

Galeoscoptes carolinensis, 180. 

Gallinae, 82. 

Gallinago, 65. 

Gallinago delicata, 65, 73. 

gallinaria var. wilsoni, 65. 

wilsoni, 65. 
Gallinula, 61. 
Gallinula galeata, 61. 

chloropus var. galleata, 61. 
Garzetta candidissima, 55. 
Gavia, 27. 
Gavia imber, 27. 
Gavidae, 27. 

Gelochelidon nilotica, 21. 
Geothlypis, 175. 
Geothlypis macgillivrayi, 174. 

trichas, 175. 

trichas brachidactyla, 175. 

trichas occidentalis, 175. 
Glaucionetta clangula americana, 43. 

islandica, 44. 
Graculus dilophus, 34. 
Grus, 56. 
Grus americana, 56. 

canadensis, 57. 

hoyanus, 56. 

mexicana, 57. 
Gruidae, 56. 

Haliseetus, 98. 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus, 98. 

Harelda, 45. 

Harelda glacialis, 45. 

hyemalis, 45. ' 
Harporhynchus rufus, 181. 
Helminthophila, 157. 
Helminthophila celata, 158. 

chrysoptera, 157. 

peregrina, 159. 

pinus, 157. 

rubicapilla, 158. 
Helodromas, 74. 
Helodromas solitarius, 74. 
Herodias, 54. 
Herodias alba var. egretta, 54. 

egretta, 54, 55. 
Herodiones, 53. 
Hesperiphona, 120. 
Hesperiphona vespertina. 126. 
Himantopus mexicanus, 64. 

nigricollis, 64. 
Hirundinida^, 148. 
Hirundo, 148. 
Hirundo americana, 148. 

erythrogastra, 148. 

fulva, 148. 

horreorum, 148. 
Histrionicus histrionicus, 21. 
Hydrochelidon, 33. 
Hydrochelidon lariformis, 34. 

nigra surinamensis, 17, 33. 
Hylocichla, 191. 
Hylocichla aliciae, 193. 

fuscescens, 192, 193. 

fuscescens salicicola, 192. 

guttata pallasii, 194. 

mustelina, 191. 

unalashkae pallasii, 194. 

ustulata swainsoni, 194. 



210 



THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



Icteria, 176. 
Icteria virens, 176. 

viridis, 176. 
Icteridse, 122. 
Icterus, 124. 
Icterus agripennis, 122. 

baltimore, 125. 

galbula, 125. 

pecoris, 122. 

spurius, 124. 
lonornis, 60. 
lonornis martinica 60. 
Iridoprocne, 149. 
Iridoprocne bicolor, 149. 

Junco, 141. 

Junco hyemalis, 141, 143. 

hyemalis shufeldti, 142. 

montanus, 141, 142, 143, 145. 

oreganus, 142, 143. 

"oreganus shufeldti, 142. 

oregonus, 141, 142. 

Lagopus, 84. 
Lagopus albus, 84. 

lagopus, 84. 
Laniidse, 152. 
Lanius, 152. 
Lanius borealis, 152. 

ludovicianus, 152. 
Lanivireo, 154. 
Lanivireo flavifrons, 154. 

solitarius, 154. 
Larus, 29. 
Larus argentatus, 29, 30. 

bonapartii, 31. 

californicus, 30. 

delawarensis, 29, 31. 

franklinii, 21. 

glaucus, 15, 19, 20, 29. 

leucopterus, 21, 22. 

marinus, 21. 

Philadelphia, 31. 

pomarinus, 28. 

smithsonianus, 29, 30. 

sabinii, 31. 

tridactylus, 28. 
Limicolae, 62. 
Limosa, 72. 
Limosa hsemastica, 72. 

scolopacea, 67. 
Linaria holboellii, 131. 

minor, 130. 

Lobipes hyperboreus, 63. 
Longipennes, 28. 
Lophodytes, 36. 
Lophodytes cucullatus, 10, 36. 
Loxia, 129. 
Loxia curvirostra, 129. 

curvirostra var. americana, 129. 

curvirostra minor, 129. 

leucoptera, 129. 

Macrorhamphus, 66. 
Macrorhamphus scolopaceus, 67. 

griseus, 13, 66. 
Macrochires, 113. 
Mareca, 37. 
Mareca americana, 38. 

penelope, 37. 
Mega scops, 105. 
Megascops asio, 105. 



Melanerpes, 111. 
Melanerpes carolinus, 112. 

erythrocephalus, 111. 
Melanetta velvetina, 46. 
Meleagris, 86. 
Meleagris gallopavo, 86. 

gallopavo sylvestris, 86. 

sylvestris, 86. 
Melospiza, 143. 
Melospiza cinerea melodia, 143. 

fasciata, 143. 

lincolnii, 143. 

melodia, 143. 

palustris, 143. 
Merganser, 35. 
Merganser americanus, 35. 

serrator, 36. 
Merula, 195. 
Merula migratoria, 195. 
Micropalama, 67. 
Micropalama himantopus, 67. 
Micropodidse, 114. 
Mimidse, 179. 
Mimus, 179. 
Mimus felivox, 181. 

polyglottos, 179. 
Mniotilta, 155. 
Mniotilta varia, 155. 
Mniotiltidffi, 155. 
Molothrus, 122. 
Molothrus ater, 122. 
Motacilla auricollis, 156. 

protonotarius, 156. 
Motacillidse, 178. 
Myadestes townsendii, 20. 
Myiarchus, 115. 
Myiarchus crinitus, 115. 
Muscicapa selbyii, 176. 

Nauclerus furcatus, 91. 
Nettion, 39. 

Nettion carolinensis, 39. 
Numenius, 77. 
Numenius borealis, 78. 

hudsonicus, 77, 78. 

intermedius, 77. 

longirostris, 77. 
Nuttallornis, 116. 
Nuttallornis borealis, 116. 
Nyctale richardsoni, 104. 
Nyctea, 106. 
Nyctea nyctea, 106. 

scandiaca, 106. 

scandiaca var. arctica, 10(">. 
Nycticorax, 55. 
Nycticorax nycticorax nsevius, 55. 

Oidemia, 46. 

Oidemia americana, 46, 47. 

deglandi, 46. 

perspicillata, 47. 
Olbiorchilus, 184. 
Olbiorchilus hiemalis, 184, 185. 
Olor, 52. 
Olor buccinator, 21. 

columbianus, 52. 
Oporornis, 172. 
Oporornis, agilis. 173. 

formosa, 172, 173. 

Philadelphia, 174. 

tolmiei, 174. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 



211 



Opuntia rafinesquii, 16. 
Otocoris, 119. 
Otocoris alpestris, 119. 

alpestris leucolaema, 119. 

alpestris praticola, 119. 
Otus vulgaris, 102. 
Oxyechus, 79. 
Oxyechus vociferus, 79. 

Paludicolae, 56. 

Pandion, 100. 

Pandion carolinensis, 100. 

haliaetus carolinensis, 100. 
Paridse, 188. 
Parula americana, 159. 
Parus atricapillus, 189. 

carolinensis, 189. 

hudsonicus, 22, 189. 
Passerculus, 135. 
Passerculus sandwichensis savanna, 

135. 

Passerella, 144. 
Passerella iliaca, 144. 
Passeres, 115. 
Passerina, 132. 
Passerina nivalis, 132. 
Pavoncella pugnax, 22. 
Pedioecetes, 85. 
Pediocaetes columbianus, 85. 

phasianellus, 85. 

phasianellus campestris. 85. 

phasianellus var. columbianus, 85. 
Pelecanidae, 35. 
Pelecanus, 35. 
Pelecanus dilophus, 34. 

erythrorhynchos, 35. 

onocrotalus, 35. 

trachyrhynchus, 35. 
Pelidna, 71. 
Pelidna alpina americana, 71. 

alpina pacifica, 71. 

alpina sakhalina, 23, 71. 

pacifica, 71. 
Penthestes, 187. 
Penthestes atricapillus, 189. 

carolinensis, 189. 

hudsonicus, 189. 
Perisoreus canadensis, 20, 22. 
Petrochelidon, 148. 
Petrochelidon lunifrons, 148. 
Phalacrocoracidae, 34. 
Phalacrocorax, 34. 
Phalacrocorax dilophus, 34. 

dilophus floridanus, 21. 
Phalaropodidre, 62. 
Phalaropus, 63. 
Phalaropus lobatus, 63. 

tricolor, 63. 

wilsoni, 63. 
Phasianidaa, 86. 
Philohela, 65. 
Philohela minor, 18, 65. 
Pica, 120. 

Pica pica hudsonia, 120. 
Pica melanoleuca, 120. 
Pici, 109. 
Picidae, 109. 
Picoides, 110. 
Picoides arcticus, 110. 
Picus caudata var. hudsonica, 120. 



Picus medianus, 110. 

pileatus, 111. 

pubescens, 109. 
Pinicola, 128. 
Pinicola canadensis, 128. 

enucleator, 128. 

enucleator canadensis, 128. 
Pipilo, 144. 
Pipilo erythrophthalmus, 144. 

maculatus arcticus, 144. 
Piranga, 147. 
Piranga erythromelas, 147. 

rubra, 147. 

Plegadis autumnalis, 21. 
Podiceps californicus, 26. 

cornutus, 25. 

griseigena var. holbolli, 25. 

holbcellii, 25. 

rubricollis, 25. 
Podicipidae, 25. 
Podilymbus, 26. 
Podilymbus, podiceps, 18 26 
Polioptila, 191. 
Polioptila caerulea, 191. 
Pooecetes, 135. 
Pocecetes gramineus, 135. 
Porzana, 58. 
Porzana Carolina, 58. 

jamaicensis, 59, 60. 

noveboracensis, 59. 
Progne, 148. 
Progne purpurea, 148. 

subis, 148. 
Protonotaria, 156. 
Protonotaria citrea, 156. 
Psittaci, 108. 
Psittacidae, 108. 
Pygopodes, 25. 
Pyranga aestiva, 147. 

uerquedula, 39. 
uerquedula carolinensis, 39. 

discors, 10, 39. 
Quiscalus. 126. 
Quiscalus aeneus, 126. 
ferrugineus, 125. 
purpureus aeneus, .126. 
quiscula aeneus, 126. 

Rallidae, 57. 

Rallus, 57. 

Rallus crepitans, 57. 

elegans, 57. 

lariformis, 34. 

virginianus, 58. 
Raptores, 90. 
Recurvirostra, 64. 
Recurvirostra americana, 64. 
Recurvirostridae, 64. 
Regulus, 190. 
Regulus calendula, 190. 

cristatus, 190. 

satrapa, 190. 
Riparia, 149. 
Riparia riparia, 149. 
Rissa, 28. 
Rissa tridactyla, 15, 20, 28. 

Sayornis, 116. 
Sayornis phoebe, 116. 



212 



THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



Scolopacidse, 65. 
Scolopax delicata, 65. 

flavipes, 73. 

hudsonica, 72. 

sakhalina, 71. 
Scotiaptex, 103. 
Scotiaptex nebulosa, 103. 
Setophaga, 178. 
Setophaga ruticilla, 178. 
Seiurus, 169. 
Seiurus aurocapillus, 169. 

ludovicianus, 172. 

motacilla, 172. 

naevius notabilis, 170, 171. 

noveboracensis, 22, 170, 171, 172. 

noveboracensis notabilis, 170, 

171, 172. 
Sialia, 195. 
Sialia sialis, 195. 
Sitta, 187. 
Sitta canadensis, 187. 

carolinensis, 187. 
Sittidse, 187. 
Somateria, 45. 
Somateria dresseri, 45. 

mollissima, 45. 

spectabilis, 21, 22. 
Sparvius platypterus, 97. 
Spatula, 40. 
Spatula clypeata, 40. 
Sphyrapicus, 110. 
Spyhrapicus ruber, 111. 

varius, 110. 

varius nuchalis, 111. 
Spinus, 132. 
Spinus pinus, 132. 
Spiza, 146. 

Spiza americana, 146. 
Spizella, 140. 
Spizella monticola, 133, 140. 

pallida, 140. 

pusilla, 141. 

socialis, 140. 
Squatarola, 78. 

Squatarola squatarola, 15, 78. 
Steganopodes, 34. 
Steganopus, 63. 
Steganopus tricolor, 18, 63. 
Stelgidopteryx, 150. 
Stelgidopteryx serripennis, 150. 
Stercorariidse, 28. 
Stercorarius, 28. 
Stercorarius parasiticus, 22. 

pomarinus, 22, 28. 
Sterna, 32. 

antillarum, 33. 

caspia, 15, 20, 32. 

forsteri, 32. 

havelli, 32. 

hirundo, 32, 33. 

maxima, 21. 

nigra, 33. 

Philadelphia, 31. 

plumbea, 33. 

superciliaris, 33. 

surinamensis, 33. 

tschegrava, 32. 
Sternula antillarum, 33. 
Strigidse, 101. 
Strix, 101. 



Strix arctica, 106. 

brachyotus, 102. 

caparoch, 107. 

cinerea, 103. 

flammea, 101. 

flammea var. americana, 101. 

flammea var. pratincola, 101. 

hudsonica, 107. 

otus, 102. 

pratincola, 101. 

tengmalmi, 104. 
Sturnella, 124. 
Sturnella magna, 124. 

neglecta, 124. 
Sturnus ludovicianus, 124. 
Surnia, 107. 
Surnia funeria, 107. 

ulula caparoch, 107. 

ulula var. hudsonica, 107. 
Sylvia autumnalis, 163. 

canadensis, 161. 

icterocephala, 162. 

maritima, 160. 

pardalina, 177. 

protonotaria, 156. 

ruficapilla, 158. 

wilsonii, 177. 
Sylvania bonapartii, 177. 
Sylvidse, 190. 
Symphemia, 74. 
Symphemia semipalmata, 15, 74, 75. 

semipalmata inornata, 74, 75. 
Syrnium, 103. 
Syrnium varium, 103. 

Tachycineta, 149. 
Tachycineta lepida, 149. 

thalassina, 149. 

thalassina lepida, 149. 
Tanagridse, 147. 
Tantalus loculator, 21. 
Telmatodytes, 185. 
Telmatodytes palustris iliacus, 185. 

palustris plesius, 186. 
Tetrao phasianellus, 85. 

saliceti, 84. 
Tetraonidse, 82. 
Thryomanes, 182. 
Thryomanes bewickii, 182. 
Thryothorus, 181. 
Thryothorus ludovicianus, 181. 
Totanus, 72. 
Totanus chloropygius, 74. 

flavipes, 67, 73. 

melanoleucus, 72. 
Toxostoma, 181. 
Toxostoma rufum, 181. 
Trichas brachydactyla, 175. 

tephrocotis, 173. 
Tringa, 68. 
Tringa alpina, 71. 

bartramia, 75. 

bonapartei, 69. 

canutus, 15, 23, 68. 

cinerea, 68. 

douglasii, 67. 

helvetica, 78. 

pectoralis, 69. 

pusilla, 70. 

rufescens, 76. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 



2I 3 



Tringa schinzii, 69. 

semipalmata, 71. 

wilsonii, 70. 
Trochilidse, 114. 
Trochilus, 114. 
Trochilus colubris, 114. 
Troglodytes, 183. 
Troglodytes aedon, 183, 184. 

aedon var. aztecus, 184. 

aedon parkmanii, 184. 

bewickii, 182. 

brevirostris, 185. 

hiemalis, 184. 

ludovicianus, 181. 

palustris, 185. 

parkmanii, 184. 

parvulus var. hyemalis, 185. 

stellaris, 185. 
Troglodytidae, 181. 
Tryngites, 75. 
Tryngites subruficollis, 75. 
Turdidse, 191. 
Turdus alicise, 193. 

aonalaschkse pallasii, 194. 

fuscescens, 192. 

fuscescens salicicola, 192. 

mustelinus, 191. 

pallasii, 194. 

swainsoni, 194. 

swainsoni var. aliciae. 193. 

ustulatus swainsoni, 194. 

wilsonii, 192. 
Tympanuchus, 84. 
Tympanuchus americanus, 84. 
Tyrannidae, 115. 
Tyrannus, 115. 
Tyrannus carolinensis, 115. 

cooperi, 116. 

fuscus, 116. 

intrepidus, 115. 

minima, 118. 

tyrannus, 115. 



Una lomvia, 19. 
Urinator arcticus, 21. 

imber, 27. 

lumme, 27. 

Vireo, 154. 
Vireo bellii, 155. 

flavifrons, 16, 154. 

gilvus, 16. 

noyeboracensis, 154, 155. 

solitarius, 154. 
Virionidae, 152. 
Vireosylva, 152. 
Vireosylva gilva, 153. 

olivacea, 152. 

philadelphica, 153. 

Wilsonia, 176. 

Wilsonia canadensis, 177. 

mitrata, 176. 

pusilla, 177. 
Xanthocephalus, 123. 
Xanthocephalus icterocephalus, 123. 

xanthocephalus, 123. 
Xema, 31. 
Xema sabina, 31. 

Zamelodia, 145. 
Zamelodia ludoviciana, 145. 
Zenaidura, 90. 
Zenaidura carolinensis, 90. 

macroura, 90. 
Zonotrichia, 139. 
Zonotrichia albicollis, 139. 

canadensis, 140. 

coronata, 20. 

leucophrys, 139. 

leucophrys intermedia, 20. 

querula, 139. 



214 



THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



INDEX TO COMMON NAMES. 



Avocet, American, 64. 

Bee Bird, Red, 147. 
Bee Martin, 115. 
Beetle-head, 78. 
Bird, Beach, 80. 
Bee, 115. 
Bell, 191. 
Cedar, 151. 
Cherry, 151. 
Fire, 125. 
Grass, 135. 
Grasshopper, 135. 
Green, 146. 
Ground, 135. 
Hanging, 125. 
Indigo, 146. 
Myrtle, 161. 
Peabody, 139. 
Potato, 138. 
Potato-bug, 146. 
Rice, 122. 
Strawberry, 128. 
Of Washington, 98. 
Birds of Prey, 90. 
Birds, Surf, 82. 
Bittern, American, 53. 
American Least, 53. 
Least, 53. 
Little, 53. 
Little Yellow, 53. 
Minute, 53. 
Tortoise-shell, 53. 
Black-breast, 78. 
Blackbird, blue-headed, 125. 
Brewers, 125. 
Cow, 122. 
Crow, 125. 
Red-shouldered, 123. 
Red-winged, 123. 
Rusty, 125, 126. 
Skunk, 122. 
Swamp, 123. 
Violet-headed, 125. 
Western Crow, 125. 
Yellow-headed, 123. 
Black-cap, Wilson's, 17. 
Bluebird, 13, 14, 15, 23, 191, 10.1. 

Eastern, 195. 
Blue Peter, 60. 
Bob Lincoln, 122. 
Bob-white, 82. 
Bobolink, 122. 
Bog-bull, 53. 
Bog-sucker, 65. 
Booby, 55. 
Bottle-head, 78. 
Brant, 49, 51. 
Bald, 49. 
Bird, 82. 
Blue, 49. 
Common, 51. 
Goose, 51. 
Harlequin, 49. 
Gray, 49. 
Pied, 49. 



Brant Prairie, 49. 
White, 48, 49. 
White-headed, 49. 

Yellow-legged, 49. 
Bull Bat, 113. 
Bull-head, 78, 79. 
Bumblebee, 70. 
Bunting, Bay-winged, 135. 

Black-throated, 146. 

Cow, 122. 

Cowpen, 122. 

Henslow's, 136. 

Indigo, 146. 

Leconte's, 136. 

Painted, 134. 

Painted Lark, 134. 

Smith's, 134. 

Snow, 132. 
Butcher Bird, Great Northern, 152 

Southern, 152. 
Buzzard, 90. 

Turkey, 90. 

Calico-back, 82. 
Canary, Wild, 160. 
Cardinal, 145. 
Catbird, 180, 181. 
Cedar-lark, 151. 
Chat, Yellow-breasted, 176. 
Chatterer, Waxen, 150. 
Chewink, 144. 
Chickadee, 189. 

Black-capped, 189. 

Carolina, 14, 189. 

Eastern, 189. 

Hudsonian, 20, 21, 189, 190. 

Northern, 189. 

Southern, 189. 
Chicken, Prairie, 84, 85. 
Chickty-beaver, 155. 
Chip-bird, 140. 

Field, 141. 
Chippy, 140. 

Field, 141. 

Red-billed, 141. 

Winter, 140. 
Clodhopper, 122. 
Coot, American, 61, 62. 

Blue, 60. 

Booby, 47. 

Bull, 46. 

Butter-billed, 46. 

Gray, 47. 

Heavy-tailed, 47. 

Hollow-billed, 46. 

Horse-head, 47. 

Sleepy, 47. 

Surf, 47. 

White- winged, 46. 
Cormorant, Florida, 21. 

Double-crested, 34. 
Corn-cracker, 145. 
Cowbird, 122. 
Cow-cow, 108. 
Crane, Brown, 57. 

Great White, 56. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 



215 



Crane, Sandhill, 57. 

White Sandhill, 56. 

Whooping, 56, 57. 
Creaker. 69. 
Crab-catcher, 55. 
Creeper, American Tree, 187 

Black and White, 155. 

Brown, 186, 187. 

Striped, 155. 
Crossbill. 17. 

American, 129. 

American Red, 129. 

Red, 129. 

White-winged, 129, 130. 
Crow, 15, 120. 

American, 121. 

Carrion, 90. 

Common, 122. 

Duck, 62. 

Rain, 108, 109. 
Cuckoo, Black-billed, 108. 

Yellow-billed, 108. 
Curlew, Big, 77. 

Eskimo, 78. 

Hudsonian, 77, 78. 

Jack, 77. 

Little, 78. 

Long-billed, 77. 

Short-billed, 77. 

Sickle-billed, 77. 

Dab-chick, 26. 

Darter, 93. 

Dickcissel, 146. 

Di-dapper, 26. 

Diver, Great Northern, 27. 

Red-throated, 27, 28. 
Dough-bird, 78. 
Dowitcher, 15, 66. 
Dowitcher, Long-billed, 67. 
Dove. American Turtle, 90. 

Carolina, 90. 

Common, 90. 

Mourning, 90. 

Turtle, 90. 
Duck. American Eider, 45. 

American Pochard, 41. 

Bald-crown, 38. 

Bald-headed, 38. 

Baldpate, 38. 

Big Sea, 45. 

Black, 37. 

Black-head, 43. 

Black Jack, 43. 

Blue-bill, 43. 

Blue-wing, 39. 

Brass-eye, 43. 

Bridal, 41. 

Bristle-tail, 47. 

Broady, 40. 

Broad-bill. 42. 

Buffle-head, 44. 

Bull-neck, 42. 

Butter, 40. 

Butter-ball, 44. 

Butter-bill, 46. 

Cannon Ball, 42, 44. 

Canvas-back, 10, 41, 42. 

Cob-head. 43. 

Cock Robin, 36. 

Coot, 43. 



Duck, Creek, 37. 
Crow, 34, 36. 
Deaf, 47. 
Dipper, 44. 
Dummy, 44, 47. 
Eider, 18. 
Fall, 43. 
Fan-crest, 36. 
Fish, 35. 
Fool, 47. 
Gadwall, 37. 
Gar-bill, 36. 

Golden-eye, American, 43. 
Golden-eye, Barrows, 44. 
Golden-eye, Rocky Mountain, 44. 
Goosander, 36. 
Gray, 36, 37. 
Great-head, 43. 
Greater Scaup, 21. 
Green-head, 38. 
Green-wing, 39. 
Hairy-head, 36. 
Harlequin, 21 
Iron-head, 43. 
King Eider, 21, 22. 
Lesser Scaup, 42, 43, 47. 
Little Black-head. 42. 
Little Blue^bill, 42. 
Long-neck, 40. 
Long-tailed, 45. 
Mallard, 41. 
March Blue-bill, 42. 
Merry-wing, 43. 
Moon-bill, 43. 
Moss-head, 36. 
Mud Blue-bill, 42. 
Mud-shoveller, 40. 
Old Injun, 45. 
Old Molly, 45. 
Old Squaw, 18, 19, 44, 45. 
Old Wife, 45. 
Pheasant, 40. 
Pheasant, Water, 40. 
Pick-axe, 36. 
Picket-tail, 40. 
Pintail, 19, 40. 41. 
Poacher, White-bellied, 38. 
Red-head, 41, 47. 
Red-headed Broad-bill, 41. 
Red-headed Bull-neck, 4 
Ring-bill, 43. 
Ring-billed Shuffler, 43. 
Ring-necked, 43. 
River, 42. 
River Scaup, 42. 
River Shuffler, 42. 
Rook, 47. 
Ruddy, 47, 48. 
Saw-bill, 35, 46. 
Scolder, 45. 
Scoter, 46. 

Scoter, White-winged, 44. 
Sea, 47. 
Shovel-bill, 40. 
Shoveller, 40. 
Sleepy, 47. 
Smutty, 46. 
Snowl, 36. 
Spike-tail. 40. 
Spine-tailed, 47. 



2l6 



THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



Duck, Spirit, 44. 

Spoon-bill, 40. 

Squaw, 45. 

Stiff-tail, 47. 

Summer, 41. 

Surf, 47. 

Velvet, 46. 

Wheat, 38. 

White-back, 42. 

White-face, 39. 

White-wing, 46. 

Whistler, 43. 

Whistle-wing, 43. 

Wood, 10, 36, 41. 

Yellow-bill, 46. 
Dunlin, 71. 

Eagle, American Sea, 98. 

Bald, 10, 98. 

Black, 97. 

Fish, 100. 

Golden, 97, 98. 

Gray, 98. 

Ring-tailed, 97. 

White-headed, 98. 
Egret, American, 10, 54. 

Little, 55. 

Little White, 55. 

Falcon, Great-footed, 99. 

Field-fare, American, 195. 
Fieldlark, 124. 

Western, 124. 
Finch, Grass, 135. 

Harris', 139. 

Lark, 138. 

Lincoln's, 143. 

Mourning, 139. 

Nelson's Sharp-tailed, 137. 

Pine, 132. 

Roseate, 128. 

Sharp-tailed, 48. 
Flicker, Northern, 112. 

Yellow-shafted, 112. 
Flycatcher, Acadian, 117. 

Canada, 177. 

Crested, 115. 

Fan-tailed, 178. 

Great-crested, 115. 

Green-crested, 117. 

Least, 118. 

Olive-sided, 116. 

Pewit, 116. 

Traill's, 118. 

Tyrant, 115. 

Yellow-bellied, 115, 117. 

Yellow-tailed, 178 
Fly-up-the-Creek, 55. 

Gallinaceous Birds, 82. 
Gallinule, American, 61. 

Florida, 18, 61, 62. 

Purple, 60. 
Gnatcatcher, Blue-gray, 191. 

Eastern, 191. 
Goatsucker, 113. 
Godwit, Hudsonian, 72. 
Golden-crest, American, 190. 
Goldfinch, American, 131. 

Pine, 132. 
Goose, American White-fronted, 



Goose, Bay, 50, 51. 

Big Wild, 50. 

Blue, 49. 

Blue- winged, 49. 

Brent, 51. 

Cackling, 22. 

Canada, 50. 

Common Wavy, 49. 

Common Wild, 50. 

Cravat, 50. 

Eskimo, 51. 

Gray, 51. 

Greater Snow, 49. 

Honker, 50. 

Hutchins's, 51. 

Laughing, 49. 

Lesser Canada, 51. 

Lesser Snow, 48, 49. 

Little Wild, 51. 

Mexican, 49. 

Nigger, 34. , 

Prairie, 49, 51. 

Red, 49. 

Snow, 48. 

Speckle-belly, 49. 

Texas, 49. 

White-head, 49. 

Yellow-legged, 49. 
Goshawk, American, 93. 
Grackle, Bronzed, 125. 

Rusty, 125. 
Gray-back, 66. 
Grebe, American Eared, 26. 

American Red-necked, 25. 

California, 26. ' 

Carolina, 26. 

Cooper's, 25. 

Dusky, 25. 

Holbcell's, 25. 

Horned, 25, 26. 

Pied-billed, 18. 

Greenlets. See Vireos, 153. 154, 155. 
Grosbeak, Canadian Pine, 128. 

Cardinal, 145. 

Evening, 17, 126, 127. 

Purple, 128. 

Red-breasted, 146. 

Roseate, 128. 

Rose-breasted, 145. 
Grouse, Drumming, 83. 

Pinnated, 84. 

Ruffed, 83, 84. 

Ruffled, 83. 

Sharp-tailed, 85. 

Willow, 84. 
Guinea Duck, 27. 
Gull, American Herring. 30. 

Big Mackerel, 32. 

Boneparte's, 30, 31. 

Burgomaster, 19, 21. 

European Herring, 30. 

Fork-tailed, 31. 

Franklin's, 18, 21. 

Glaucous, 15, 18, 20. 

Gray, 29. 

Great Black-backed, 21. 

Herring, 29, 30. 

Hutchin's, 29. 

Iceland, 21, 22. 

Kittiwake, 15, 20, 28. 

Mackerel, 33. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 



217 



Gul, Molly, 31, 33. 

Ring-billed. 30, 31. 

Sabine's 31. 

Saddle-back, 21. 

Sea, 29. 

Summer, 33. 

White, 29. 

White-winged, 21. 

Winter, 28. 
Gull-chaser, 28. 
Gull-hunter, 28. 

Hair-bird, 140. 

Hanging-bird, Little Green, 155. 

Harrier. See Hawks, 92. 

Hawk. American Rough-legged, 97 

American Sparrow, 100. 

Black, 97. 

Black Red-tail, 95. 

Blue, 93. 

Blue Chicken, 93. 

Blue Quail, 93. 

Broad-winged, 96. 

Bullet, 92, 93. 

Chicken, 93, 94, 95. 

Coopers, 93. 

Duck, 99. 

Eastern Red-tail, 94. 

Fish, 100. 

Fish-tail, 91. 

Harlan's, 95. 

Hen, 94, 95. 

Krider's. 94. 

Little Blue, 100. 

Little Swift, 92. 

Marsh, 92. 

Mouse, 100. 

Pigeon, 92, 99. 

Quail, 93. 

Red-shouldered, 95, 96. 

Sharp-shinned, 92, 93. 

Slate-colored, 92. 

Snake, 91. 

Swainson's, 96. 

Swallow-tailed, 91. 

Swift, 93. 

White-breasted Chicken, 94. 

White Hen, 94. 

White Red-tailed, 94, 95. 
Hell-diver, 25, 26, 27. 
Hen, Indian, 53. 

Marsh, 57. 

Mud, 57. 

Prairie, 84, 85. 

Sedge, 57. 

Heron, American Black-crowned 
Night, 56. 

Black-crowned Night. o5. 

Great Blue, 11, 53, 54. 

Green, 55. 

Little Snow, 55. 

Snowy, 54. 
High-hole. 112. 
High-holder, 112. 
Hummingbird, Ruby-throated, 114. 

Ibis, Glossy, 21. 
Wood, 20. 

Jack, Red-breasted, 66. 
Jaeger, Parasitic. 22. 
Pomarine, 22, 28. 



Jaree, 144. 
Jay, 15. 

Blue, 120. 

Canada, 20, 22. 
Junco, Montana, 141. 

Shufeldt's, 142. 

Slate-colored, 141. 

Kestril, American, 100. 

Kildee, 79. 

Killdeer. 79. 

Kingbird, 115. 

Kingfisher, Belted, 108, 109. 

Kinglet, Golden-crested, 190. 

Golden-crowned, 190. 

Ruby-crowned, 190. 
Kite, White-headed Swallow, 91. 

Swallow-tailed, 91. 
Kittiwake, 28, 29. 
Knot, 15, 23, 68. 

Lark, Horned, 119. 

Prairie, 119. 

Prairie Horned, 119. 

Sand, 76. 

Shore, 119. 

Snow, 119. 
Lawyer, 64. 
Lettuce-bird, 132. 
Linnet, 146. 
Linnet, Hoary, 130. 

Pine, 132. 

Purple, 128. 

Redpoll, 131. 

Rosy, 128. 
Logcock, 11. 
Long-beak, Greater, 67. 
Long-shanks, 64. 
Longspur, Lapland. 16, 133. 

Painted, 17, 134. 

Smith's, 16, 17, 134. 
Look-up, 53. 
Loon, 27. 
Loon, Black, 34. 

Black-throated. 21. 

Red-throaced, 27. 

Magpie, American, 120. 

Black-billed, 120. 
Mallard, 36, 37. 

Gray, 36. 

Man-o'-war Bird, 19, 20. 
Martin, 148. 
Martin, American, 148. 

House, 148. 

Purple, 148. 

Rough-winged Sand, 150. 

Sand, 150. 
Meadowlark, Little, 146. 

Western, 124. 
Merganser, 35. 
Merganser, American, 35. 

Buff-breasted, 35. 

Hooded, 10, 36. 

Bed-breasted, 19, 36. 
Merlin, American, 100. 
Mire-drum, 53. 

Mockingbird, 178, 180, 181, 192. 
Mockingbird, English, 181. t 

Ferruginous, 181. 

Fox-colored, 181. 

French, 181. 



218 



THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



Mockingbird, Sandy, 181. 

Southern, 179. 

Yellow, 176. 
Mud-ben, 61, 62. 
Mud-hen, Blue, 60. 

Red-billed, 61. 

White-billed, 62. 
Mud-snipe, 65. 
Murre, Brunnich's, 19. 

Nighthawk, 113, 114. 
Nightingale, Virginia, 145. 
Night Heron, 55. 
Nuthatch, 14. 
Nuthatch, Canada, 187. 

Red-breasted, 187. 

White-breasted, 187. 

Old Abe, 98. 

Oriole, Baltimore, 125. 

Brown, 124. 

Chestnut-colored, 124. 

Golden, 125. 

Orchard, 124. 
Orioles, 122. 
Orlotan, 58. 
Osprey, American, 100. 
Oven-bird, 169, 170. 
Owl, Acadian, 105. 

American Barn, 101. 

American Hawk, 107. 

American Long-eared, 102. 

Arctic Horned, 106. 

Barred, 103. 

Booby, 106. 

Cat, 106. 

Day, 107. 

Ermine, 106. 

Great Cinereous, 103. 

Great Gray, 103. 

Great Horned, 106. 

Great White, 106. 

Hoot, 103, 106. 

Hudsonian Hawk, 107. 

Lesser Horned, 102. 

Little Gray, 105. 

Little Mottled, 105. 

Little Red, 105. 

Marsh, 102. 

Monkey, 101. 

Mottled, 105. 

Prairie, 102. 

Richardson's, 104. 

Saw-whet, 105. 

Screech, 105. 

Short-eared, 102. 

Snow, 106. 

Snowy, 106, 107. 

Sparrow, 104. 

Spectral, 103. 

Swamp, 102. 

White, 106. 

White-fronted, 105. 
Ox-eye, 71, 78. 

Parrots, 108. 

Paroquet, Carolina, 19, 108. 

Illinois, 108. 
Partridge, 82, 83. 
Peep, 70, 71. 
Peet-weet, 76, 74. 



Pelican, American White, 35. 

Rough-billed, 35. 
Perching Birds, 115. 
Peregrine, American, 99. 
Pewee, 116. 
Pewee, Wood, 117. 
Phalerope, Northern, 62, 63. 

Red, 62. 

Wilson's, 18, 63. 
Pheasant, 83, 86. 
Phoebe, 116. 
Phoebe, Barn, 116. 
Pigeon, Passenger, 86, 87, 88, 89, 

Sea, 31, 33. 

Wild, 86, 88, 89. 

Wood, 86, 108. 
Pink-stockings, 64. 
Pin-tail, 85. 
Pipit, American, 178. 

Louisiana, 178. 

Pennsylvania, 178. 
Plover, American Golden, 79. 

American Ring, 80. 

Black-bellied, 15, 23, 78, 79. 

Belted Piping, 18, 80, 81. 

Field, 75 

Golden, 76. 

Green, 79. 

Killdeer, 79. 

Marsh, 69. 

May, 69. 

Piping, 80. 

Prairie, 75. 

Ringed Piping, 80. 

Semipalmated, 15, 80. 

Upland, 75. 

Western Piping, 80. 
Post-driver, 53. 
Prairie Pigeon, 79. 
Ptarmigan, White, 84. 

Willow, 84. 

Qua-bird, 56. 

Quail, 82. 

Quail, American, 82. 

Virginia, 82. 
Quak, 56. 

Rail, Black, 59, 60. 

Carolina, 58. 

Clapper, 57. 

Common, 58. 

King, 18, 57, 61. 

Little, 59. 

Little Black, 60. 

Little Yellow, 59. 

Red, 58. 

Red-breasted, 57. 

Sora, 58. 

Virginia, 58. 

Yellow, 59. 

Raven, Northern, 120. 
Redbreast, 195. 
Redbird, 145. 
Redbird, Black-winged, 147. 

Cardinal, 145. 

Crested, 145. 

Summer, 147. 

Virginian, 145. 
Redpoll, 130. 
Redpoll, Common, 131. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 



2I 9 



Redpoll, Dusky, 131. 

Greater, 131. 

Hoary, 130. 

Holboll's, 131. 

Lesser, 131. 

Mealy, 130. 

White-rumped, 130. 
Redstart, American, 178. 
Reed-bird, 58, 122. 
Ring-neck, 80. 
Robin, 14, 15, 195. 
Robin, American, 195. 

Golden, 125. 

Ground, 144. 

Swamp, 194. 

Wood, 191. 
Ruff, 22. 

Sanderling, 15, 71. 

Sandpeter, 33. 

Sandpiper, Baird's, 15, 69. 

Bartramian, 75. 

Bonaparte's, 69. 

Buff-breasted, 75, 76, 

Knot, 68. 

Least, 23, 70. 

Long-legged, 67. 

Pectoral, 68. 

Red-backed, 23, 71. 

Purple, 15, 68. 

Semipalmated, 23, 71. 

Solitary, 74. 

Spotted. 76, 77. 

Stilt, 67. 

White-rumped, 69. 

Wilson's. 70. 
Sapsucker, 15, 187. 
Sapsucker, Blue, 187. 

Big, 109. 

Little, 110. 

Red-throated, 110. 

Yellow-bellied, 110. 
Schytepoke, 55. 
Scoter, 18. 
Scoter, American, 46. 

American Black, 46. 

American Velvet, 46. 

Surf, 47. 

White-winged, 46, 47. 
Sheldrake, 19, 35, 36. 
Sheldrake, Hooded, 36. 

Pond, 36. 

Wood, 36. 
Shrike, 15. 
Shrike, Common American, 152. 

Great American. 152. 

Loggerhead, 152. 

Louisiana, 152. 

Northern, 152. 
Sickle-bill, 77. 
Siskin, Pine, 132. 
Skylark, 119. 
Skylark, American, 119. 
Skiias, 28. 
Snipe, 65. 
Snipe. American, 65. 

Blind. 65. 

Common, 65. 

English, 65, 72. 

Frost, 67. 

Grass, 69. 



Snipe, Gray, 66. 

Gutter, 65. 

Jack, 65, 69. 

Meadow, 69. 

Red-backed, 71. 

Red-breasted, 66. 

River, 76. 

Robin, 23, 66, 67, 68. 

Rock. 68. 

Sand, 69, 70, 71, 76. 

Sickle-bill, 77. 

Stone, 72. 

White, 71. 

Wilson's, 65, 73. 

Wood, 74. 

Snowbird, 119, 131. 141. 
Snowbird. Black, 141. 

Brown, 133. 

Common, 141. 

Gray, 141. 

Slate-colored, 141. 

White, 132. 

Snowflake, 17, 132, 133. 
Solitaire, Townsend's, 20. 
Sora, 58, 59. 
Sparrow, Canadian, 140. 

Chipping, 140. 

Clay-colored, 140. 

Field, 141. 

Fox, 144. 

Fox-colored, 144. 

Golden-crowned. 20. 

Grasshopper, 15, 135. 

Harris', 139. 

Henslow's, 15, 136. 

Intermediate, 20. 

Lark, 11, 15, 138. 

Leconte's, 16, 136, 137. 

Lincoln's, 143. 

Lincoln's Song, 143. 

Nelson's, 137, 138. 

Rufous, 144. 

Savanna, 135. 

Song, 143. 

Swamp, 16, 137, 143. 

Swamp Song, 143. 

Tree, 140. 

Vesper, 135. 

White-crowned, 20. 135. 

White-throated, 139. 

Winter, 140. 

Yellow-browed, 139. 

Yellow-winged, 135. 
Squawk, 55. 
Speckle-belly. 37. 
Spike-tail, 85. 
Sprig-tail, 85. 
Stake-driver. 53. 
Starling. Red-winged, 123. 
Stilt, 64. 
Stilt, Black-necked, 64. 

White-tailed, 69. 
Stink-bird, 186. 
Striker, 32, 33. 
Striker, Little, 33. 
Swallow, American Barn, 148, 149. 

Bank, 149. 

Black. 34. 

Black and White, 149. 

Bridge, 150. 

Chimney, 114. 



220 



THE CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Swallow, Cliff, 148. 

Crescent, 148. 

Eave, 148. 

Forked-tailed Barn, 148. 

Green-blue, 149. 

Purple, 148. 

Republican, 148. 

Rough-winged, 150. 

Rough-winged Bank, 150. 

Rufous-bellied, 148. 

Sand, 150. 

Sea, 33. 

Square-tailed, 148. 

Tree, 149. 

Violet, 148. 

Violet-green, 149. 

White-bellied, 149. 

White-fronted, 148. 
Swan, American, 52. 

Trumpeter, 21. 
Swans, 35. 

Sweep, Chimney, 114. 
Swimmers, Lamellirostral, 35. 
Swimmers, Totipalmate, 34. 
Swift, Chimney, 114. 

Tanager, Red, 147. 

Scarlet, 147. 

Summer, 147. 

Vermilion, 147. 
Tattler, 74. 
Tattler, Bartramian, 75. 

Solitary, 74. 
Teal, Blue Winged, 10, 39, 40. 

Green-winged, 39. 

Mud, 39. 

Red-headed, 39. 

Scotch, 44. 

Summer, 39. 

Winter, 39. 
Tell-tale, 72, 79. 
Tell-tale, Lesser, 73. 
Teeter, 74. 
Tern, Black, 17, 33, 34. 

Caspian, 15, 20, 32. 

Common, 32, 33. 

Foster's, 32. 

Gull-billed, 21. 

Havell's, 32. 

Least, 33. 

Royal, 21. 

Short-tailed, 34. 

Wilson's, 32, 33. 
Thistle-bird, 132. 
Thrasher, Brown, 181. 
Thrush, Alice's, 193. 

Bell, 191, 

Eastern Hermit, 194. 

Golden-crowned, 170. 

Gray-cheeked, 193. 

Hermit, 194. 

Migratory, 195. 

Olive-backed, 194. 

Red-breasted, 195. 

Robin, 195. 

Rufus-tailed, 194. 

Solitary, 194. 

Swainson's, 194. 

Tawny, 192. 

Willow, 192, 193. 

Wilson's, 192. 



Thrush, Wood, 191, 192. 
Thunder-pump, 53. 
Tip-up, 74, 76. 
Tip-up, Pond, 74. 
Titmouse, Black-capped, 189. 
Black-fronted, 188. 
Carolina, 189. 
Tufted, 14, 188, 189. 
Titlark, 178. 
Titlark, American, 178. 
Tomtit, 187. 
Towhee, 144. 
Towhee, Arctic, 142, 144. 
Towink, 144. 
Turkey, Wild, 19, 86. 
Turnstone, 15, 82. 
Veery, Rocky Mountain, 192. 
Vireo, Bell's, 155. 

Brotherly Love, 153. 

Blue-headed, 154. 

Philadelphia, 153. 

Red-eyed, 152, 153. 

Solitary, 154. 

Warbling, 16, 153, 154. 

White-eyed, 154, 155. 

Yellow-throated, 11, 16, 154. 
Vulture, Turkey, 19, 90, 91. 
Wake-up, 112. 
Wagtail, 172. 
Wagtail, Golden-crowned, 170. 

Water, 170, 172. 

Wood, 170. 
Walloon, 27. 
Warbler, Autumnal, 163. 

Azure, 162. 

Bay-breasted, 163. 

Black and Red, 178. 

Black and White, 163, 155. 

Black and White Creeping, 155. 

Black and Yellow, 161. 

Blackburnian, 164. 

Black Cap, 163, 176. 

Black-capped Yellow, 177. 

Black-headed, 17(5. 

Black-throated Blue, 16, 161. 

Black-throated Green, 165. 

Black-throated Ground, 174. 

Black-poll, 163. 

Blue, 162. 

Blue Golden-winged, 157. 

Blue-winged, 157. 

Blue-winged Swamp, 157. 

Blue-winged Yellow, 157. 

Blue Yellow-backed, 160. 

Bonaparte's, 177. 

Canadian, 161, 177. 

Canadian Flycatcher, 177. 

Cape May, 160. 

Cerulean, 11, 162. 

Chestnut-backed Yellow, 169. 

Chestnut-sided, 162. 

Connecticut, 16, 173, 174. 

Fan-tailed, 178. 

Golden Swamp, 156. 

Golden-winged, 157, 158. 

Golden-winged Swamp, 157. 

Gray-headed, 173. 

Green Black-capped, 177. 

Hemlock, 164. 

Hooded, 176. 

Hooded Flycatcher, 176. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY. 



221 



Warbler, Kentucky, 172, 173. 

Kirtland's, 165, 166, 168. 

Macgillivray's, 174. 

Magnolia, 161. 

Mitred, 176. 

Mourning, 174. 

Myrtle, 15, 161. 

Nashville, 158. 

Necklaced, 177. 

Orange-crowned, 158. 

Orange-throated, 164. 

Palm, 169. 

Pine, 168. 

Pine Creeping, 168. 

Pine Swamp, 161. 

Prairie, 169. 

Prothonotary, 16, 150. 

Red-poll, 169. 

Selby's, 176. 

Sycamore, 20, 164. 

Tennessee, 159. 

Tie-up, 169. 

Titlark, 169. 

Wagtail, 169. 

Western Parula, 159, 160. 

White-throated, 162. 

Willow, 156. 

Wilson's, 177. 

Worm-eating, 20. 

Yellow, 160. 

Yellow-crowned Wood, 161. 

Yellow Red-poll, 169. 

Yellow-rumped, 161. 

Yellow-tailed, 178. 
Warblers, 13, 16, 23, 190. 
Warblers, Wood, 155. 
Water Kick-up, 170. 
Water-thrush, 16, 22. 
Water-thrush, Grinnell's, 171. 

Large-billed, 172. 

Louisiana, 172. 

New York, 170. 

Small-billed, 170. 

Wyoming, 171. 
Water-witch, 26. 
Waxwing, Black-throated, 150. 

Bohemian, 17, 150, 151. 

Carolina, 151. 

Cedar, 151. 

Northern, 150. 
Wax wings, 150. 
Whip-poor-will, 113. 
Widgeon, 37, 38. 



Widgeon, American, 38. 
Willet, 15. 

Willet, Western, 74. 
Wren, Bewick's, 182, 183. 

Blue, 191. 

Bunty, 185. 

Carolina, 181, 182. 

Golden-crested, 190. 

Golden-crowned, 190. 

Grass, 186. 

Great Carolina, 181. 

House, 183. 

Large Wood, 181. 

Little Log, 185. 

Long-billed Marsh, 185, 186. 

Long-tailed, 183, 191. 

Long-tailed House, 183. 

Mocking, 181. 

Prairie Marsh, 186. 

Ruby-crowned, 190. 

Short-billed Marsh, 11, 185. 

Short-tailed House, 183. 

Winter, 184, 185. 

Western House, 184. 

Wood, 183. 
Wrens, 181. 
Woodcock, 18, 111. 
Woodcock, American, 65. 

Black, 111. 
Woodpecker, Arctic Three-toed, 110. 

Black-backed Three-toed, 110. 

Carolina, 112. 

Downy, 109, 110. 

Golden-winged, 112. 

Hairy, 109, 110. 

Ivory-billed, 19. 

Red-bellied, 112. 

Red-headed, 111. 

Northern Pileated, 111. 

Zebra, 112. 

Yellow-bird, Black-capped, 132. 

Black-winged, 132. 

Summer, 132, 160. 
Yellow-hammer, 112. 
Yellow-legs, 73. 

Big, 72. 

Greater, 72, 73. 

Lesser, 73. 

Little, 73. 

Yellow-throat, Northern, 175. 
Yelper, 72. 



PLATE VI. 




COLONY OF GREAT BLUE HERONS ON THE DESPLAINES RIVER, TWENTY MILES NORTH OF 
CHICAGO. PHOTOGRAPHED BY MR. F. M. WOODRUFF. 



PLATE VIII. 




A TYPICAL, FALL SCENE IN THE WOODED REGION OF THE CHICAGO ABBA. PHOTOGRAPHED 

BY MR. FRANK M. WOODRUFF. 



PLATE IX. 




A TYPICAL SUMMER SCENE IN THE WOODED REGION OF THE CHICAGO AREA. 

BY MR. T. H. PURPLE. 



PHOTOGRAPHED 



tap